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Extract from the Political Code. 

Skction 22%. Books may be taken from the Library 
by the ■■■IIHII of thk Lkoislatokk, during thk skssions 
tiikrkok. and by oilier State officers at any time. 

Sue. 2298. The Controller, if notified by the Librarian 
that any officer has failed to return bookl taken by him 
within the time prescribed by the Iiules, and after demand 
made, must not draw his warrant for the salary of such 
officer until the return is made, or three times the value 
of the books, or of any injuries thereto, has been paid to 
the Librarian. 

Sue. 2299. Every person who injures or fails to return 
any book taken is liable to the Librarian in three times 
the value thereof. 

Xo person shall take or detain from the General Library 
more than two volumes at any one time, or for a longer 
period than two weeks. Books OH kkkkhknck shall not bk 
takkn from thk Libkahy at any TIMK-— [Extract from the 
Kules.] 

The Foregoing Regulations will be strictly enforced.' u a 



Volume XX.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 3, 1880. 



Number 1 



Horticultural Exhibits at the Mechanics 
Fair. 

The managers of the fifteenth industrial exhi- 
bition of the Mechanics' Institute have placed 
the Horticultural Department of the exhibition 
under the charge of the California State Horti- 
cultural Society. At the meeting of June 25th 
the Horticultural Society formally accepted the 
trust and unanimously adopted a resolution, 
pledging the members to earnest efforts to make 
the exhibition worthy of our State, and, so far 
as possible, representative of our grand horti 
cultural interests. 

The society invites every plant and fruit 
grower in the State to prepare at once to trans- 
mit the best specimens of flowering and foliage 
plants and fruits for exhibition at the fair, 
which will open in the spacious pavilion of the 
Mechanics' Institute, in this city, August 10th, 
and oontinue for five weeks. 

The competition for the liberal premiums 
named upon page 12 of this issue of the 
Press will be offered to growers only, and each 
producer is invited to compete, whether it be 
for a single award or for several. The aim of 
the society is to draw out the very best that the 
State can produce in the articles named. The 
popular interest is now turning strongly toward 
development of our horticultural resources, and 
all exhibitors of choice growths will not only do 
themselves credit, but will make known the 
possibilities of their regions, and of the State in 
general. 

The exhibition will be wholly in charge of the 
Horticultural Society, and the appointment of 
judges will be made with reference to their es- 
pecial fitness for examination of exhibits en- 
trusted to them. The premiums will be awarded 
by the Mechanics' Institute upon the recom- 
mendation of the society's committees. The 
greatest care will be taken in the arrangement 
of specimens, that their excellence may be rec- 
ognized. 

All professional and amateur horticulturists 
in the State are invited to do what they can 
towards making this year's exhibit comprehen- 
sive and representative. Great care should be 
taken in selecting, plucking, wrapping and 
packing choice specimens, and all varieties must 
be correctly named. As the fair will be open 
for five weeks, each sample should be sent just 
as it approaches its best estate, and thus all 
'varieties may be shown in their prime and all 
parts of the State, both early and late, can be 
represented by the fruits which mature during 
the progress of the fair. 

Special attention will be given to the proper 
display of new fruits, both California seedlings 
or those lately secured by importation, so that 
the progress made in these directions may be 
generally understood. 

All exhibits should be shipped to " Horticul- 
tural Exhibit," Mechanics' Fair, San Francisco, 
Cal. All intending exhibitors are requested to 
announce at once what exhibits they expect to 
make to the Secretary, E. J. Wickson, 414 Clay 
street, San Francisco. 



Cereals and the Census. — We had the 
pleasure the other day of a brief chat with Prof. 
W. H. Brewer, of the Sheffield School of Yale 
College, who comes to this coast as special ageDt 
of the census office for the collection of valuable 
information concerning the production of cereal 
grains. Prof. Brewer is widely known in this 
State through his work on the Whitney survey 
and other public services. He is eminently 
qualified to prepare a monograph on the cereals, 
which will be permanently valuable. Prof. 
Brewer will make a tour of the grain-growing 
regions of this State, and will then go to Oregon. 
He has prepared a schedule of questions cal- 
culated to draw out practical information on the 
different points in wheat culture, and we hope 
all who receive the blanks will take pains to fill 
them out fully and accurately, so far as their 
knowledge and experience goes. Prof. Brewer 
is now in the southern counties or in the San 
Joaquin valley. 



Scenes in the Yosemite Valley. 

Our engraving gives a faint impression* of 
some of the majestic objects in the Yosemite 
valley. The scene is in the canyon of the Mer- 
ced river, which branches out an aDgle from 
the Yosemite valley proper. In the foreground 
is seen the trail leading up the Merced canyon, 
and which brings the visitor ere long to a near 
view of the wonders which are peculiar to this 
branch of the Yosemite. The trail rises rapidly 
and follows the course of the Merced river. So 
sharp is the ascent that in two miles an eleva- 



roaring stream from Vernal fall the trail leads 
up to the base of the fall from which the visitor 
may ascend by ladders. At the summit of the 
fall the view down the canyon, as well as in the 
opposite direction, is extremely fine. The sys- 
tem of ladders by which this summit is reached, 
in the winter time is covered by masses of 
icicles wonderful to behold. We are now en- 
graving a winter view of the ladders, which 
will appear ere long. 

Aloft in the sky, above the center of the en- 
graving, is the "cap of liberty," a most notable 
object. It is a mass of rock, isolated, and 
nearly perpendicular on all sides, rising per- 
haps 2,000 ft. above its base. The cap of liberty 




VIEW IN THE CANYON OP THE MERCED — YOSEMITE VALLEY. 



tion 'is attained 2,000 ft. higher than the en- 
trance to the canyon. In reaching the lower 
level the Merced river plunges over numerous 
cascades and makes two grand falls, which are 
amoDg the greater attractions of the Yosemite, 
according to Whitney, not only on account of 
their hight and the large body of water in the 
river during most of the season, but also on ac- 
count of the stupendous scenery in the midst of 
which they are placed. 

The first of these two grand cataracts is Ver- 
nal fall, which is shown in the center of the 
engraving. Whitney places the hight of this 
fall, at the average sta,ge of the water in June 
and July, at 400 ft. The rock behind the fall is 
a perfectly square cut mass of granite extending 
across the canyon. The rock near the bottom 
of the fall is steeply inclined, so that a precise 
definition of the place, when the perpendicular 
part ceases, is very difficult amid the blinding 
spray and foam. Alongside of the headlong 



has a striking resemblance to the object its 
name indicates. It is so marked that it is often 
recognized as it is viewed from various elevated 
points about the valley. It is an embodiment 
of grandeur, and its impress is firmly fixed upon 
the mind of the beholder. 

The visitor who ascends the canyon of the 
Merced above Vernal fall meets something 
grand and impressive every time the view 
changes. About a mile from Vernal fall, but 
hidden from view by the lofty bluff in the en- 
graving, is Nevada fall, which is pronounced by 
Whitney as in every respect one of the grandest 
waterfalls in the world, whether we consider 
its vertical hight, the purity and volume of the 
river which forms it, or the stupendous scenery 
by which it is environed. 

The experiment of raising cranberries has 
been successful in Susanvillc. The plants were 
imported from Maine. 



The Fourth of July in San Francisco. 

The arrangements for the celebration of the 
Fourth in this city are on a grand scale. The 
preparations being made by the different com- 
mittees having the matter in charge, augur well 
for its success. The principal event of the day 
wiU of course be the procession, and this year 
there will be several new features added. Dur- 
ing the march there wiU be a series of tableau 
vivants representing scenes in the country's his- 
tory, such as the discovery of America, the 
landing of the Pilgrims, scenes of the Revolu- 
tionary wars, etc. Decorated arches will be 
constructed at the intersection of the main 
thoroughfares. The one at the corner of Mar- 
ket and Kearny is already assuming magnificent 
proportions, and when finished will no doubt 
be a credit to the designer. The Grand Army 
of the Republic and several other organizations 
have signified their intention to participate in 
the celebration. The Executive Committee has 
decided to have a public display of fire-works 
on the evening of the fifth, in some portion of 
the Western Addition. This is the first time 
in several years that there has been such a dis- 
play. It is a fitting close to what, we have no 
doubt, will prove a day to be remembered by 
all. The Hon. John H. Dickinson is President 
of the Day, and Col. J. Henley Smith Grand 
Marshal. The literary exorcises will take place 
at the Grand Opera House, and from the well- 
known ability of the different citizens who have 
been selected to carry out the programme a rare 
treat is promised. The selection of Dr. Shorb 
as orator is very fortunate, as he is one of San 
Francisco's best and most polished speakers. 

People who desire to get away from the noise 
and bustle incident to the celebration in this 
city, will have an opportunity, as there are 
several excursions advertised to different points 
of interest. The San Francisco Yacht Club 
will celebrate the Fourth of July by a trip cov- 
ering five days. As we go to press the fleet is 
preparing for a run to Vallejo, under command 
of Commodore Harrison. The morning of Fri- 
day will be spent at Mare Island. In the after- 
noon the boats will go up to Napa on the flood 
tide. A ball tendered to the club by the citi- 
zens of Napa, at the New Opera House, wiU 
occupy the evening. Saturday will be occupied 
by boat races, social visiting among the yachts 
and other pastimes, and a concert will be given 
in the evening. Sunday will be devoted to at- 
tendance at divine service, and on Monday 
morning at eight o'clock the fleet will be ar- 
ranged in two columns, one under the command 
of the Commodore, and the other of the Vice- 
Commodore, and will be towed to Vallejo. 
There the tugs will drop the yachts, which wiU 
then proceed to a contest of speed to the Club 
House at Saucelito. 

Thus it will be seen that the day will be fully 
honored in this city. This is as it should be, 
for the day upon which our forefathers sent out 
that noble document — the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence — to an opprtssed people, should for- 
ever be green in the hearts of all Americans. 

Just Enough for Present Use. — The Lon- 
don Farmer alludes to the fact that there will 
be none too much old wheat, in this manner: 
"Accurately as may be estimated, the measure 
of corn that is required by the U. K. and the 
Continent between this date and the end of 
August is just filled up by the existing available 
supplies — the strike has been passed across the 
bushel, and there is measure, but none over. 
Probably there will remain in America a not 
unimportant accumulation of old wheat that 
may be available after August, but speaking of 
a stated term, the balance of supply and de- 
mand stands even — between May 24th and 
August 24th there is not in sight either sur- 
plus or deficiency. To make up for the short 
deliveries of our farmers, the big steamers and 
sailing ships from America, Australia, Chile, 
India, Egypt, and Russia must come full 
freighted every week to satisfy consumption 
without sparing a cargo for speculation." 

So far this year New Orleans has received 
1,450,000 bales of cotton, and already shipped, 
foreign and coastwise, 1,515,000 bales, and the 
total exports will probably exceed 1,700,000 
bales, valued at.$90,000,000. 



2 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[July 3> 1880. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions ol correspondents.— Ed 



Notes on Tulare and Kern Counties. 

Editors Press:— The late business trip of 
your correspondent has led him through south- 
ern Tulare and northern Kern to Bakersfield. 
The route lay through Farmersville, and then 
down Outside creek, the most southerly of a 
half a dozen branches into which the Kaweah 
river divides after leaving the Sierra Nevada' 
thence along Tule river, its well-irrigated lands 
and fine grain fields to Tipton. Next up the 
south side of Tule river to Woodville, then 
across to Portersville, recrossing to the south 
side at Piano. After a ride across an unculti" 
vated region and among the irrigated regions of 
Deer creek around Noradell P. U., my horse- 
back ride was continued to Fountain springs! 
White River P. O., and among the few good 
foothill ranches near them, not slighting the 
new mines that are being developed. From the 
pleasant mountain ranch of Pascal Rutledge, a 
rapid ride was made over 35 dreary miles among 
the most desolate and uninviting foothills of 
Kern county to Bakersfield, surrounded by its 
50,000 acres of well-irrigated and cultivated 
lands. The return to Tulare city and Hanford 
was made by rail. Besides pleasant hours spent 
at Mr. Rutledge's, the friendly hospitality of 
the following readers of the Rural was enjoyed 
on their excellent ranches: T. W. Maples, near 
Tulare; Judge Cutler, near Visalia; Daniel 
Woods, and W. G. Pennebaker, at Farmers- 
ville. , 

A Pew Notes by the Way 
Will bo given your readers. On 650 acres of 
first-class grain on the ranch of Uhlhorn k 
Maples the important truth was well illustrated 
that the irrigation of one year will materially 
improve the crop of the next season. Wher- 
ever, on their ranch, the land was irrigated last 
year, wheat and barley, with the best of heads, 
was standing four and five ft. high and forming 
a distinct wall, as it were, around patches of 
grain scarcely half as high, where last year's ir- 
rigation did not wet the soil. 

In the middle of May, the large grain fields of 
B. F. Moore, near Tulare city, promised to 
average 20 or 25 bushels per acre, but on my re- 
turn in the middle of June, the blasting north 
winds had evidently cut down the yield consid- 
erably, just as it has in Fresno, Merced and 
Stanislaus counties, to the extent of from one- 
third to one-half the crop. 

Though I saw on Mr. Woods' place some of 
the very finest wheat in all this valley, his at- 
tention has been devoted chiefly, and with un- 
usual success, to berries. No one in all this 
region raises such fine strawberries as he does, 
in the greatest abundance. He has several acres 
of them and of blackberries. His place being 
about six miles from Visalia, is a favorite resort 
for lovers of these luscious fruits. Strawberry 
parties and picnics are a specialty there. His 
delicious berries are deservedly known far and 
wide. He has thoroughly learned, from per- 
sonal experience, how to cultivate them with 
best results in this valley. 

How to Can Strawberries 
So as to retain their color, form and flavor, is 
quite an important household problem, as many 
of our lady friends know. In a former letter 
your readers were told of the great number of 
fine strawberries raised on Dr. Bradley's place 
near Grangeville. Mrs. Bradley has kindly 
given me her recipe for canning strawberries to 
secure the above-named objects. It is well 
worth recording for the many lady readers of 
the Rural, and is as follows: 

Pick over the berries the day before canning. 
Then to three pounds of berries add about one 
pound of sugar, and let them stand over night, 
or long enough to draw the juice. Drain off the 
juice and bring it to a boil. To this add the 
berries, and let them remain just long enough 
to scald through. Then can immediately, seal- 
ing tightly. Be careful to use no water, ex- 
cept to wash them quickly, and drain. 

In the Foothills of the Sierra?, 
On the ranch of A. J. Maltby, a few miles south 
of White River P. O., is one of the best young 
mountain orchards your correspondent saw in 
all that region. It is irrigated by well and 
windmill. His grain-hay was very tall and 
rank. He was cutting it the last week in May, 
and it was thick enough to average three or 
four tons per acre of cured hay. 

On the the well-improved ranch of Mr. Rut- 
ledge, four miles farther southeast, at a point 
10 miles west of Glenville, 30 east of Delano, 
and 30 north of Bakersfield — in direct lines — is 
something not often met with so low down in 
the Sierras, his altitude being scarcely more 
than 1,500 feet above the level of Tulare lake. 
This is 

A Very Valuable Sulphur Spring 
Of remarkably clear water. That is, its temper- 
ature instead of being above 100° Fahr. as are 
most of the sulphur springs of this coast, is not 
far from 70°, or about tho same as most of the 
artesian water of San Joaquin valley. Mr. Rut- 
ledge has secured the water of this fine spring 
against all impurities in an unusual way. He 



constructed for it himself a tin cone about 10 ft. 
high. Its diameter at base is 4J ft. It grad- 
ually tapers to an inch in diameter on top. Ex- 
cavating 9 ft. to bedrock a hole large enough 
to receive this cone with its larger end down, 
he placed it so as to cover completely all the 
"boilers" or sources of this spring. He then re- 
placed the earth around the cone, leaving only 
about a foot of it above ground. From the 
upper end an elbow of tin conducts the water 
in a stream about an inch in diameter to a 
trough. From this he takes the water to an 
oblong reservoir or pond in his orchard and 
garden. Here he has lately placed some cat- 
tish taken from Kern river, and they are doing 
well, the water, after standing, losing much of 
its sulphurous quality. He estimates the yield 
of this spring as about 5,000 gallons every 24 
hours. His fruit trees and vines are doing well, 
showing that rapid growth and early maturity, 
peculiar to all well wet soil of California, not 
too much impregnated with alkali. 

Insects having troubled his vegetables lately, 
he has tried "Milco's Insect Powder" with en- 
tire success. Near his mountain home 

Wild Gooseberries 

Grow around trees and projecting rocks in great- 
est abundance. They make the best of jelly, 
as proved at his hospitable table. About the 
middle of May, he and a friend gathered 23 gal- 
lons in six or eight hours. As the bushes are 
very thorny, this fruit is gathered easily and 
rapidly by placing a pan or bucket under the 
bunches, and giving the limb on which they 
hang a smart quick blow with a light stick. 
Mrs. Rutledge informs me that to make the 
jelly requires about the same weight of sugar as 
berries. One has to keep a sharp lookout for 
rattlesnakes while gathering this excellent 
fruit. The bushes and rocks where they grow 
are a favorite resort for these dangerous reptiles. 

J. W. A. W. 

Hanford, June 19, 18S0. 



Apricot Growing in California. 

At the last meeting of the State Horticultural 
Society the following paper was read by W. W. 
Smith, of Vacaville, Solano county: 

The apricot, according to Downing and other 
writers, is a native of Armenia, Arabia, and the 
upper portions of Asia. Some writers claim 
that it is not a natural fruit, but a cross be- 
tween the peach and the plum. But we incline 
to the opinion that it is a natural fruit, and 
give as our reasons for it, first, that it repro- 
duces itself so surely and readily when propa- 
gated from seed. Our improved or cultivated 
varieties will not reproduce themselves from 
seed, of course, but if we plant seeds from them 
we get apricots and not something else. Then 
again, we see no disposition in it to sport. 
What we mean by sporting is a disposition in 
some of our fruits to produce, when propagated 
from seed, something that is not precisely like 
the parent, but partakes of the nature and also 
has the appearance of some other fruit of the 
same species. This we have never yet seen in 
the apricot; neither have we ever heard of it 
from any reliable source. In fact, one writer 
says that "the mountains west of the city of 
Peking, in China, are covered with a natural 
growth of the apricot." Its habits of growth 
and reproduction seem to be constant and fixed, 
which is pretty sure evidence that it is a natural 
fruit. 

Conditions Adapted to the Apricot. 
The apricot is considered among our hardy 
fruit trees, and may be cultivated as an open 
standard tree anywhere south of the 42 a of lati- 
tude in the U. S. The great drawback to its 
successful cultivation, however, is that it is so 
liable to the attacks of the curculio or plum 
weevil, its smooth, soft skin making it pecu- 
liarly subject to destruction by that insect; but 
fortunately so far here in California we are not 
troubled with that little Turk yet. Still we do 
not know how soon we may be. It, therefore, 
stands all fruit growers in hand to be strictly on 
their guard and ready to meet and destroy not 
only this, but any insect pest that may threaten 
our interests. The soil best suited to the 
growth of the apricot is a deep, rich loam, hav- 
ing a good admixture of sand; in fact any soil 
that will grow the peach tree well will grow the 
apricot tree well. But there are some localities 
in our State where the trees grow well, appear 
thrifty and healthy, and yet they bear but little 
or no fruit. This, however, is the case with 
nearly all of our fruit trees, a circumstance that 
is hard to account for, except that it is owing to 
the great diversity of soil and climate that we 
have in this State. We incline to the opinion, 
and our opinion is founded on pretty close ob- 
servation, that it will set its fruit better on a 
rather heavy than light soil; that is, too much 
sand in the soil has, we think, a tendency to 
make it cast its fruit while young. We would, 
therefore, prefer a tolerably heavy soil, with just 
sufficient sand in it to make it work freely and 
easily. Where such a soil can be obtained on a 
hill, or at least considerably elevated, it would 
still be preferable, as being more exempt from 
the late spring frosts that prevail throughout 
our State, and should in all cases bo guarded 



against as much as possible. Let no one console 
himself with the belief that he is in the frostless 
belt. I am satisfied that there is no such place. 
Our late damaging frosts go in streaks, as it 
were, striking at one place this year and at 
another the next, and rice versa: but that no 
part of our State is entirely exempt from frosts 
we are perfectly satisfied. Some localities are 
more so than others, of course. The soil on 
which a young apricot orchard is to be set 
should be cultivated in some hoed crop the year 
previous to planting the trees; corn or beans are 
preferable to any other crop we can recommend. 
The cultivation given them leaves the land in 
the best possible condition to receive the young 
trees. Soil that holds stagnant moisture should 
never be planted in apricot trees. Such a soil 
should be thoroughly underdrained before the 
trees are set, or rejected altogether. The apri- 
cot will do well on a heavier soil than the 
peach. 

Grafting and Planting Out. 
The stock on which to propagate the apricot 
is of no little importance. The peach, the 
plum, the bitter almond and the apricot are all 
used as stocks on which to bud or graft the 
apricot. We prefer the peach for all our free 
soils, and the plum for heavy or adobe soils. 
We reject the apricot itself, from the fact that 
the gophers work heavily upon it, and we reject 
the bitter almond, because the apricot will not 
take well on it — they will not form a perfect 
union. They may grow and do pretty well for 
a few years, but as soon as they get a little top 
to them, they are almost sure to blow out. 
It unites well with the peach, and the peach 
does not sprout like the plum. The plum, un- 
less we could obtain a variety that does not 
sprout, should not be used for a stock on which 
to propagate anything, because of its sprouting 
so badly; the land becoming filled with the 
sprouts will annoy the life out of any man of 
taste. Some will object to the peach as a stock 
on account of it being short-livod, but we find 
it as long-lived as either the almond or apricot. 
The plum, were it not for the sprouting just re- 
ferred to, would be better than either of the 
others, because it is longer lived. The apricot 
is propagated either by budding or grafting, 
but budding is most generally preferred by our 
leading nurserymen. Apricot trees should be 
one year old when transplanted to the orchard; 
dormant buds are preferable to two-year-old 
trees. 

Cultivation. 
The land should be kept thoroughly cultiva- 
ted among the young trees. Some cultivated 
or hoed crop may be raised between the rows of 
young trees up to about the third year; then 
after that they should have the land entirely to 
themselves. By thus cultivating some other 
crop on the land, it is kept in a loose, friable 
condition and free from weeds. Trees thus 
treated are almost sure to make a good growth 
the first year after being transplanted, and 
herein lies the secret of success in the cultiva- 
tion of all trees, to- wit: get all the growth on 
them possible the first year after they are trans- 
planted. 

Diseases of the Apricot. 

The apricot tree is subject to as few diseases 
as any fruit tree with which we are acquainted. 
The borers will attack it as they will any other 
tree that is making a slow growth, or in any- 
wise rendered unhealthy. 

The "gum" is the worst disease to which it is 
subject. The remedy for this is, cut away all 
the diseased part to the perfectly healthy wood; 
scrape the wound entirely dry, and then coat 
the whole over with a solution of gum shellac, 
dissolved in alcohol to about the consistency of 
paint. This is the best preparation we have 
ever tried for covering the large wound made in 
all trees by pruning or otherwise. It can be 
applied with a brush in the same manner as 
paint; it soon hardens and becomes impervious 
to wind and water; it forms, as it were, a scab, 
and as the young growth is laid on it is lifted 
up and finally drops off. The foliage of the 
apricot tree appears to be almost entirely exempt 
from disease, there being no insect with which 
we are acquainted that seems to be fond of eat- 
ing it. The hares (our California jack-rabbit) 
will nibble the bark aud foliage both from 
young trees, but they do not seem to trouble 
them after they have been one year set in the 
orchard. No kind of stock is fond of the foli- 
age, unless it is sheep. The fruit itself is free 
from disease and insects while it is green, but 
when it gets ripe is attacked by birds (the lin- 
nets), and also by the striped squash bug. There 
has of late years appeared on the fruit a kind of 
rust analogous to the rust on wheat, worse in 
the vicinity of Santa Rosa than any other por- 
tion of our State. Some complaint has -been 
made of late of parts of the trees dying while 
the remainder of the tree would appear to be 
healthy. This, we think, is all caused by the 
gum. Apply the above-named remedy in time, 
aud a cure will be pretty apt to follow. 

The greatest drawback to apricot culture is 
the liability of the trees to the loss of branches 
by a blight somewhat similar to that which de- 
stroys the pear tree. The earliest history of 
apricot culture makes mention of this malady. 
Branches will suddenly wither and die without 
any apparent cause, and so fatal does this bo- 
come that orchards of considerable extent 
rapidly become extinct from this fatality, for 
which no efficient remedy has yet been discov- 
ered. 

Mode of Bearing and Pruning. 
The apricot is somewhat peculiar in its mode 
of bearing fruit, and therefore requires some 
special rules to be given in regard to pruning. 



Like the peach it bears its fruit on wood of last 
year's growth, and like the plum it also bears 
its fruit on small fruit spurs of two or more 
years' growth. Then again, it is very peculiar 
in its manner of growth; each summer's growth 
is furnished nearly throughout its entire length 
with small side shoots or laterals. This is dif- 
ferent from almost all other fruit trees. 

In pruning we recommend the annual short- 
ening-in system, that is, this winter cut away 
one-half or two-thirds (according to the amount 
of growth the trees make) of last summer's 
growth. But after the branches have been cut 
off there will still remain a number of laterals 
or small side branches, these should also be cut 
back, say from two to four inches long. They 
will be thus converted into fruit spurs, and a 
saving of one or two years is gained. The crop 
on the one-year-old wood, stated above, cannot 
be relied on. The main crop must be depended 
on from those fruit spurs on the interior of the 
tree; hence, the necessity of the shortening-in 
system, it keeps those fruit spurs in a vigorous, 
healthy condition. Trees trained as recom- 
mended by us at the February meeting, in the 
form of a vase or goblet, so as to let in an abun- 
dance of air and light, and cut back every win- 
ter, will remain in a healthy, vigorous bearing 
condition, for a long time producing the best of 
fruit of its kind, and giving the cultivator satis- 
faction as well as remuneration. 

Gathering and Marketing the Fruit. 

There is just at this time as much interest 
manifested in the cultivation of the apricot in 
our State as any other fruit, unless it is the 
grape, and we are not sure but that the inter- 
est is increasing more rapidly in it than in the 
grape. In view of the financial importance 
attached to this matter, it is well for us to con- 
sider the subject carefully. It is now estimated 
by good judges that sales of apricots in our 
State this year will amount to about §200,000 
— no small amount to be placed in the hands of 
our farmers in one season. The bulk of the 
crop will of course go into the bands of the 
canners and then be shipped out of the country, 
at least out of this State. We see no help for 
this season, and probably not for years to come; 
but such should not be the case. Every com- 
munity where this fruit is grown to any consid- 
erable extent should have its own canning es- 
tablishment and can its surplus at home, thus 
putting up an article superior to that of the 
present da)', and also saving to the producers 
the profits that go to the canners. There is no 
doubt at all but that we could produce a better 
article of canned goods if our fruit were put up 
or canned on the farm, thus avoiding the dam- 
age done to the fruit by rough handling in 
transportation. Besides that, there would be a 
great saving in transportation itself. But let 
this be as it may, we should, in gathering, hand- 
ling and marketing our fruits, take all possible 
pains to gather it at the proper time, handle it 
without bruising, pack it carefully, and en- 
deavor to have it arrive in the market in the 
best possible order. However, is that always 
done? This a novice at the business cannot do, 
nothing but long experience, with at least a 
moderate degree of intelligence, can accomplish 
it. Hence, if beginners do not realize as much 
for their fruit as old experienced men do, they 
should not complain, but labor patiently and 
study hard to become successful in their chosen 
occupation. 

Again, no one who does not love the business 
so as to become really enthusiastic in it, need 
ever expect to become eminently successful. 
This of course applies not only to the cultiva- 
tion of the apricot, but to all fruits. 

Canning at Home. 

I have no war to wage against the canners — 
they have come to the relief of the fruit growers 
at a good time. But I insist upon it that farm- 
ers should can their own fruit. If our canned 
fruits are to hold their own and win their way 
in the world's markets, we must not use inferior 
or stale fruit, only the best, ripest specimens of 
the choicest varieties will answer our purpose. 
There can be no doubt on this point. Canners 
who buy out farmers' whole crops and can it as 
soon as it arrives in the city, will always put 
up a better article than those who wait until 
the last of the week and then gobble up all the 
stale stuff in the market, because it is cheap. 
The canned fruits which are to make men's 
reputation as honest dealers must be selected 
and put up with the same care and nicety that 
characterizes the prudent housewife who cans 
for her own use, selecting the choicest and most 
perfectly developed specimens in their un- 
ionised, prime and luscious juiciness. But 

The Question of Profits 
Arising from apricot culture is what more 
directly concerns us here in California than any 
other. Is it likely to continue to be profitable 
is the question. We all know what it has been; 
but what will it be in the future ? Of course, 
no one but a prophet could answer these ques- 
tions definitely. But we will venture an opinion 
at least. Were we asked what fruit tree to 
plant for the most profit, we would unhesitat- 
ingly say, " the apricot. " Our reasons for say- 
ing so are these: According to the history of 
apricot culture in the United States, as given 
by the Agricultural Department at Washington, 
all efforts have proven a failure except in Cali- 
fornia. There are three reasons given for these 
failures, to wit: First, the extremely excitablo 
nature of the tree, rendering the crop so easily 
cut off by frost; second, the ravages of the cur- 
culio; and third, a kind of blight, similar to 
the pear blight, that destroys the trees them- 
selves. Now here in California the apricot is, 
wc might say as yet, entirely exempt from all 



July 3, 1880.] 



TIE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



these maladies. Then again, with the excep- 
tion of the Azore islands, and they are of too 
small extent to ever affect the world's market, 
California is the only place, not only in America, 
but in Europe also, where it can be, or at least, 
where it is produced in any very great quantity 
as a market product. Then again, there are 
only a few places in California where the fruit 
does well and where it can be successfully 
raised. Then in view of the rapidly increasing 
demand and the fact that new markets are 
opening up all over the world, as it were, we 
repeat it with emphasis that our opinion is that 
in those portions of our State where the apricot 
does well, there is no tree that fruit growers 
can plant, that is likely to return a more hand- 
some profit for the labor and capital invested 
than the apricot. 

The Leading Varieties, 
Naming them in the order in which they ripen, 
are the Pringle, Royal, Golden Hemskirke and 
Moorpark. All of these most of our leading 
nurserymen keep. There are a few others, such 
as Breda, St. Ambrose, Boman and Peach, but 
none appear to be so profitable to the cultivator 
as the Royal. It yields enormously, and has 
the additional good quality of ripening up its 
fruit pretty much all over at the same time. It 
is early and a good shipper, and we also under- 
stand that it is a great favorite with the canners. 
In conclusion, we would say that the apricot, 
in its perfection, is one of the most delicious 
fruits that the earth produces. To be able to 
stand under one's own tree on a warm June 
day, and pluck and eat a luscious Moorpark is 
certainly the hight of luxury; it is luxury itself. 
Ripening its fruit at a season of the year when 
it does, just after the cherry and before the 
peach and plum, it fills a vacancy in the market 
that no other fruit can fill. 



The Growth of Cherry Trees, 

Leonard Coates, of Yountville, wrote the fol- 
lowing letter to the Secretary of the State Hor- 
ticultural Society, and it was read at the last 
meeting of that organization: I believe too much 
cultivation to be, in most cases, the cause of the 
gumming, and rapid and premature decay of 
our cherry trees. This I regard as the most 
frequent source of evil, but. also, the very gen- 
eral use of the Mahaleb stock by nurserymen a 
number of years ago, and a "miscellaneous" 
stock, so-called from its being raised from the 
seed of any kind of cherries, a small portion of 
which being good, but the greater part inferior. 
The true Mazzard has thus far shown to be the 
best stock. Gumming appears to be the result 
entirely of a superabundance of sap, it being 
more prevalent in trees grown in a rich, heavy 
soil, and so diminishing as the soil becomes 
lighter and of less depth. 

Cherry trees in Napa, where grown in a wet 
soil retentive of moisture (and this applies, it 
would seem, to almost all parts of the State), 
are rapidly dying out, but, upon closer observa- 
tion, I find that trees, even in young orchards, 
in a well-drained, sandy, though deep and rich 
soil, are becoming diseased in the same way. 
This latter soil is easily cultivated and pulver- 
ized, consequently the moisture is retained 
nearer to the surface than in a soil more inclined 
to adobe, and the trees make a remarkably vig- 
orous growth. In au orchard of this descrip- 
tion — about 9 or 10 years old — I have found 
that the trees whose roots are partially gnawed 
by gophers are wholly exempt from disease, 
while those making a very rank growth, and to 
the casual passer-by, which seem particularly 
healthy, have large quantities of gum streaming 
down the outside of the maiu limbs, and rap- 
idly decaying the inner bark. These trees, I 
should say, have not more than six inches to a 
foot of trunk proper, being allowed to branch 
out near the ground. 

The gopher, unfortunately, prunes the roots 
a little too industriously, the trees usually dying 
about three years after he commences to oper- 
ate upon them. 

The varieties in this orchard are Royal Ann, 
or Napoleon Bigarreau, Black Tartarian and 
Arch Duke, the latter being the most hardy — 
this year, however, gumming for the first time 
— and the former the least so. 

I know of several cherry trees, of great size 
and perfectly healthy, growing in yards in Napa 
valley, which are said to have never been culti- 
vated. I have seen, also, some that were set 
out four years ago on the border of a croquet 
ground — never being plowed — and which have 
not the least vestige of gum upon them, making 
about a foot of new wood in a season, instead of 
the unnatural increase of three and even five ft. 
often to be met with in thoroughly tilled or- 
chards. 

It seems at present as if the more easy it is to 
cultivate our orchards — the richer and deeper 
the soil — the more thorough the tillage, while I 
think exactly the reverse should be the case. 



Setting Out Fruit Trees on Hard-pan 
Lands. — Record- Union : The red lands south- 
east of Sacramento are becoming noted as good 
fruit lands, both for large and small fruits. The 
strawberries raised in this vicinity are of good 
size, firm flesh and highly flavored, excellent 
for home consumption or shipping. The black- 
berries .are also tine, and the grapes, for table 
use, for wine or raisins, are not excelled in the 
State. While the larger fruits are also good, 
the trees have not always given satisfaction. 
They have seemed to lack in vigor and have 
many indications of a tendency to die early. 
Those interested in orchard culture in the vicinity 
have never been quite satisfied as to the cause 



of this difficulty, and have consequently been 
experimenting and observing with a view to de- 
tect the difficulty. It is now being pretty gen- 
erally realized that the mode of planting has 
not been the best adapted to the peculiarity of 
the formation of the soil and its underlying bed- 
rock or hard-pan. The bedrock, which is a 
porous soft rock of a marly composition, aver- 
ages from two to six ft. in depth below the sur- 
face. Lying immediately on this bedrock is a 
layer of fine clay, which holds water about as 
well in its present form as it would if made up 
into earthen vessels. The result is that there 
is a defection in drainage — the roots of trees 
standing as it were in a stagnant pool of water. 
Some, in their experiment.; in planting trees and 
vines, have taken pains to dig down to this bed- 
rock and perforate it with holes by boring 
through it, and have noticed great changes for 
the better in their orchards so planted. Those 
who have been going to this trouble to penetrate 
the bedrock have been acting on the theory that 
the bedrock is impenetrable to water, and that 
to let the water settle or drain down it must be 
broken through. Since it has been discovered 
that this rock is quite porous, and that the clay 
above it is the water-tight material the labor of 
setting out trees properly is materially lessened. 
Now the soil is removed down to the clay, and 
this is removed and its place filled with surface 
soil, and the drainage is perfect. Trees thus 
planted are thrifty, while those planted over the 
clay stratum are stunted and defective in consti- 
tution and life. With this discovery understood 
and appreciated, it is believed the vicinity re- 
ferred to will become one of the very best 
orchard sections in the State for all kinds of 
fruit. No better conditions and formation could 
be found for the growth and successful fruiting 
of the orange. This tree has a net-work of roots 
which seems to delight in creeping along and 
adhering to an under surface of the character of 
the bedrock described — at once a check to the 
too deep penetration of the roots and a sieve to 
pass the surface water just below their extremi- 
ties. With this new method of planting this 
section ought to become a most excellent loca- 
tion for peaches and other kinds of stone fruit, 
the cultivation of which is becoming impossible 
of late years on the river bottoms on account of 
the rise in the river-beds causing impossible 
drainage. 



Tlfe Vineyard. 



Note from Mr. Blowers on Raisins. 

R. B. Blowers, of Woodland, the well-known 
leader in raisin culture, writes the following 
note to the Sonoma Index: The requisites are a 
climate sufficiently warm to thoroughly ma- 
ture the grape from which it is desirable to 
make raisins, as the grape must have a suffi- 
cient quantity of sugar to unite with the acid to 
make a complete jelly, for that is what a raisin 
should be, a jelly so completely made that it 
will keep in its natural sack, the skin. I find 
the best condition for drying is plenty of air, 
heated to a temperature of from 100° to 130°, 
never more than the latter heat. A less is not 
hurtful, except to retard drying. A moist air 
is to be avoided, and rain, during the process of 
drying, is positively injurious, even if it should 
dry without mildew, as it injures the bloom, 
aroma and flavor. My experience leads me to 
prefer a tray or platform 2x3 ft. in size, made 
from light lumber. The tray is solid, that is, 
not perforated, and is cleated across the ends. 
We pick directly into the tray, putting about 
20 lbs. of ripe grapes on each, then expose them 
to the heat of the sun with an inclination to- 
wards the south. When half dry, they are 
turned by two men taking an empty tray, plac- 
ing it upon a full one and giving them a quick 
turn. The grapes are thus transferred bottom 
upwards onto the other tray, turning them very 
fast. This is done in the morning when the 
stems are soft. Then, if the drying ia com- 
pleted in the field, when the grapes are suffi- 
ciently cured they are slid from the trays into 
large swet boxes, and stored for two weeks or 
more, when they are packed in small boxes for 
market. This is the first time the raisins are 
touched by the hand after picking. They are 
handled on the tray, thus preserving the bloom 
and not breaking up the stems. 

If the season is advanced, and it is desirable 
to hasten the drying, the raisins are moved to 
the drier, on wagons, while still in position 
upon the trays, and placed in drying rooms, 
where they are exposed to a strong current of 
warm, dry air, which, being continuously dry- 
ing at the proper heat, and not being retarded 
by the cold and dews of night, completes the 
process in about one-third of the time required 
in out-door drying if the weather is favorable. 
Last year I used an exhaust fan to give me a 
greater amount of air than is otherwise possible, 
with very gratifying results, making a better 
raisin than those cured entirely in the open air. 
Three pounds of mature grapes make one of 
cured "raisins. The drier I use cost about 
$2,000, including house and packing rooms, 
but not including the trays; trays cost 10 or 11 
cents each. For a full description of drier, 
please find enclosed a circular, which you can 
use at your option. You can see that raisins 
can be successfully made wherever grapes can 
be fully ripened. 

Raisin Boxes. — Press, June 19: At the 
meeting of the Riverside Fruit Growers' Asso- 
ciation, the size of the raisin boxes for the com- 
ing aoason was fixed at 9 by 18J inches inside 



measurement, with a depth of 4J inches for 
whole boxes, 2 J inches for half boxes and 1J 
inches for quarter boxes. The manufacturers 
of boxes were instructed not to chamfer the 
corners of the top and bottom of the box, but 
to leave them square to be chamfered by the 
packer when the boxes are put together. The 
ends of the side pieces of the box are to be 
chamfered as heretofore. No boxes were to be 
purchased except that they be made of clear 
lumber entirely free from knots. It was re- 
ported that the manufacturers of raisin boxes 
had combined to put up the price to the follow- 
ing figures: Whole boxes 11 cents, half boxes 
9 cents and quarter boxes 8 cents — an advance 
of 1 cent per box over last year's prices. The 
subject of labels and paper for the raisin boxes 
was discussed at length, the general opinion be- 
ing that the labels and papers used last year 
should be continued in use until such a time as 
the Association should adopt a trademark and 
get their own labels engraved and printed in 
connection with that trademark. 



The Wine Interest. — A dispatch from 
Washington says that for some time past the 
Agricultural Department has been investigating 
the subject of viticulture and wine manufacture 
in Europe and America. Dr. McMurtrie, one of 
the chemists of that Department, recently spent 
several months in the wine-producing countries 
of Europe, and made personal inquiries in re- 
gard to the subject. He has collected a vast 
amount of information and statistics, which he 
is now formulating in a report. To get the 
information required in the United States, the 
Department has sent out over 10,000 circular 
letters, containing exhaustive inquiries, to which 
satisfactory replies are constantly being re- 
ceived. Dr. McMurtrie says that it will be im- 
possible for France, at the present rate of con- 
sumption, to export any quantity of wine this 
year, owing to the wet and cool weather and 
the invasions of the phylloxera, a root destroy- 
ing insect which infests the best wine-produc- 
ing sections of France, and which continue to 
increase, in spite of the most rigid quarantine 
regulations and in the faee of every scientific 
prohibition. He predicts that the wine produc- 
tion in France this year will only be about one- 
half of that of last year, which will be inade- 
quate to supply the demands of France alone; 
on the other hand he says the prospects in this 
country are very promising. The phylloxera 
insect exists only sporadically in a few counties 
in California; but no apprehension is felt that 
they will spread. The indications are that the 
wine productions of the United States this year 
will be 50% greater than last year. The vine- 
yards, he says, are all thriving, and east of the 
Rocky mountains there are no phylloxera what- 
ever. He thinks that American wines will sup- 
ply the entire domestic market this year. [YVe 
hardly see what is meant by saying there is no 
phylloxera east of the Rocky mountains. It is 
well known that there are plenty of the insects 
in the Eastern States, but the vines do not gen- 
erally succumb to their attacks. Probably it is 
meant that there is no injury from phylloxera, 
which would probably be true. — Eds. Press.] 



Some Experiments in Forestry. 

Editors Press : — Now that the orange or- 
chards are "between hay and grass," i. e., 
neither in blossom nor fruit, it does not seem so 
much a heresy to say, that even their beauty is 
a weariness if unrelieved by other planting, 
especially around one's home. Had nothing 
else been available, we would have striven for 
contentment with the help of blue gums and 
pepper trees, but thanks to our generous friend 
Williamson, of Sacramento, to Bro. West, of 
Stockton, and Eastern botanists with whom we 
have made exchanges for many years, our ex- 
periments took a wider range. 

In March, '77, the ground was broken upon 
the rough and treeless sight which now gives 
abundant promise of seclusion and rest; a drive 
was laid out in order to secure a belt of varied 
forest planting just where the refreshments 
would be most needed, and trees of the follow- 
ing kinds set: Ten Montery pines; 2 American 
white elms; 4 English hawthorns; 2 Liriodendron 
or tulip trees; 2 trees of Tilia Americana or 
bass wood; 2 cut-leaved birches; 2 Sulmamock 
willows; 2 soft maples; 2 American butternuts; 
2 American and 2 Spanish chestnuts; two cork 
elms and 2 imported elms marked "French 
elms," the nomenclature of which is doubtful; 
1 Chinese mulberry; a single tiny deodar cedar; 
do, cedar of Lebanon; 1 Arauicaria Excelsa and 

I Sequoia gigantca. The three last named were 
in pots so small that we brought them 
here in our lunch basket. Other trees we had, 
but they were considered too small for perma- 
nent planting, and went into a nursery. All 
the above named trees were planted with great 
care and heavily mulched with rotten straw for 
a considerable distance around each tree. Out 
of the lot we lost only one, an American elm, 
which was girdled by our worst enemy, the 
gopher. The 10 Monterey pines are now 5 
years old, 25 ft. high, their average circumfer- 
ence at the base is 29 inches. Every one of 
these is a fine specimen tree. The Sequoia, 
nearly 6 years old from seed, is 6 ft. high and 

II inches at base, a perfect pyramid. Deodar, 
about the same hight and circumference, affords 
a lovely contrast frcui its pale glaucous green , 



color and drooping habit. The cedar c in. 
grows out instead of up, always, and ugg 
the earth persistently. Its rate of gnnv t , viz^ 
one foot per year, is about the same as in East- 
ern nurseries. The American elms grow here 
as luxuriantly as they do in Sacramento; one of 
ours is 30 ft. high and the trunk 20 inches in 
circumference, another more stocky, has a fine 
canopied head covering an area of 25 ft. The 
Chinese mulberry is 30 inches around at the 
butt, about 30 ft. high, and has made more 
solid clean wood than any tree on the premises, 
not excepting eucalyptus. 

And here let me compare the growth of euca- 
lypts set at the same, now four years old, with 
American conifers, and some of the hard wooded, 
deciduous trees of the same age. A row of red 
gum (E. rostrata) was planted 12 feet apart, 
in March, 1877. They were well cultivated and 
watered some six times during the season, and 
have lately been cut for stakes; they averaged 
19 inches around and 30 ft. in hight. E. glo- 
bulus permanently planted in a circular clump, 
eight ft. apart (to form the pillars of a summer 
house), are now 35 ft. high, and average 17 
inches in girth. The closer setting of the 
eucalypts, probably accounts for the fact that 
the American trees have apparently made as 
many pounds of wood annually. No American 
tree that I know of would stand the crowding 
which the Australian's endure, but on the con- 
trary the soil under our maples and elms is rich 
and moist, while the robber eucalypt drains it 
completely. To test this exhaustive quality of 
the eucalypts we have some lines of millet radia- 
ting from the above mentioned clump. In the 
diminished size of the grass, one may trace the 
ramification of the eucalypt roots, almost as 
perfectly as if they were uncovered. 

If I were going to plant a few acres of moist, 
sandy lowland for timber, say for stakes or 
posts, I should plant the pine with as much 
certainty of a quick return as the eucalypt 
would give; the condition of the land after the 
crop was off would enter into this calculation, 

A group of three trees of the same age, and 
under the same treatment, affords us much en- 
tertainment in the comparison of their forms, 
rate of growth, etc. These are the pepper- 
mint gum, the catalpa and the Pawlonia im- 
perialis. These three, one an Australian, one a 
Japanese, and one an American tree, are pretty 
nearly uniform in girth and hight; but nothing 
could be more unlike than their ways. The 
pawlonia seems to pride itself on its great soft 
leaves; the peppermint, with a mere fringe of 
leaves, is full of its wreath-like fragrant flowers. 
The catalpa, now blooming, will soon send 
down its long seed-pods. 

A visitor walking among our younglings, the 
rows of native forest trees which will be planted 
out another year, said he "would vote us a 
wooden medal for growing our own tamarack, 
gum, beach-nuts and sassafras." Tiny seedling 
trees of these species are thriving with us, and 
of some 35 species received from the University 
this spring, we have lost only Parkinsonia and 
some very small Japanese maples. Our Amer- 
ican maples and hickories are growing finely. 
The Pacific coast conifers are nearly all repre- 
sented in our collection, though some are yet 
under covers, and marked as doubtful. The 
desiccating winds and blazing sunshine are 
very trying to the infant stages of conifer life, 
and of all eastern trees, the hemlock is the 
hardest to cultivate here. The eastern arbor 
vilce does well. 

We enjoy the development of our young wild 
cherries, apples and plums. The wild crab in 
blossom is one of the loveliest things in nature. 
And we have many wild shrubs also, both 
eastern and native, with which to make copses 
and coverts. The ampelopsis or woodbine, 
moonseed and frost grapes from New England 
are settling gracefully into their new conditions. 

We are satisfied that almost any of the noble 
forest growths of the Atlantic States may be 
grown successfully with the cultivation ordi- 
narily given to orchard trees and with generous 
mulching for the first two years. Thus far there 
is no appreciable difference in the rate of growth 
between ours and eastern nurseries. Our Tree 
Register,now numbering 120 species, will enable 
us to determine many interesting facts in accli- 
matization. In another paper we will "noth- 
ing extenuate" as to losses and failures of extra 
tropical trees, such as Cherimoyas,the Jacaranda, 
etc. 

In a small way, and with a very moderate 
outlay, we have been developing an instructive 
forest station, and there is nothing we crave 
more than its enlargement. Even now our 
young trees are so pleasant to look at that we 
find ourselves saying with Prince Puckler: 
"He who sees into my park sees into my 
heart." Jeanne C. Carr. 

Pasadena, June 20, 1880. 



Postmasters' Salaries. — The increase and 
reduction of the salaries of postmasters in Ne- 
vada and Oregon, at the offices specified, are as 
follows: Nevada — Austin, $2,000, an increase 
of $200; Carson City, $2,600, an increase of $200; 
Elko, $1,600; Eureka, $2,500, a reduction of 
.$200; Gold Hill, $2,500, a reduction of $200; 
Hamilton, $1,600, an increase of $100; Pioche, 
$1,600, a reduction of $200; Reno, $2,100, a re- 
duction of $100; Tuscarora, $2,100; Virginia, 
$2,800; Winnemucca, $1,500, an increase of 
$200. Oregon— Albany, $2,000, an increase of 
$300; Astoria, $1,800; Baker City, $1,100; Cor- 
vallis, $1,200, an increase of $100; Eugene City, 
$1,300, an increase of $100; Oregon City, $1,- 
500, an increase of $100; Portland, $3,000, an 
increase of $400; Salem, $2,600; the Dalles, 
$1,800, an increase of $300. 



4 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



[July 3, 1880. 



Correspondence invited from all Tatrons for this Department 



W. M. Bro. Spilman at Stockton Grange. 

The Stockton Independent gives an outline of 
the remarks by the W. M. of the State Grange, 
Bro. B. R. Spilman, at a union meeting held 
with Stockton Grange last week. We quote 
from the Independent as follows: 

After some vocal exercises Master Spilman 
delivered an address. He congratulated the 
Stockton Grange upon the interest evinced in 
the matters of agriculture and husbandry. He 
said that the Grange Order was established for 
many purposes, the main purpose being to in- 
crease the value of the productions of the soil, 
and to educate the members of the Grange in 
scientific agriculture. Nothing tends more to 
promote the interests of the country than the 
spread of education and right principles among 
those engaged in the cultivation of the soil. It 
had been remarked that the Order was a failure, 
but such was not the case. It had accomplished 
a great work. It behooved every Granger, 
however, to faithfully discharge every duty in- 
cumbent upon him. He was satisfied that the 
principles of the Grange if properly carried out 
would promote the interests of the country. I 
know it is said that our organization is selfish, 
but those who made the statement knew noth- 
ing about it. The Order is founded upon the 
eternal principles of justice and right, and the 
Grange would never cease working until it ob- 
tained the rights justly belonging to the tillers 
of the soil. But if they were to ever accom- 
plish anything the members of the Grange must 
stand together as a unit. The Grange was a 
class organization made up of agriculturists. 
Hence the discussions were upon agricultural 
matters, and did not infringe upon the rights or 
feelings of any other Order or set of people in 
the community. The sisters of the Grange 
found work there, and had accomplished a great 
deal of good. The agricultural interest was the 
basis of all the prosperity in the United States. 
To accomplish any good results it was necessary 
that the agriculturists should make their power 
felt. Our law givers should be given to under- 
stand that members of the Grange did not in- 
tend stopping until they obtained all their 
rights. The National Grange had been de- 
manding that the Commissioner of Agriculture 
should be a cabinet officer. Gen. Le Due, the 
present Commissioner and his chemist, were 
friends of the Grange. Prof. Collyer had shown 
the farmers how they could manufacture their 
own sugar from millet, corn stalks and sorghum. 
Yet this great Government don't give that man 
sufficient room in which to make his experi- 
ments. His work has been entirely ignored by 
the law makers. Bro. Aiken, of South Carolina, 
and Bro. Forsyth, Master of the State Grange 
of Illinois, had both told him that for two years 
the Committees on Agriculture of the two 
Houses of Congress had not had a meeting. Mr. 
Spilman asked if such treatment was right and 
just to the great industry of the country ? 
But a Congressional Committee had recom- 
mended that a salary of S3, 000 be allowed the 
Commissioner of Agriculture, and that he be 
made a subordinate officer of the Government. 
But this was not satisfactory to the agricultur- 
ists. They had too long been hewers of wood 
and drawers of water, and they now intend to 
demand their just and equitable rights. Ours is 
not an aggressive Order, but they simply de- 
mand justice. I don't care whether a man is a 
Republican, Democrat or a Greenbacker, if he 
will represent and protect my interest, and I 
am going to vote for him. Mr. Spilman entered 
at length into the advantages of the Order, and 
the benefits and enjoyments to be obtained from 
the social gatherings connected with it. After 
some few remarks to the young people present, 
Mr. Spilman resumed his seat amid general 
applause. 

Assessment of G. B. A. Stock. — I am in re- 
ceipt of a letter from Bro. I. C. Steele, in which 
he says the Assessor of San Mateo county in- 
sists on assessing his shares in the G. B. Associ- 
ation, and asks for information on the subject. 
To this I reply that some three months ago I 
delivered to the Assessor of San Francisco a 
memorandum of the number of shares outstand- 
ing, their par as well as their market value, to- 
gether with the amount of assessment on real 
estate owned by the Association. This statement 
was submitted to the State Board of Equalization 
for their action. I was subsequently informed by 
the Assessor of San Francisco, that inasmuch as 
the assessed value of the real estate and improve- 
ments in San Francisco on which the Associa- 
tion paid taxes exceeded in value between $5,000 
and $6,000, the market value of all the shares of 
the G. B. A. now outstanding, the said stock 
could not be assessed according to law, and that 
he would notify the various County Assessors to 
that effect. But on visiting the Assessor's of- 
fice to-day, I found they had, from some unex- 
plained cause, neglected to send out the notice, 
but promised they would attend to it imme- 
diately. It will then be the duty of the County 
Assessors to strike from their lists all assess- 
ments of stock in the Grangers' Business Asso- 
ciation. — Amos Adams, Sec. Grangers' Business 
Ass'n. 



Grand Island Grange Picnic. 

The Grangers' picnic that was held at Grimes' 
landing was very largely attended, and the 
probabilities are there would have been more 
had it not been for the heavy north wind 
Those that were not posted supposed that it 
would be like other picnic grounds, dusty and 
disagreeable; but it was not, for we have one of 
the best picnic grounds in the county. It is 
bounded on the north and west by a thick 
growth of large oaks, so that it is utterly im 
possible for the north wind to have any effect, 
The speaker that was to have delivered the 
oration failed to appear, sickness preventing, I 
believe. J. J. Hickok was called upon, and re 
sponded with a brief but very interesting 
speech. The Colusa brass band furnished music 
for the occasion, and the band would be a credit 
to any "town." 

Cyrus Gleason won a very fine bridle in the 
riding tournament. Miss Hattie Corbiere re 
ceived the bridle that was to be given to the 
most graceful lady rider. Johnny Shields 
received the prize in the young men's foot race; 
it was amusing to see them trying to get started. 
They were to start by a handkerchief being 
dropped by L. Gilmour, and every move he 
would make they were off like they were shot out 
of a gun; after making half a dozen false starts 
they got off, with some advantage in the start 
of Shields, but as the other end of the track 
decided the race, Johnny made it a point to get 
there a few feet ahead. No one will dispute 
but that the young men who ran against the 
Island racer ran well, but they must remember 
that the Island boys are hard to get away with — 
in fact, the Island has but one failure, and that 
is the Sun correspondent. Albert Mahais, 
another Island boy, got away with the high 
jump, jumping something less than 15 ft. high. 
Everything went off nicely. Everybody 
seemed happy and contented. Mr. Jones, of 
Colusa, was Marshal of the day, and made a 
first-class officer. A large number of the com- 
pany remained for the dance. The music was 
furnished by Callendine Bros, string band, as- 
sisted by a cornet player of the brass band. The 
music was good. The supper was given by Mrs. 
J. C. Stattler, and was one of the best that was 
ever gotten up for a ball at this place. — Cor. 
Colusa Sun. 



A Stalwart Invalid. — Mrs. W. D. Ashley, 
of Stockton, in a report of the Grangers' re- 
union at Lodi, writing to the Rural Press, 
winds up with the following : 

" Regretfully we sped away from the rural town nestled 
on the lap of a flat sandy loam, with its thousand people, 
supporting a weekly and daily paper, edited hy Mrs. Cluff, 
who, with her invalid husband, cultivates five acres. She 
has three children, and is a member of our Order, too. 
Long may this intelligent and hospitable community 
thrive " 

In reply we would say that our daily was an 
impromptu affair, got up for the occasion, and 
in regard to our husband being an invalid, why, 
goodness gracious, he weighs 225 lbs., and never 
knew a sick day. He is one of the firm of Cluff 
& Smith, prosperous agricultural merchants of 
this place, and is called upon each Saturday 
night for a 10 or 20, that the Valley Review may 
live and flourish. — Lodi Review. 



Temescal Grange. —Editors Press: The 
next meeting of Temescal Grange will be held 
at the Humboldt House, Temescal, Saturday 
evening, July 17th. The regular meeting was 
postponed on account of the meeting of Eden 
Grange at their hall in Haywards next Satur- 
day, and to which all Grangers are cordially in- 
vited to meet the Master of the State Grange. 
By order of the Master of Temescal Grange. — 
Nellie G. Babcock, Sec'y, June 27, 1S80. 



Buhach. — One of the handsomest trade 
pamphlets' we have ever seen is one lately 
issued by the Buhach producing and manufactur- 
ing company of Stockton, Cal. It contains an 
interesting account of the efforts of Mr. Milco, 
which resulted in the introduction of the true 
Persian insect powder plant to this State. It 
fairly bristles with testimonials from scientific 
and practical men as to the eliicacy of the 
powder in insect destruction. We understand 
tnat the Buhach company is vigorously pushing 
its enterprise both in plantation and manufactory, 
and there seems reason to believe that the Cali- 
fornia product will rule the country ere long. 
J. D. Peters, the well-known grain dealer of 
Stockton, is Secretary of the Buhach company, 
and the main office is 154 Levee, Stockton, Cal. 

A Garden Scene. — The Royal Horticultural 
Society of England is holding exhibitions by 
aid of the electric light. We read : "Round 
the tall globes of the electric light in the gar- 
dens moths and other night-flying insects flut- 
tered in myriads and did not singe their wings. 
The ducks woke up and swam about the ponds. 
The bright dresses of the ladies were reflected 
in the water, and there was B special illumina- 
tion, after the style in vogue at the tiiess- 
bach Cataract, of the waterfall under Prince 
Albert's statue. From time to time, at a signal 
given by loud rockets, the trees were illumin- 
ated by lights changing rapidly from white to 
green and dying away in a glare of red." 

There are 200 cases of small-pox in the hos- 
pitals in Dublin. 



CALIFORNIA. 

CALAVERAS. 

Harvest. — Cor. Chronicle, June 26: The 
haying season is drawing to a close, and headers 
and reapers are now in demand, the heading of 
barley having commenced in this vicinity 
last week. The crop in this vicinity, especi- 
ally late sown wheat, is much better than 
was anticipated three weeku ago. Your cor- 
respondent had a conversation with a neighbor 
a few days ago, who had purchased a ranch 
here last fall and consequently this was his first 
crop. Our conversation naturally turned to 
that subject and as he had previously expressed 
an unfavored opinion regarding his wheat I in 
quired regarding it, prefacing my inquiries with 
the remark that an adjoining neighbor's crop 
looking much better than one would have ex 
pected. "Yes," was his reply, "crops in the 
chaparral do beat all creation on the home 
stretch. " And that is nothing more or less than 
the truth happily expressed. About the time 
the land down below is dried out our crops be- 
gin to grow finely and as the weather is then 
quite warm they do indeed "beatall creation on 
the home stretch." I see several ranchers 
have set ont fruit trees, grapevines, etc., which 
shows that they are here to stay, though it is a 
curious fact that some ranchers who have lived 
here from five to ten years have neither orchard 
nor vineyard on the place and must necessarily 
purchase all from the peddlers at an enormous 
high price. Fruit and grapes both do well in 
this section of country. 

CONTRA COSTA. 

Good Weather for Grain. — Gazette, June 
26: The cool weather of the past three weeks 
has been as favorable as could be desired to pro- 
mote the healthy growth and gradual maturing 
of the grain; and if the crops of our section do 
not turn out full weight and plump wheat, it 
will be from some other cause than unfavorable 
conditions of the weather; for little or none of 
the wheat in the district suffered materially 
from the hot weather and north winds during 
the latter half of May. 

HUMBOLDT. 

Ferndale. — Editors Press: — As I have seen 
nothing in the Press from our county lately, I 
thought I would drop you a few lines. We 
have had a very wet, cold spring, and must be 
satisfied with half a crop of grain. As soon as 
the rain was over, a cold north wind set in, bak- 
ing and blighting nearly everything. We are a 
month later than usual on our clay bottoms, 
and some we have had to resow. We will have 
no fruit to speak of; the fruit trees are blighted 
very badly. This is a bad season for our dairy- 
men. These north winds are shortening the 
feed very fast. — James Smith. [We shall be 
pleased to hear from our Humboldt county 
readers much more often. — Eds. Press.] 
INYO. 

The Bishop Creek Country. — Bodie Free 
Press, June 0: Whatever business depression 
the mining communities of Inyo are suffering 
from, the fact does not appear to effect in the 
least the general prosperity of the farming coun- 
try to the north of Independence. The pro- 
ductive lands, with abundance of water for ir- 
rigation, make Big Pine, Bishop and Round val- 
ley veritable oases in the vast desert of mining 
districts which surround. As a natural se- 
quence, land is steadily increasing in value, 
and cannot help continuing to do so. During 
the present year many new farms have been 
placed under cultivation and much new land 
belonging to the older places broken up. At a 
safe calculation, in the three settlements named 
there are now at least 2,000 acres of growing 
grain in soil heretofore lying idle and unpro- 
ductive. Good crops are considered almost in- 
fallible, and prices invariably high as compared 
with other localities in the State. Yet there 
never has been a season but that the mar- 
ket demanded more than was produced. Last 
year's crop has been cleaned out for) some time 
by sales and seeding, and a leading merchant is 
importing wagon loads of grain from Los An- 
geles. The revival at Mammoth now seems a 
settled fact, thus for the present at least giving 
Round valley a splendid market, and at any 
event the products of our whole valley will not 
suffice to supply the demauds of Benton, Bell- 
ville, Candelaria,, Marietta, Columbus, Silver 
Peak, Palmetto, Lida or Deep Spring, not to 
consider any settlements liable to spring up in 
the mines at any time. Enterprising farmers 
are availing themselves of the Forest Culture 
and Desert Land acts in adding to their 
acreage of arable soil. Through the pluck and 
enterprise of the leading Big Piners, in all prob- 
ability the coming fall and winter will witness 
the completion of the 24-mile ditch, which will 
add some 5,000 acres to the available land next 
year. On the west side of the river the two 
new ditches are already yielding handsome re- 
turns on the investment of labor and money. 
KERN. 

Small Ranchers. — Cali/ornian, June 15: 
All the small farmers in the valley who have 
staid with their farms, worked perseveringly 
and repressed that desire for change, the roving 
disposition that is the ruin of so many in this 
State, are doing well. Some of them are evi- 
dently growing rich. Among these we might 
mention Messrs. Clark, Ellis, Barker, Hoke, 
Cantield, Stockton, Watson, and 50 others if 
space permitted. The farms of all these gen- 
tlemen are growing more beautiful and valuable 



every year. Kern valley, taken as a whole, is 
now probably the loveliest portion of the State, 
and it is improving constantly in a most aston- 
ishing manner. 
LOS ANGELES. 

Mustard Crop. — Five hundred acres of 
English mustard were planted the past season 
at the new settlement of Forster City, on the 
Santa Margarita ranch, and produced a fine 
crop, having been sold on the ground at $2.50 
per hundred. This is a profitable crop which 
it would be well to introduce generally here. 

W alnuts. — Commercial, June 19: English 
walnut trees have not generally been consid- 
ered very profitable here, owing to their light 
bearing, but it is to be hoped that 1880 marks 
the beginning of a new era in the cultivation of 
this tree. The trees in and around the city are 
now so loaded with fruit that branches are 
breaking under the weight. In some orchards, 
a crop of more than 10 times greater than last 
year is expected. 
MENDOCINO. 

Wool Talk.— Ukiah Press, June 26: The 
interest in wool in this section reached its hight 
last Saturday. The town was very animated. 
Buyers and sellers were numerous, and the 
wool receipts were quite heavy. The bulk of 
the clip in the region tributary has been dis- 
posed of, with the exception of Round valley's 
crop. The price ranged from 27 to 28J cents, 
exceptional lots bringing 28g; one man claims 
to have received 29J on Sunday. The aggre- 
gate sales are estimated at 100,000 lbs, and A. 
Marks and C. Hofman were the largest pur- 
chasers. On Tuesday and Wednesday the in- 
terest was transferred_to Cloverdale. We are 
informed the average price there was 28J, with 
27f« .'!0 as extremes. The^buyer's combination 
had the advantage, and kept it. Wool has 
brought a good price; but growers have not re- 
alized their expectations, not what the demands 
of manufacture will justify, 
MERCED. 

Editors Press:— Grain is all fully ripe. 
Headers all round are trying to get through 
cutting, but much is over ripe and yet out of 
reach for weeks. Several combined headers 
and threshers also helping through. In har- 
vesting every hand around is engaged — none 
idle who want to work. We have cool weather, 
occasionally light winds. Some grain is falling 
it is so ripe. Too much land occasions no 
small loss in trying to get at it. — M. J. O'B., 
Merced, June 23d. 

MONTEREY. 

Salinas Valley Crops. — Index June 24 : 
During the past week, H. S. Ball, L. H. Gar- 
rigus, S. M. Shearer and other buyers have 
been out among the grain fields of the Salinas 
valley, taking a look at the crop prospect; and 
they differ materially in their estimates of the 
damage done by the recent hot spell of weather 
and desiccating north winds. As yet it is only 
a matter of conjecture; but from the opinions 
of the experts, combined with the estimates of 
the farmers themselves, we do not believe that 
the wheat and barley crop of our valley will 
average more than half what it promised six 
weeks ago. Indeed if it does that, we may 
consider ourselves very fortunate. Some say 
that blight is the cause of the damage, while 
others maintain that it is lack of moisture in 
the soil; we are inclined to the latter opinion. 
In the southern portion of Monterey county — 
Indian Valley, Peach Tree, Cholame, San An- 
tonio, etc— the grain crop is splendid, better 
than has been known for many years past. 
Taken all in all, however, there will be plenty 
of grain raised in the Salinas valley this year 
and plenty throughout the State. 

NAPA. 

St. Helena Notes. — Cor. Register, June 26: 
The vineyards continue to look well; grapes 
are now fairly set in most places and the pros- 
pects for a good crop remain unchanged and no 
fears are now entertained of any failure. Hay- 
ing is almost completed, and the crop is good 
and large. Prospects are that hay will be quite 
cheap this fall. Grain is looking well and 
threshers are preparing for the summer cam- 
paign. The Winegrowers' picnic of last Satur- 
day is the main topic of conversation, everyone 
expressing themselves as well pleased with it. 
The committee find that the receipts were 
enough to cover expenses and are congratu- 
lating themselves on the success of the venture 
which has given their business such a notoriety 
and impetus, and engendered so neighborly a 
feeling between all classes of our community. 

NEVADA 

Mammoth Strawberries. — Herald, June 22: 
Felix Gillet presented this office yesterday with 
strawberries of his own raising, and from varie- 
ties introduced by him lately in California, that 
beat anything in that line we ever saw either in 
this State or elsewhere. Those strawberries were 
of the following varieties: Gloire de Zuidwyk 
(from Holland,) Rubis and Flora (from France). 
Their wonderful size, bright scarlet color and 
fine flavor make such varieties, we should think, 
quite desirable for market, as well as family 
use. Mr. Gillet, who has been experimenting 
on more than 60 varieties both from Europe and 
America, has acquired a name through this 
State as a successful strawberry grower, and 
for introducing and propagating on this coast 
such superior and beautiful kinds as those pre- 
sented to this office. 

PLACER. 

Lumbering. — Nevada Transcript: Mr. Voss, 
at You Bet, commenced sawing on the 3d of 
June. He has 30 men employed. The season 



July 3, l88o/| 



ACIFIC BUBAL FBES 



6 



will be short, but he will make the most of it 
while it lasts. He will complete the new mill 
which he commenced last year on the south 
fork of Greenhorn creek, and remove the extra 
set of machinery which he has at the old mill 
thither. Before sawing much at the new mill 
he will be obliged to build a new road down via 
Red Dog to furnish an outlet for the lumber. 
This road will be several miles in length, and 
will cost $3,000 or more to construct it. The 
grade will, however, be an easy one, and the 
splendid body of timber which it will open up 
will amply justify these expenditures. 
SAN BENITO. 

Bitterwater. — Cor. Hollister Enterprise, 
June 18: Farmers are well satisfied with the 
crops in this valley. We had heavy frosts 
about the last of May that bit the crops and 
made them look like they were going to dry 
up, but they have taken a second growth, and 
from present appearances will average about 
eighteen sacks to the acre. Crops are about 
ripe, and heading has begun in the lower end of 
the valley. The hay crop has been heavy and 
the haying season is about over. 

SAN DIEGO. 

Grain and Honey. — Union, June 24: Yes- 
terday we were shown by Mr. R. L. Wright 
some samples of wheat from Bernardo, which 
for weight and length of head exceed any be- 
fore exhibited at this office. The "Propo" 
variety is truly a magnificent grain; the sample 
shown is said to be a fair average on 60 acres, 
which it is claimed will yield fully 40 bushels 
to the acre. Mr. Wright has recently returned 
from an extended trip through Poway, Ber- 
nardo, San Pasqual and Bear valley, and speaks 
in glowing terms of the prospects in that por- 
tion of our county. Harvesting is well under 
way, and farmers, without any exception, as 
far as seen and heard from, are jubilant at the 
outlook. Continued reports, even from this 
favored portion of our "back country," indicate 
a much lighter honey crop than was anticipated. 
Hardly one-half the yield of 1878 is now looked 
for, although the quality cannot be excelled. 

SANTA CLARA. 

Carp Culture. — San Jose Mercury, June 26: 
Capt. Fieldsted, who resides about 4 miles 
east of San Jose, in the foothills, is experiment- 
ing in carp culture, and with excellent success. 
He has a pond 40 by 80 ft. in extent, and 8 ft. 
deep, fed by a living spring. Last July he pro- 
cured, at a cost of about $50, 10 carp, then 4 
months old, and weighing about 2 lbs. each. 
These fish have now grown to from 6 to 8 lbs. 
in weight, and his pond is thoroughly stocked 
with young fish. He intends to construct 
another pond about an acre in extent, and give 
the fish a chance to spread themselves. The 
beauty of the carp, for marketable purposes, is 
the rapidity with which it matures — a few 
months only being required to bring it into use, 
while the trout is of but little account before 
the second year. In all our hill ranges, where 
living springs and streams abound, fish culture 
for food purposes could no doubt be made profit- 
able. 

SANTA CRUZ. 

Wheat Samples. — Editors Press: I send 
you a few wheat heads, to show you the condi 
tion of the growing wheat of Santa Cruz county 
You will see by counting that these heads con 
tain from 50 to 60 grains of plump wheat to the 
head. They are not ripe yet, but out of danger 
from rust, or the north winds, that are such a 
scourge to other counties. We are never troubled 
with them to any extent, and there is nothing 
to hinder our farmers from growing just such 
wheat here every year, only their own indo- 
lence. I plucked these heads from a field by 
the roadside that has been under cultivation for 
the last 30 years, continuously, and nearly every 
year in wheat. I do not think these heads 
much above an average among good farmers (if 
our best may be termed such), and no better 
than has been grown in this vicinity every year 
for the last seven years — the time that I have 
been acquainted with this county. — M. P. 
Owen, Soquel, June 26th. — [The specimens are 
very good, indeed. — Eds. Press.] 
SONOMA. 

Loss of Sheep. — Healdsburg Enterprise, June 
24: Since stock men commenced shearing this 
spring we have heard considerable complaint 
about missing sheep. In some instances the 
percentage of loss has been large, and several 
have sought to account for it upon the hypothe 
sis that their sheep have been stolen. It seems 
improbable that this should be the case, as no 
one could successfully run off bands of sheep 
from ranches all over the county without detec 
tion. Last spring Monroe Jeter remarked to us 
that the cold weather was killing many more 
sheep than ranchers had any knowledge of, or 
would admit; he said he found carcasses in the 
most out-of-the-way places, the sheep being 
driven into the chemisal to pick for a living, 
owing to the snow on the open ground. It be- 
gins to look like Mr. Jeter's views were sound. 
W. H. Gordon says that from a flock of 630 he 
lost 260, and yet has not been able to find more 
than 100 carcasses on his ranch. 

Sheep Rot.— Flag, June 24: Young Bros. & 
Cagwin, extensive farmers and sheep raisers in 
Alexander valley, seem to be peculiarly unfor 
tunate with their flocks. Mr. Michael Young, 
who came in the other day for a lot of copperas 
to give to the sheep in their feed, informed us 
that they had lost 60 head since shearing, and 
that the mortality was hourly continuing. 
There was no apparent suffering, the animal 
first drooping a little and then dropping suddenly 
dead. Upon examination it was found that the 



lights, liver and gall were infested with what is 
here called the leach — a worm resembling thereg- 
ularwater leach (or blood-sucker), ranging in size 
from infinitely small to six inches in length. 
The disease affected Ira Proctor's sheep last 
year; but milk weed was supposed to have car- 
ried off the Young sheep same season. The 
aresence of the leach is attributed to the wet 
bottom land, on which the sheep have been rang- 
ing. We are curious to know about the effects 
of the copperas. 

Threshers' Cook -House. — Santa Rosa Re- 
publican, June 24: The threshers' cook-house, 
which is being built across the way on wheels, 
to accompany a party to the plains, we think 
would be commodious for a camping expedi- 
tion. There is ample room in it for beds, chairs, 
tables, books and all the paraphernalia required 
for a large party. Like Mrs. Jarley's wax-work 
shows, it will perambulate the country over, 
stopping by the way long enough to set up the 
big thresher and winnow the grain from huge 
ricks, while the hungry men will dine in the 
grateful shade of its canvas, and sleep in the 
straw piles. 

How Mustard Came In. — Flag, June 17 : 
Sixteen years ago when Martin Hooten broke 
the sod on what is now Healds Addition, there 
was not a blade of mustard anywhere to be 
seen. Some years after, a large band of sheep 
was allowed to pasture there, when several of 
them were killed by dogs. The carcasses were 
allowed to decay where they had fallen, and 
the next spring those spots were found covered 
with mustard. No steps were taken to eradicate 
it, and, as a result, the fields in that neighbor- 
hood are almost eaten up with it. 

Second Crop Grapes. — Cor. Sonoma Index: 
One ton of second crop Zinfindel grapes makes 
as much wine as a like quantity of first; and the 
wiue makers almost invariably mix them to- 
gether, thus receiving as much for one as the 
other, when the wine is sold. It has recently 
been discovered by wine experts in San Fran- 
cisco that second crop Zinfindel wine, properly 
manipulated for two years, acquires a bouquet 
which is far superior to any other claret which 
we have as yet produced in California." 

SOLANO. 

Flax. — Republican, June 25: L. Provost has 
about 300 acres of flax planted out on the 
plains. The prospect is favorable for a fine 
crop. We understand that he has a contract 
to sell all the flax he can raise for the next five 
years. Mr. Provost is one of the large farmers 
of the plains. He is pushing, energetic, and 
successfully handles considerable harvesting 
machinery besides. 

The Sunny Side Farm. — S. S. Drake has his 
new half-mile track on the Sunny Side Farm, 
near Vallejo, completed and in prime order. 
He is the owner of the thoroughbred horse 
"Admiral" and is exercising a number of his 
colts on the track, preparing them for the two 
year-old stakes this fall. He also has a three' 
year-old stallion by "Irwin Davis" out of an 
inbred Patchen, which moves grandly and 
promises to be a speedy trotter. The Sunny Side 
Farm is one of the model farms of this county, 
and has the finest stud of horses. It is all un- 
der the highest state of cultivation. Mr. Drake 
is raising the Snowflake, the white Genesee 
and the Danish varieties of wheat which prom 
ise well. The Danish wheat is a late variety 
which he has never experimented with before, 
but it is coming out all right. It does one 
good to examine his stock, and note the con- 
venience of this model farm. 

STANISLAUS. 

Workers and Non- Workers. — News, June 
18: The harvest season has brought to our 
town a great number of honest, transient labor 
ing men, seeking employment. Among the in 
flux, as is naturally to be expected, is a large 
per cent, of the dissolute and vagrant classes, 
who follow the crowd of honest workingmen, 
and in disguise seek to pilfer and steal their 
living. We are pleased to note, however, that 
our officers have a happy faculty of separating 
the good from the evil disposed, and will give 
no rest to the wicked. Among the other reme 
dies the Sheriff is pushing, is the recommenda 
tion to the Board of Supervisors for a chain 
gang. Every good citizen should aid the offi 
cials in efforts to curb the wickedly inclined 
that will flock to our county during the rush of 
a heavy harvest. 

Harvesting. — News, June 26: It may be 
said that the harvest season pretty fairly opened 
in this section the present week. The West 
Side farmers as is usual, however, began work 
some two weeks ahead of this locality. As a 
rule their grain ripens that much in advance of 
this locality. 
YOLO. 

Harvest Wages. — Democrat, June 26: The 
standard price in the county for heading and 
threshing is $2 per day and board. Except in a 
few instances where the work is exceptionally 
hard, this is the maximum price paid anywhere 
in this county. We are informed on good au 
thority that in Sacramento county $1.50 per 
day is the established rate this year for header 
hands, and plenty of men can be secured at that 
price. Two dollars a day, and steady work, is 
all that can be reasonably expected, and it cer 
tainly is all the farmers can afford to pay. 

Grain. — W. B. Gibson's grain, on the Faris 
and Wilcoxson ranch, about five miles west of 
Woodland and running back from the road to 
Cache creek, embracing a good many hundred 
acres, promises a splendid yield. A sample of club 
wheat from the north side now in this office is 
worth seeing — as plump and nice as we have 
ever seen, 



Gardening. — The farmers and vegetable 
growers on the Sacramento river in this county 
have labored under great disadvantages this 
season on account of back water from the tules 
and seepage water from the river direct. What 
crops the vegetables will yield will come in so 
late that the market will be glutted with simi- 
lar produce from other portions of the State. 

NEVADA. 

A Hairless Horse.— Reno Gazette, June 15: 
One of the natural peculiarities of this country 
is an alkali grass which takes all the hair off of 
an animal. It is found on some places on 
Steamboat creek south of Mrs Gates' ranch. A 
horse or cow that runs there a month or so loses 
every bit of its coat. An old horse that has 
been running there has haunted the Virginia 
road in the vicinity of Brown's station a week 
or so. He is not quite naked yet, but soon 
will be. A little hair sticks on the side of his 
neck, a few stragglers around the root of his 
tail, half a dozen in one ear, and a few other 
spots remain. His stumpy tail is as bare as a 
billiard ball, and looks like the butt end of a 
leather whip. The mane is all gone and the 
heavy skin stands up a corrugated ridge. The 
skin is brown and looks like that of an elephant. 
A hairless horse is a funny looking beast. 



Grading Wheat. 

Editors Press: — Your last issue contains a 
communication over the letter "F.," censuring 
the thresherman with the use of self-feeding 
threshers and the derrick forks as the whole 
cause of foul wheat in the market. If you will 
allow me space in your valuable paper, I will 
say a few words in defense of the thresherman 
and his modes of working. 

The derrick fork, properly used, will save 
more clean grain from the stack bottom than 
can possibly be saved with hand forks, scoop 
shovel and hand rake. This is its chief merit, 
and this was claimed by the farmer in its early 
introduction, because it would not thresh out 
the grain in passing it to the tablemen, as hand 
pitchers would in passing it from one to the 
other; and if loose grain was thrown into the 
stack from the header beds (as a majority of 
farmers do), the derrick fork would take it clean 
to the tablemen. So there would be no more 
loose grain on the ground at the bottom of the 
stack than was there before the stack was made. 
When the farmer takes any care in preparing 
his stacking floor, there need be no dirt nor 
gravel taken up by the derrick forks. 

I make the broad assertion, and I believe that 
the majority of intelligent farmers and thresher- 
men will bear me out in it, that, notwithstand 
ing the derrick fork is a great labor-saving im 
plement, the main reason for its universal use 
is the fact that more clean grain can be saved 
from the threshing floor. I do not deem it 
necessary to offer argument in support of the 
above, as the majority of your readers to whom 
it will be of interest know and will judge for 
themselves. I would suggest, however, to "F, 
another method for keeping the 5 fi>3. to 20 lbs 
of dirt out of each fork load. Instead of stop 
ping the derrick fork and taking up the bottom 
of the stack with hand forks, prepare a smooth 
floor for stacking and threshing, carefully re 
moving ail lumps of dirt, sticks, gravel and 
rocks. If practicable do this in winter, making 
it as smooth and hard as possible; keep the veg 
etation from growing upon it, or shave it smooth 
with a sharp shovel or other implement, and 
sweep it very clean before depositing his valua 
ble harvest. I would further suggest that he 
use a derrick fork and make his stack high, not 
spreading his crop over so much of his poorly 
plowed ground, stubble and sometimes uncut 
wheat. If he will do this he need not watch 
the threshermen at all, but will have more time 
to see that the mangers are well filled with hay 
that the cook has suitable provisions prepared 
on time, that the men are taken to and from 
their meals, and the thresher supplied with 
sacks, thus avoiding delay. While he is doing 
this he will not hear those "booms" in the cyl 
inder, caused, he says, by the self-feeder; he 
will be in better humor and treat his thresher 
men with proper respect. The thresherman in 
turn will exercise his best skill and vigilance to 
do good work for him. 

The self-feeder, undoubtedly, can feed more 
than a threshing machine can properly separate, 
but it can be as easily regulated to the proper 
and even supply as can be done by hand, pro 
vided the same quantity of grain is to be han 
died, and will do equally good work. 

It is well understood that any machine, to 
give satisfaction at all times, must be regulated 
somewhat below its greatest capacity, and be 
capable of a certain range of quantity either 
above or below the average; the average should 
be that quantity that will give the best result 

I think it but justice to the leading importers 
of agricultural implements, and the home manu 
facturer, improvers and inventors, to say that 
they have spared no pains nor expense in bring- 
ing the threshing machine, as well as the feeder 
and its regulator, to the highest state of the art. 
No American manufacturer to my knowledge, has 
made any effort to produce a thresher and sep 
arator combined that will grade the grain, ex 
cept in a very limited way. Several grain sep 
arators, manufactured in this State, and run as 
attachments to threshing machines, I am in 
formed, give satisfaction where they have been 
tried. 

It would be an easy matter for a competent 



manufacturer with sufficient capital to 
these machines to not only separate th 
from the straw and chaff, but to sepai. che 
oats and barley or other foul seed from the 
wheat, even the straw from the chaff, and the 
large berries from the smaller and shrunken 
ones, as is done by some of the English 
machines. But it is most unreasonable to ex- 
pect the wheat to be graded by the threshing 
machines now in use, either with or without 
derrick forks and self-feeder. They were not 
intended to do that kind of separating, neither 
were the derrick forks. 

In my opinion the grain dealer and warehouse 
men are proper ones to inaugurate this reform. 
Let them do away with the sacking system; 
handle the grain in bulk, build warehouses with 
elevators and suitable grading machinery, and 
employ skilled men to do the grading. Grain 
can then be graded as exact as the demands of 
the trade require. 

Thresherman's Friend. 

News in Brief. 

A machine for making pies has lately been 
patented. 

St. Louis finds from the census that her pop- 
ulation is only 375,000. 

It is thought the census will give four more 
Congressmen to Nebraska. 

The census just taken of Boston shows the 
population to be about 351,000. 

The annual conference of the Mormons will 
begin at Salt Lake city July 3d. 

The census of Chicago indicates that the pop- 
ulation of that city is about 475,000. 

The work of repairing the old Mission of 
Carmelo, Monterey, is to be commenced. 

Russia is thinking of making the duty on iron 
so high as to be practically prohibitory. 

Rome spends $200,000 on its public schools, 
of which 10 years ago it had none at all. 

Large quantities of wild strawberries are 
being brought into Olympia, W. T., by Indians. 

The North Palouse river of Washington Ter- 
ritory is capable of furnishing an unlimited 
water-power for manufacturing purposes. 

The German Bundesrath refused to entertain 
a petition for the reintroduction of silver cur- 
rency. 

Once again the British House of Lords has 
rejected the bill to legalize marriage with a de- 
ceased wife's sister. 

One of the Indians lately killed in Grant 
county, New Mexico, had over $400 in green- 
backs on his body. 

Of the 599,986,000 acres of land in our Ter- 
ritories, exclusive of Alaska, 489,538,000 have 
never been surveyed. 

The Duke of Bedford's remissions to his agri- 
cultural tenants during the last 18 months 
amount to over £100,000. 

The central shaft of the Hoosac tunnel has 
caved. It is estimated that two days will be 
required to clear the wreck. 

The deficit in the Postoffice Department for 
the fiscal year of 1879 was $3,407,916, which is 
less than any year since 1866. 

The Supreme Court of Nevada has decided 
that stock-owners are not responsible for the 
damage done on unfenced lands. 

Shad are being found in larger quantities 
near the mouth of the Columbia each year, and 
will no doubt become a staple article. 

The officials of the Agricultural Department 
say that the prospects are good this year for a 
large consumption of American wines. 

At Port Wine, Sierra county, June 2d, the 
snow was eight ft. deep on a level, and in 
the ravines and canyons it was much deeper. 

At Arivaca, Arizona, a rattlesnake was re- 
cently killed which measured 7f ft. in length, 
13 inches in circumference and had 29 rattles. 

A large buck was recently killed on So- 
noma mountain. He weighed 700 lbs. when 
dressed, and his horns have seven points each. 

Recently the Russian floating battery Krem- 
lin came in collision with a Danish steamer in 
the Gulf of Finland, and was seriously damaged. 

At the beginning of the present century there 
were 3,000,000 copies of the Bible in existence; 
since then 116,000,000 more have been printed. 

It is mentioned that the value of the dia- 
monds exported from the Cape last year 
amounted to over three and a half millions ster- 
ling. 

A man who firmly believes that a second flood 
will come next November to cover the whole 
face of the earth is building au ark at Helena, 
Texas. 

The accounts of last year's vintage in France 
are very bad. In the claret district no vintage 
in this century is remembered to have yielded 
so little. 

A Revenue posse, in attempting to capture 
moonshiners near Red Oak, Ga., were resisted. 
One moonshiner was killed and one mortally 
wounded. 

A horse was driven upstairs into a drawing- 
room at Milton, England, but refused to come 
down again, and a part of the wall had to be 
taken out and the horse lowered by a steam 
crane. 

The steamer City of New York, of Alexan- 
der's Havana line, caught fire while lying at 
Brooklyn dock, June 24th, and burned to the 
water's edge. 

An inventor has patented a car that runs on 
skates instead of wheels, and is especially in- 
tended for elevated railroads. It runs on 
grooved rails. 

A new society, "The Confraternity of the 
Holy Trinity," has been founded by the Spanish 
Jesuits for the express purpose of opposing the 
influence of Freemasonry. 



6 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS 



[July 3, 1880. 




How the Bell Rang. 

July 4, 1770. 

There was tumult in the city,' 

In the quaint old Quaker town, 
And the streets were black with people, 

Pacing restless up and down ; 
People (fathering in corners, 

Where they whispered each to each, 
And the sweat stood on their temples, 

With the earnestness of speech. 

As the black Atlantic currents 

Lash the wild Newfoundland shore, 
So they beat against the State House, 

So they surged against its door ; 
And the mingling of their voices 

Made a harmony profound, 
Till the quiet street of Chestnut 

Was all turbulent with sound. 

" Will they do it?" " Dare they do it?" 

" Who is speaking '(" " What the news?" 
•' What of Adams 1" " What of Carroll ? " 

" Ob ! God grant they won't refuse '. " 
" Make some way there I " " Let me nearer ! " 

" I am stiflh.g !" •' Stifle then !— 

When a Nation's life's at hazard 
We've uo time to thiuk of men ! " 

So they beat against the portal, 

Man and woman, maid and child ; 
And the July sun in heaven 

On the crowd looked down and smiled. 
The same sun that saw the Spartan 

Shed his patriot blood in vain, 
Now beheld the Soul of Freedom, 

All unconquered, rise again ! 

So they beat against the portal, 

While all solemnly inside 
The delegates of Congress, 

With but reason for their guide, 
O'er a simple scroll debated, 

Which, though simple it might be, 
Should shake the cliffs of England; 

With the thunders of the Free ! 

At the portal of the State House, 

Like some beacon in the storm, 
Round which waves are wildly beating, 

Stood a slender, boyish form, 
With his eyes fixed on the steeple, 

And his ears agap with greed 
To catch the first announcement 

Of the signing of the deed. 

Aloft in that high steeple 

Sat the bellman, old and gray ; 
He was sick of British power, 

He was sick of British pay ; 
So he sat with lean hand ready 

On the clapper of the bell, 
When signaled from the portal, 

The happy news to tell. 

See, see ! the black crowd shivers 

Through all its lengthy lino, 
As the boy upon the portal 

Looks up and gives the sign ; 
And straightway at the signal 

The old bellman lifts his hand, 
And sends the good news waking 

Iron music through the land ! 

How they shouted ! what rejoicing ! 

How the old bell shook the air, 
Till the clang of Freedom ruffled 

The calm gliding Delaware ! 
How the bonfires and the torches 

Illumed the night's repose ! 
And from the flames, like Phoenix, 

Slaughtered Liberty arose ! 

The old bell now is silent, 

And hushed its iron tongue. 
But the spirit it awakened 

Still lives forever young ; 
And while we breath the sunlight 

On the Fourth of July, 
Let us not forget the bellman, 

Who, betwixt the earth and sky, 
Rang out our Independence, 

Which, please God, shall never die ! 



Farm House Chat. 

[For the Riral Press by Mart MorxTAix.J 
"Our Campers"— a party of friends from the 
city — have come and gone, and we have all had 
a most delightful visit. Some of them were 
seasoned veterans, well taught and toughened 
by many a camping raid among the gloomy 
gorges of the Coast Range from summit to sea- 
shore, and whose adventures among the wilds 
of Bolinas, and the rocks of the wind-swept 
Farallones will help to fill a mighty volume 
whenever they get ready to tell the whole 
story of it, and, like Mrs. Brassey, give the world 
a book. 

They were five days coming from San Fran- 
cisco, resting the third day in camp, and by the 
time their tent was pitched at the head of our 
pretty ravine, the rawest recruit was well up in 
the duties and pleasures of camp life, foraging, 
eating and sleeping as heartily as any young 
Modoc. The getting ready was pretty good fun, 
and at first they thought an old milk wagon 
would do for the journey, but it had no top, 
and everybody knows that a camping wagon 
must have a top. 

So Uncle Hannibal as he went back and 
forth to his business kept an anxious eye out 
for umbrellas, and when he found the biggest 
one in the city he bought it and took it home. 
How they all laughed and declared it would be 
a splendid top and a splendid tent, and the 
girls all wished they could go, for it was going 
to be a great deal jollier than "The Bodlevs on 
Wheels. ? ' 



But cousin Dave, whose business takes him all 
over the city, was also keeping an eye out, and 
he soon discovered that the great Pacific Tea 
Co. had a nice winter wagon stored away in 
summer quarters with nothing to do. It was 
built for strength, and the top was ornamented 
on each side with immense letters so that the 
whole world could read and understand the 
business of the wagon. 

There is nothing that cousin Dave has a 
sharper eye for than a wagon, unless it is the 
horses that are hitched to it; and as soon as he 
thought of his veteran Grant, and the young 
colt Blaine, he knew they were just the team 
for it, and so he hired it for the trip, and that 
is the way the girls got the big umbrella for a 
garden house. 

It was a terrible thing to do, but at first they 
concluded not to take any of the children. 

The wagon and the men were very heavy 
to begin with — but the men could walk up the 
hills. And there was the tent, the bedding, 
the groceries, the women, the camp kettles, the 
great baskets of cooked food, an immense bag 
of oats for Grant, and a full sack of barley for 
Blaine that alone weighed as much as two or 
three children. 

I hate to think how these children must have 
felt, but they are in capital training and never 
made a fuss as long as they were served alike. 
Just at the last it was found that there was a 
little space on top of the luggage, and word was 
given out that the boys might go; for, as Aunt 
Carrie said, they could hold on like monkeys 
and walk up all the mountains; and then, 
with the boys to help, they would soon eat up 
the load and have plenty df room. 

You can well believe that those boys were 
just as ready as though they had been fixing a 
month; but it is not nearly as handy with girls, 
especially after they are iu their teens and full 
of worries about hat trimmings, dresses and 
hair ribbons, to say nothing of ulsters and the 
right sort of vail to travel in. 

And the very best of girls can hardly rejoice 
to be left in a lonesome big house, while fathers, 
mothers and boys go camping in all the glory 
of a "Great Pacific Tea Co.,' and little Lottie 
F. lifted up her voice and cried as though her 
heart would break. 

But in a few minutes she choked down her 
tears, and remembering what she wanted most, 
said that if mamma would give her money enough 
to buy a parasol and 10 cents for candy to eat 
with Delia Bangs, she would go right over to 
Delia's house and not see them start for fear 
she would cry again. 

So this young philosopher took her sorrow 
out of the way, and all was serene as the G. P. 
T. rolled out of Tyler St., and away to Grove 
to take in the rest of its load and passengers, 
then merrily down the bay and among the hills 
to Crystal springs for the first night in camp. 

Eleven years ago when we were looking for a 
farm to buy, we went to Crystal springs, and 
found it a pretty, lonesome spot, subject to sud- 
den swoopings of dark, cold fog that would 
chase the warm sunshine out of the brightest 
noonday and lash the little valley with chilling 
gloom. So we did not buy it and our campers 
say it remains to-day just the same; a wild, 
pretty, neglected spot. Of the following days 
and nights I heard many scraps of description, 
all more or less jolly but decidedly mixed. 

There was the Half Moon Bay region and so 
along down, with oats growing all up the sides, 
potatoes flourishing on top, and great, beautiful 
fields of flax that made a glorious effect in the 
landscape, and little Sobersides could only cry 
out, "Well, I should say! Isn't this better than 
N. England, mamma ?" Somewhere along the 
way is the house of the Portuguese where the 
census taker found one of our camping ladies 
sitting at ease upon the door step, and with 
brisk, official zeal proceeded to put her 
in his books as the wife of the astonished pro- 
prietor of that thriving potato patch. 

At Strawberry beach they were just in time 
to find plenty of the ripe, wild fruit and gath- 
ered quarls of it, bringing some along, so that 
we had the pleasure of seeing for the first time 
some of those very queer strawberries that 
flourish on the sandy beach. In complexion 
and flavor they are quite different from our 
garden fruit or the wild berries of the field. 

Sunday night found our friends on Laguna 
creek at the foot of Ben Lomond; and led by 
delusive reports of a "short cut," and a "new 
road with a good grade," they scaled those 
breezy summits and came dropping down to 
Felton, in the bed of an ancient creek that had 
never dreamed of a grade, but just hurried 
along on the go-as-you-please plan; and those 
gallant roadsters, Grant and Blaine, had a 
chance to show their good horse-pluck and 
wonderful courage. 

At Felton they had the pleasant surprise of 
meeting familiar faces from the city among the 
campers there, but the boys, fresh from their 
rough trip, looked scornfully upon that luxu- 
rious style of camp life. "Why auntie, they 
have spring beds and chairs and a Chinese cook, 
and I don't think that's much camping." It 
was only the first night, when they arrived too 
late to pitch their tent, that they would accept 
a prosy bed in a house as a poor substitute for 
the fragrant wide bed of hay with plenty of 
blankets and only the tent cloth between them 
and "all out of doors." After a week of such 
jolly neighbors we are heartily sorry to see 
them driving off, and hope this will not be the 
last time our city cousins will come camping to 
Spriugvale Farm. 

I have heard that the city visitors this year 
are stopping among tho hills and valleys more 



1 than ever before, and that fashion does not set 
I so strongly toward the sea beaches and bath 
houses. Very likely the cool weather accounts 
for this, and July and August will bring the 
usual rush for the sea. 

Camp Capitola, at Soquel beach, is very 
nicely fitted up to accommodate camping parties 
and for boarding such plain people as do not 
care for luxurious surroundings. W r hole wagon 
loads of farmers come there with wives and 
children to rest' after harvesting, and have the 
benefit of change and sea bathing, and it costs 
very little more than to live at home. There 
are several other sea-side camps where health- 
seekers from the interior can hardly fail of find- 
ing pleasant company and free access to all the 
good cheer of sensible people who bring their 
old clothes, leave dull care behind, and, "with 
no nonsense about them," just go in for a jolly 
good time. 



The Farmer's Life. 

Editors Press: — With all the blighting in- 
fluences of the season, plenty for man and beast 
will be found to exist throughout the State, and 
there will be a surplus for hungry Europe and 
starving Ireland. If we are visited now and 
again with blighting winds, we have escaped 
the "cyclone" which has devastated many por- 
tions of other less favored States. Terrible, in- 
deed, must be their power and destructiveness. 
Our soil and climate are so varied that it is al- 
most impossible for a universal harvest catas- 
trophe to occur. The foothills are at their 
best in dry seasons, when the great plains have 
to suffer. In wet seasons, such as we have 
passed through, the foothills, in the higher re- 
gions, are at their poorest. Change and 
chance seem written on all earthly endeavor: 
Health and wealth to-day — poverty and sick- 
ness to-morrow — teaching us a lesson of humil- 
ity and contentment with whatever lot for- 
tune may decree. 

The farmer has much to be thankful for, and 
also much to give anxiety. A permanent home, 
with the means of producing and procuring 
home comforts, is something beyond tho mere 
inheritance of wealth. The wealth of health 
and a mind free from the aches of business 
chances, is something which cannot be pur- 
chased by money, or adulation from political 
preferment. The concentration of family en- 
deavor is a daily pleasure. The simple 
strength-giving viands renders life enjoyable. 
The growing herds, the waving grain, the crow- 
ing of the rooster, the bleating of the lambs and 
the affection of the pet horse, are all daily re- 
minders of duty; companions in the daily round 
of ministering to life's necessities, and an ever- 
present reminder of obligation and enjoyment. 

The cup of bliss is running over when harvest 
is ending, the barns full, bills all settled, winter 
well provided for and the family carriage well 
filled as it wends its way to the school-house 
and church. 

Can you witness such peaceful pastoral scenes 
without thanking nature's God for agricultural 
life, with its attendant blessings? Grand in its 
productive results, virtuous in its healthful 
tendency, pure in its workings with nature and 
nature's God, free from the temptations and 
snares which surround the man of business. No 
widows "weep for their oppression, but many 
bless them for bread. The product of God's 
acres is ever a joy to producer and consumer, 
and well would it be for humanity if more were 
numbered amongst the producers, and fewer 
drones in nature's hive, as now. 

John Taylor. 

Mt. Pleasant, June 21st. 



Care of the Hands. — A writer for an East- 
ern exchange says: It does not follow that 
hands which look the worst do the most work; 
but it may prove that the hands have been 
treated carelessly, and I might say, cruelly. 
For instance, when a woman plunges her hands 
into hot water till they look like boiled lobsters, 
or taking hold the handles of hot kettles, or 
flat-irons, causing them to become like some 
people's conscience, "seared as with a hot iron." 
How it looks to see a well-dressed lady, with 
hands all scratches, burns, or scars! I have 
wondered if they did not almost wish they 
could take them off and leave them at home 
whenever they went in company. Have plenty 
of soft, thick holders near the stove to take 
hold of the handles of kettles or pans. Keep a 
pair of gloves near your sun-bonnet to bring in 
wood, work in the garden, or to put on when 
you sweep, that your hands may not become 
callous. If they are liable to chap, use plenty 
of glycerine, or wash them in vinegar, and 
when you sit down to your sewing, and your 
hands feel like a nutmeg grater, rub them with 
camphor, and it will make them feel so soft 
and pliable that you will be enabled to handle 
the finest of fabric without its adhering to your 
fingers. If you are troubled with salt rheum, 
use juniper tar soap, which is an almost infalli- 
ble remedy. Keep a bottle with a few cents' 
worth of oxalic acid dissolved in it, and marked 
poison, somewhere handy, and when there are 
fruit stains, or you have been coloring carpet 
rags or old garments, use a few drops on the 
stained parts and they will soon disappear. If 
you are in the habit of scraping the pans or 
kettles with your finger nails, don't do it — 
never again; but keep an old knife for that 
purpose. Sisters, take good care of your hands 
for your husband's sake, for your own sake, for 
your comfort and your convenience. 



What We May Come To. 

Proctor, writing in his latest volume— "The 
Flowers of the Sky" — remarks: It is no longer 
a mere fancy that each star is a sun — science 
has made this an assured fact, which no astrono- 
mer thinks of doubting. We know that in cer- 
tain general respects each star resembles our 
sun. 

Each is glowing like our sun with an intense 
heat. We know that in each star processes re- 
sembling in violence those taking place in our 
own sun must be continually in progress, and 
that such processes must be accompanied by a 
noise and tumult, compared with which all the 
forms of uproar known upon our earth are as 
absolute silence. The crash of the thunderbolt, 
the bellowing of the volcano, the awful groan- 
ing of the earthquake, the roar of the hurricane, 
the reverberating peals of loudest thunder, 
any of these, or all combined, are as nothing 
compared with the tumult raging over every 
square mile, every square yard of the surface of 
each one among the stars. 

He proceeds to describe, with considerable 
circumstantiality, the two appearances wit- 
nessed in the heavens within the last few years 
— that in 1866 when a tenth magnitude star in 
the constellation of the Northern Crown sud- 
denly shone as a second magnitude, afterward 
rapidly diminishing in luster; and that in 1876 
when a new star became visible in the constella- 
tion Cygnus, subsequently fading again so as to 
be only perceptible by means of a telescope. 

After noting the conclusions deduced from 
the application of the most improved instru- 
ments to these observations, he remarks: 

A change in our own sun, such as affected 
the star of Cygnus, or that other star iu the 
Northern Crown, would unquestionably destroy 
every living creature on the face of this earth; 
nor could any even escape which may exist on 
the other planets of the solar system. The star 
in the Northern Crown shone out with more 
than 800 times its former luster; the star in 
Cygnus with from 500 to many thousand times 
its former luster, even if we take the highest 
possible estimate of its brightness before the 
catastrophe, or consider that it may have been 
very much brighter. Now if our sun were to 
increase tenfold in brightness, all the higher 
forms of animal life, and nearly all forms of 
vegetable life, would inevitably be destroyed 
on this earth. 



A Kitchen Phcenix. — Last Tuesday morning 
Mrs. J. Karmenlenski of Tehama lit a fire in 
the kitchen stove to prepare breakfast. The 
stove containing nothing but paper and 
kindling, she stepped to the back porch to get 
some heavier stove wood, and returning, raised 
one of the lids to place the wood in the stove, 
but as soon as the lid was removed, a Robin 
Red-breast flew out of the flames into her face. 
The fact of a bird rising suddenly from the 
flames startled the lady bo that for a moment 
she was perfectly dumbfounded. After recov- 
ering her presence of mind, she looked around 
to Bee whether the mysterious visitor was a 
myth or a creature of the imagination; but sure 
enough there the little fellow was flying rapidly 
around the room, apparently uninjured by his 
confinement to the flames. The lady did not 
know but what, like the Phcenix of Grecian 
mythology, it had arisen from its own ashes. 
The little warbler was finally let out and flew 
away to rejoin his companions. How the bird 
got in there is not known. There had not been 
a fire in the stove for over 15 hours. It is pos- 
sible that it came down the stovepipe during 
the previous afternoon or evening. — Tocsin. 



Bismarck. — The Chancellor of the German 
empire is unquestionably the most astute 
politician of our time. But he differs in one 
important particular from the current type of 
the European diplomatist. The Metternichs, 
Gortschakoffs, Beusts, et id omne genus, with 
all their imitators big and little, look on diplo- 
macy as a sort of legerdemain, or, perhaps we 
should better say, as a game of cards, where the 
player must under no circumstances "show his 
hand." The diplomat must use language to 
conceal his thoughts, and he must never com- 
mit himself to anything. But Prince Bismarck 
has repeatedly proclaimed his purposes in ad- 
vance with the greatest candor. As for his 
fellow diplomatists of other governments, they 
have never yet grown accustomed to the great 
Chancellor's frankness, and still persist in read- 
ing only between the lines of his manifestoes. 
The reader who is curious to obtain an inside 
view of Prince Bismarck's character as the 
genius of Statecraft, will find much to interest 
him in a paper contributed to the North Ameri- 
can Review for July, by the great Chancellor's 
Boswell, Moritz Busch, entitled "Bismarck as a 
Friend of America and as a Statesman." 



OtJR great want in social life is a deep and 
wide sympathy. This it is which enables us to 
see with another's vision and to appreciate an- 
other's instinct. Without merging a particle of 
our own individuality, we may so fairly put 
ourselves in the place of our friend as to feel 
how natural it is for him to speak or to act as 
he does. Sympathy like this is the only true 
preventive of those clashes and discords which 
mar the happiness and sully the purity of friend- 
ship. 



July 3, 1880.I 



THE PACIFIC 



BUBAL PRESS. 



1 



Yoiijjq poLks 7 ColiI^n. 



Grandpa's Barn. 

Oh, a jolly old place is grandpa's barn, 
Where the doors stand open throughout the day, 

And the cooing doves fly in and but, 
And the air is sweet with the fragrant hay; 

Where the grain lies over the slippery floor, 
And the hens are busily looking around, 

And the sunbeams flicker, now here, now there, 
And the breeze blows through with a merry sound. 

The swallows twitter and chirp all day 
With fluttering wings, in the old brown eaves. 

And the robins sing in'.the trees which lean 
To brush the roof with their rustling leaves. 

O, for the glad vacation time, 
When grandpa's barn will echo the shout 

Of merry children, who romp and play 
In the new-born freedom of "school let out." 

Such scaring of doves from their cosy nests. 
Such hunting for eggs in the lofts so high, 

Till the frightened hens,- with a cackle shrill, 
From their hidden treasures are fain to fly. 

Oh, the dear old barn, so cool, so wide! 

Its doors will open again ere long 
To the summer sunshine, the new mown hay, 

And the merry ring of vacation song. 

For grandpa's barn is the jolliest place 
For frolic and fun on a summer's day; 

And e'en old Time, as the years slip by, 
Its memory can never steal away. 

— Harper's Young People. 

The Ragamuffins and General Washington 

In the month of October, 1789, Gen. George 
Washington, who was then President of the 
United States, and residing in New York City, 
made a tour, attended by his secretaries, 
Messrs. Lear and Johnson, to the States of Con- 
necticut, Massachusets and New Hampshire. 

History tells us how in every part of the 
country through which he passed the citizens 
embraced the opportunity, then offered to tes- 
tify their respect, and even veneration for this 
man, in whose character whatever was great 
and good, whatever dignified and adorned hu- 
man nature, was so happily blended. 

Whenever he approached a town or village 
the roads were lined with the inhabitants who 
had turned out to bid him welcome; and, in 
many instances, was escorted by local com- 
panies of militia from point to point. 

The whole community was now wrought up 
to the highest pitch of excitement in regard to 
the presence of the distinguished visitor, and 
hardly anything else was talked of in the towns 
and villages through which he was to pass. 

Esquire Samuel Dunton came home from a 
trip to Norwich to Willington, a little town- 
ship nestled among and almost hidden by the 
hills of eastern Connecticut, and set all the 
men, women and children into a blaze of en- 
thusiasm with the news that the Presidential 
party were to pass over the Hartford and Provi- 
dence " turnpike," and would arrive at a point 
in the south part of Willington, near Mansfield, 
at about 1 1 o'clock the next forenoon. 

The Willington folks immediately set about 
organizing a company to go down and join the 
Mansfield people in giving Gen. Washington a 
suitable reception. 

Of course there were plenty of wide awake 
girls and boys who wanted to go with the older 
people and get a glimpse of the great man; but 
in those days children were taught that they 
were "to be seen and not heard," and on all im- 
portant occasions were kept rather in the back- 
ground. 

The October morning opened bright and beau- 
tiful, and the Preston family at the tannery 
were early astir, and with their neighbors, the 
Holts, the Westons, the Aliens, the Pearls and 
the Duntons started in the early rosy morn, in 
holiday array, down the woody Mansfield road. 

A group of eager, active, bright-faced boys 
were gathered on the bridge to see them off. 
They watched the cavalcade, men and women 
all on horseback, each horse carrying a man 
with a woman behind him on a " pillion," until 
it disappeared in the gray mist rising over 
Fenton river. 

There were a few moments of silence and the 
lugubrious faces of the boys were growing 
longer and longer over their disappointment, 
when Timothy Pearl, the oldest and most dar- 
ing of the group, said: 

"I'll tell you what it is, boys, if Gen. Wash- 
ington is to pass so near to us to-day, I intend 
to get a sight of him. Esquire Dunton said 
he'd likely be along down on the cross-roads 
about 11 o'clock. I'm going to run away down 
to the turnpike. How many of you will go 
with me '! If we go 'cross lots and run down all 
the hills, and step pretty spry the rest of the 
way, there's no doubt that we can get there in 
time to see him." 

Half a dozen of the boys caught off their hats 
and, swinging them high in the air, gave three 
rousing cheers for General and President Wash- 
ington. Little eight-year-old Amos Preston 
jumped up and down, swinging his tasselled 
hat and shouting as enthusiastically as his 
older comrades. When, with a "one, two, three!" 
start, they were off with a leap-frog jump, they 
found him bringing up the rear. 

" Amos, you can't go !" Zebadiah Marcy 
shouted back at the little fellow; "your legs 
are too short 1" 

"Try me and see," said Amos, stoutly. "I 
think it's too bad if Gen. Washington is to 
come so near and I not see him, as well as the 
rest of you. I want to see him just as much as 
if my legs were longer J" 



"Let him go," said David Glazier, who was 
only a little older than Amos, but very much 
taller. "He's a pleasant little fellow, and never 
complains nor whimpers when he is tired. We 
big boys can give him a lift if he tuckers." 
And reaching out he took Amos by the hand 
and the boys started once more. 

Away they went, striking out across the 
fields and woods gay with the variegated leaves, 
not stopping to disturb the squirrels laying in 
their store of nuts, nor taking time to pause in 
the shadowy orchards to fill their wide pockets 
with the fragrant fruit that lay thickly strewn 
on the turf. First one and then another of the 
boys took Amos by the hand for a run, or to 
help him jump over the huge fallen trees or the 
brooks that intercepted their way. 

Just before the boys came upon the turnpike, 
they paused under a group of maples to take 
bre ith. 

"How like ragamuffins we do look with our 
old clothes on, and they all so torn and muddy!" 
said Zebulon Crocker. "What will the General 
think of us if he should happen to spy us?" 

"Let's trim ourselves up," said little Amos. 
"Here's lots of bright leaves; and there's a 
thorn bush with plenty of thorns to fasten them 
on with." 

"Sure enough, and well thought of," said 
Elijah Elbridge. "Amos knows a thing or two 
if his legs are so short." 

When the boys again resumed their running 
march, decked out from head to foot with the 
golden and scarlet leaves, they presented a fan- 
tastic sight, indeed. 

"0 see, see! hurrah, hurrah, hurrah!" 
shouted Jeduthun Rice, as the tired company 
of boys reached the crest of a hill that over- 
looked a wide expanse of the section that em- 
braced portions of the towns of Ash ford, Wil- 
lington and Mansfield. And away in the dis- 
tance, coming down the Ashford hills, the ex- 
cited group saw a long line of vehicles, among 
them two large coaches-and-fours, preceded by 
a company of militia, their muskets glistening 
in the sun, occasionally a strain of martial 
music reaching the erect ears of the Willington 
boys. 

Soon they emerged into the highway; and 
when they came to the turnpike which inter- 
sected it and made what was known the "Cross- 
roads," they found the Presidential party had 
alighted and were resting under the shadow of 
an immense oak tree near by. 

There was quite a crowd of people gathered 
about Gen. Washington and his party, and at 
first our rather venturesome boys thought it 
would be impossible for them to get a sight of 
the great man, but they perse veringly edged 
their way along, and at last reaching the large 
coach in which the General rode, and upon the 
box of which sat the liveried and pompous 
negro driver, boy-like they edged in under it 
and found themselves in the immediate vicinity 
of Gen. Washington. 

The slight movement that the coach horses 
made as the boys ensconced themselves beneath 
the vehicle, caused the General to look around 
for the cause of the disturbance, and presently 
he was looking into the sweaty, dusty faces of 
these fantastically garlanded boys. 

A quiet smile lighted up the President's coun- 
tenance as he pleasantly said: 

"Come out, boys, and let us see what you 
are." 

The boys scrambled out and with admirable 
presence of mind arranged themselves in a line 
along the side of the coach and removed their 
hats, while the General stood in front of them, 
evidently amused at the very queer appearance 
they made, at the same time pleased with their 
respectful attitude. 

"Well, well, my boys, you must have been 
running quite hard In order to see me, and have, 
I suppose, bedecked yourselves with those 
beautiful autumn leaves in my honor. I bid 
you a very good morning. " 

"0 dear me I" cried little Amos, impulsively, 
"you are nothing but a man after all, sir!" 

"You are quite right, my fine little fellow," 
said the General, laughing, and doubtless 
touched by the entire boyish tribute; and step- 
ping forward and patting little Amos' head, he 
continued: "Vou are right, and, if I mistake 
not your character, I am no more of a man than 
you will be some day. That is something for 
you all to remember. You who are boys now 
are soon to be the men upon whom our country 
must depend." 

The boys bowed, and, dodging again under 
the great coach, made place for a party of coun- 
try magnates who were approaching. 

The Willington folks were horrified when 
they beheld the fantastic array of the runaway 
boys; and the oldest grandfather of them all, 
who had not known of the little passage between 
them and General Washington, shook his long 
cane at them, and, in a trembling voice, said: 

"We will settle you, you young rascals, when 
you get home." 

"If you horsewhip us to death, sir," said 
Timothy Pearl in reply, "you can't help it that 
we've seen General Washington. Besides, sir, 
our parents did'nt say we shouldn't come. They 
only thought we wouldn't dare think of coming 
down here, we are so young." 

The boys went back into the woods and 
across lots, as happy as any little party of boys 
could be; and. twisting a triumphal litter of 
slender saplings, they gaily bore little Amos on 
their shoulders back to the quiet Willington 
valley, proud of him as being the only boy they 
knew of who had been patted on the head by 
General Washington. 

This little Amos, who was my husband's 
grandfather, took great pride in this incident 



to the day of his death, and often related it to 
his grandchildren. Many of them, as weU as 
some of his own children now living, will 
vouch for the truth of this story; and that old 
oak tree is yet standing in the locality de- 
scribed. — July Wide Awake. 



Checking Perspiration. 

A Boston merchant, in "lending a hand" on 
board of one of his ships on a windy day, found 
himself at the end of an hour and a half pretty 
well exhausted and perspiring freely. He sat 
down to rest. The cool wind from the sea was 
delightful, and, engaging in conversation, time 
passed faster than he was aware of. In at- 
tempting to rise, he found he was unable to do 
so without assistance. He was taken home and 
put to bed, where he remained two years; and 
for a long time afterwards, could only hobble 
about with the aid of a crutch. Less exposures 
than this have, in constitutions not so vigorous, 
resulted in inflammation of the lungs, "pneu- 
monia," ending in death in less than a week, or 
causing tedious rheumatisms, to be a source of 
torture for a lifetime. Multitudes of lives 
would be saved every year, and an incalculable 
amount of human suffering would be prevented, 
if parents would begin to explain to their chil- 
dren, at the age of three or four years, the 
danger which attends cooling off too quickly 
after exercise, and the importance of not stand- 
ing still after exercise, or work, or play, or of 
remaining exposed to a wind, or of sitting at 
open window or door, or of pulling off any gar- 
ment, even the hat or bonnet, while in a heat. 
It should be remembered by all, that a cold 
never comes without a cause, and that in four 
times out of five, it is the result of leaving off 
exercise too suddenly or of remaining still in the 
wind, or in a cooler atmosphere than that in 
which the exercise has been taken. 

The colder the weather the more need is 
there, in coming into the house, to keep on all 
the clothing, except india-rubber or damp shoes, 
for several minutes afterwards. Very few 
rooms are heated higher than C5° when the ther- 
mometer is within 20° of zero, while the temper- 
ature of the body is always at 98°, in health; so 
that if a man comes into a room which is 30° 
colder than his body, he will rapidly cool off, 
too much so often, even if the external clothing 
is not removed. 

It is not necessary that the perspiration be 
visible; any exercise which excites the circula- 
tion beyond what is natural, causes a propor- 
tional increase of perspiration, the sudden 
checking of which induces dangerous diseases 
and certain death every day. — Hall's Journal of 
Health. 



London Water. — In the Macmillan Maga' 
zine, Mr. Torrens, M. P., in treating of the 
water supply of London, describes the actual 
condition of an out-of-doors cistern in a locality 
near the Seven Dials. "A poor woman who 
had known better days, at a vigorous age and 
stroDg constitution, sickened and died; and the 
the tank which supplied her only beverage was 
found to contain two inches of mud, the decom- 
posing bodies of 14 rats, a bar of soap, two can- 
dles and many dead beetles." Even in the 
Mansion House itself, as an instance of what 
occurs in in-door cisterns in the houses of the 
wealthy, the civic cistern "was found to contain 
three-quarters of an inch of fungi-scrub at the 
top, and three-eighs of an inch of mud at 
the bottom;" while, "in a bottle of water 
on the Lord Mayor's table could be seen hun- 
dreds of nematoid worms." From cisterns 
thus situated, adds the Building News, proba- 
bly nearly one-third of the inhabitants of Lon- 
don obtain their only stock of drinking water; 
and when we reflect on the liability of water to 
absorb germs and ferments without actual con- 
tact, and to become putrid under certain condi- 
tions in a few hours; when we remember also 
the untimely fate of the old lady in Mr. Tor- 
rens' story, we can hardly escape a shudder. 

Importance of Sanitary Engineering. — 
The authorities of one of the largest hospitals 
in London lately took measures to ventilate all 
the drains and sewers in connection with their 
institution. Up to the time these alterations 
were made, pynjmia and erysipelas had almost 
driven the medical staff to despair. When the 
whole of the ventilation was completed, and as 
soon as the pressure was removed from the traps 
of the closets and lavatories, no fresh cases were 
found to occur. For months the hospital wards 
were free from both erysipelas and pyemia. 
Suddenly, however, there was a fresh out- 
break of these diseases, but it was noticed that 
the epidemic was confined to one of the surgical 
wards built apart from the main building, on the 
pavilion plan, and having only one story. 
Close investigation proved that the ventilation 
pipe in this wing had been stopped up by a 
careless workman. When this was remedied 
all traces of the epidemic disappeared. 



Mortality of Men and Women. — In a report 
on the statistics of English mortality, Mr. Welton 
states that for the last 30 years more women 
have survived to the high age of 75 to 80 than 
men. The latter suffer more from diseases of 
the lungs, heart and kidneys, and the lung dis- 
eases have lattterly increased in England. 



What to do With the Blackberries. 

As the blackberry season is at hand, the fol- 
lowing recipes, which we clip from an exchange, 
may be of some value: 

Blackberry Cordial. —To one quart of black- 
berry juice add one pound of white sugar, one 
table3poonful of cloves, one of allspice, one of 
cinnamon and one of nutmeg. Boil all together 
15 minutes, add a wine-glassful of brandy or 
whisky; bottle while hot, cork and seal. This 
is useful in bowel complaints. 

Blackberry Mush. — Look over and wash two 
quarts of ripe berries; add two-thirds of a quart 
of boiling water and cook ten minutes; sweaten 
to taste and then stir in a scant pint of sifted 
flour; boil until the flour is thoroughly cooked; 
have a mold nicely buttered, pour in the mush 
and let it cool ; serve with hard and wine 
sauce. 

Blackberry Pudding. — Three pints of milk, 
five well beaten eggs, three pints of blackberries, 
which have been previously stewed, with a lit- 
tle sugar, flour, salt, and two teaspoonfuls of 
yeast-powder. The batter should be stiff 
enough to drop from the spoon. The pudding 
is nice, either boiled or baked, and may be eaten 
with a wine sauce flavored with nutmeg. 

Blackberry Jelly. — Place the fruit in a porce- 
lain kettle with just water enough to keep from 
burning; stir often, and let stand over a slow 
fire until thoroughly scalded; then drain through 
a jelly bag two or three times, if necessary to 
make it clear; measure, and allow as much sugar 
as juice; boil the juice briskly for 10 minutes, 
add the sugar and boil for 10 minutes longer. 
To test the jelly drop a little into a glass of 
very cold water, and if it goes to the bottom at 
once it is done. 

Blackberry Wine. — Press the juice from suf- 
ficient quantity of fruit to make two gallons, 
wash the pomace in two gallons of water; strain, 
dissolve 10 lt>3. of white sugar in this, and add 
the strained, clear juice. Fill a clean cask per- 
fectly full, and cover the bung-hole with a piece 
of cloth; let stand, filling up with some of the 
mixture, reserved for the purpose until fermen- 
tation ceases; fill up again, drive in the bung 
tightly, and let it stand in a cool place for six 
months. Then draw off without shaking the 
cask, put into bottles, cork tightly and seal. 

Snow Cake. — The following is an excellent 
recipe for the above: — One pound of arrowroot, 
half pound of pounded white sugar, half pound 
of butter, lithe whites of six eggs, flavoring 
to taste of essence of almonds, vanilla or lemon; 
beat the butter to a cream, stir in the sugar 
and arrowroot gradually, at the same time beat- 
ing the mixture; whisk the whites of the eggs 
to a stiff froth, and add them to the other in- 
gredients, beating them all for 20 minutes; put 
in the flavoring, pour the cake into a buttered 
mold, and bake it in a moderate oven from 
1 to 1^ hours. Half the quantity of every- 
thing makes a nice little cake. 

Preserved Cherries. — To every pound of 
cherries allow 1J lbs. sugar, 1 gill water. Select 
ripe cherries, pick off the stalks, and reject all 
that have any blemishes. Boil the sugar and 
water together for 5 minutes; put in the cher- 
ries and boil them for 10 minutes, removing the 
scum as it rises. Then turn the fruit, etc., 
into a pan, and let it remain until the next day, 
when boil it all over again for another 10 min- 
utes, and, if necessary, skim well. Put the 
cherries into small pots, pour over them the 
syrup, and when cold fasten down tightly. 

Raspberry and Currant Sponge. — One 
pound loaf sugar, 5 eggs, pint of raspberries, 2 
ounces gelatine, 1 pint currants. Boil • the 
gelatine until perfectly dissolved in half a pint 
of water. Bruise the fruit and stand it over 
the fire, with a very little water and sugar un- 
til it is sufficiently cooked to squeeze through a 
jelly-bag. Strain through the bag into a large 
basin. Strain the gelatine through a sieve. 
When both are cool, mix them together, and 
add the whites only of the eggs well beaten. 
Whisk all together half an hour, and stand on 
ice to cool. Eat with cream. 

Lemon Marmalade. — Pare the lemons, boil 
the peels in water till soft, then take out pith 
and pound the remainder in a mortar till quite 
fine, mixing with them a little of the juice; pass 
it all, with the remainder of the juice, through 
a sieve into a preserving-pan. To every pound 
of the pulp; add three-quarters of a pound of 
loaf sugar; boil it for half an hour or more till 
it sets, when cold, into a jelly; it may then be 
poured into jelly pots for future use. 

Corn-meal Pudding. — Stir three tablespoon- 
•fuls of corn-meal, previously moistened with a 
little cold milk, into a quart of boiling milk; 
add a pinch of salt. Keep stirring until the 
meal is well-cooked, then removo from the 
stove. After it is quite cool, stir in four well- 
beaten eggs, and sweeten to taste. Bake in a 
custard tin. If the corn is properly cooked it 
will not settle, and the pudding will be beauti- 
fully light. Eat with or without cream. 

Gooseberry Fool.— Put green gooseberries 
into a jar with two tablespoonfuls of water, and 
a little moist sugar; place the jar in boiling 
water, and let it boil until the fruit is soft 
enough to mash, then beat it to a pulp; stir to 
every pint of pulp one pint of milk, and add 
plenty of sugar. Serve either in glasses or glass 
dishes. 



8 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS 



[July 3. 1880. 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 
A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Office, SOS Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 



Annual Subscriptions, W; six months, $2; three 
months, $1.25. When paid fully one year in advance, 
one dollar will be deducted. No nbw names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. 0. orders at our risk. 
Advertising Rates. 1 week. 1 month. 3 mos. 12 mos. 

Per line 25 .80 |2.00 $5.00 

Hall inch (1 square).. $1.00 $3.00 7.50 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 14.00 40.00 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 

k. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER, O. H. BTRONO 

SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 3, 1880. 
TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS— Horticultural Exhibits at the Me- 
chanics Fair; Cereals and the Census; Scenes in the 
Yosemite; The Fourth of July in San Francisco, 1. 
The Week; Farming as a Business; A Grand World's 
Fair in New York, 8. A National Monument; Meeting 
of the State Horticultural Society, 9. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— View in the Canyon of the 
Merced— Yosemito Valley, 1. Ideal Sketch of a National 
Washington Monument, 9. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— Grasshopper Ravages; The 
Phylloxera; Larva; of Chafers, 8. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES.— Poultry Diseases; 
Reading or Reddintr; Golden Wax Beans, 8. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Notes on Tulare and Kern 
Counties, 2. Grading Wheat, 5. 

HORTICULTURE.— Apricot Growing in California; 
The Growth of Cherry Trees, 2-3. 

THE VINEYARD. —Note from Mr. Blowers on Rai- 
sins; Raisin Boxes; The Wine Interest, 3. 

ARBORICULTURE.— Some Experiments in For- 
estry, 3- 

PATRONS OF HUSBAND R Y.— W. M. Bro. Spil- 
man at Stockton Grange; Assessment of G. B. A. Stotk; 
Grand Island Grange Picnic; A Stalwart Invalid; Tcm- 
escal Grange, 4- 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California and Nevada, 4-5. 

NEWS IN BRIEF, on page 5 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE — How the Bell Rang (poetry); Farm 
House Chat; The Fanner's Life; Care of the Hands; 
What We May Come To; A Kitchen Phoenix; Bismarck, 
6. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN — Grandpa's Barn; 
The Ragmuttins and Gen. Washington, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH —Checking Perspiration; London 
Water; Importance of Sanitary Engineering, V. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY — What to do with Black- 
berries; Snow Cake; Preserved Cherries; Raspberry 
and Currant Sponge; Lemon Marmalade; Corn-Meal 
Pudding; Gooseberry Fool, 7- 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Mechanics' Institute; Fossil 
Butter; The Ocean Depths; Railroad Building in Ari- 
zona; Oregon Swamo Land Commission, 10. 

Business Announcements. 

Oiant Riding Saw Machine— Baker Si IIamilt»n, S. F. 
Washingt»n Irrigated Colony, Fresno Co., Cal. 
Angora Goats— U. F. Newson, Arroyo Grande, Cal. 
Organs— Mason & Hamlin, N. Y., Boston and Chicago. 
Boarding and Day School— Mrs. Colgate Baker, S. F. 
Dairy Farm for Sale— Frank Larkin, Watsonville, Cal. 
Nursery for Sale— James Waters, Watsonville, Cal. 
Seminary— E. C. Poston, Oakland, Cal. 
Jersey Bull for Sale— F. J. Barretto, Downey, Cal. 
Zimmerman Fruit Dryer Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Dividend Notice— San Francisco Savings Union. 



The Week. 

The seasons of all seasons is now upon the 
farmers of the State. Harvesting is now in 
progress in the great valleys, and there will be 
a race between the season and the harvesters, 
for the beginning is late, the areas are large and 
the laborers are fewer than usual. There has, 
however, been considerable progress in labor- 
saving machinery, and this will be on the side 
of the producer. The weather is quite cool 
and evaporation reduced by the heavy mornings 
and dull days. This will prove a boon to all 
grain which is now maturing, and will atoue 
much for the dry winds of May. The orchard 
hurry is also beginning and there is a prospect 
of good prices, because of the reduced yield 
of many districts and the activity of the can- 
ners agents who have been scouring the .State 
to make contracts for the kinds they prefer. 
Their offers of cents per ft. for apricots, 
taking all the trees produce, is certainly a price 
tit to gild the outlook for this desirable fruit. 
In this connection the interesting essay on the 
apricot in this issue of the Press will be 
timely. 

The coming week will include the national 
holiday. As the Fourth falls upon Sunday, the 
following day will be generally observed as the 
time to celebrate. In this city, as intimated in 
another column, there will be unusual prepara- 
tions for a festival of sounds and sights, and 
those who delight in such ebullitions of patriot- 
ism will doubtless be gratified. In other parts 
of the State, there will be celebrations of various 
kinds, and the day will give a chance to rest the 
hands for a fresh and a prolonged pull upon the 
summer's work. 



A farmer in Dearborn county, Ind. , had a 
roof 14 ft. square come crashing down into his 
orchard during a tornado, four weeks ago, and 
has not yet been able to ascertain where it came 
from. 



Farming as a Business. 

Shrinkage of grain, partial losses of fruit crops 
and the unforeseen results generally of this ec- 
centric year, naturally lead one's thoughts to the 
nature of farming as a business operation. It is 
coming to be a fact generally recognized that a 
successful farmer is a man of no mean business 
talents, although his methods may be crude and 
his manner unpolished. The problem which 
presents itself in farming is, in one respect, 
quite different from that in most other produc- 
tive enterprises, and this one point of difference 
is the rock upon which many men, who have 
put their funds into lands and tools and ani- 
mals, have been broken. They have figured 
out on paper great profits in farming. They 
have it all down in black and white: the inter- 
est on the cost of land; the average cost of plow- 
ing and seeding an acre; the average cost of 
reaping an acre, etc. But though the figures 
may be accurate for these items, they may fin- 
ally prove but reminders of money lost, because 
there is absolutely no way of foretelling what 
the crop will be. In manufacturing it is differ- 
ent. If a man puts his capital into leather and 
tools and wages he will have ere long a certain 
number of pairs of shoes. If he figured cor- 
rectly they cost him just what he expected, and 
he has but to dispose of them at a little above 
cost to be prosperous. Opposed to this cer- 
tainty of results in manufacturing is the uncer- 
tainty of results in a business where everything 
is spread abroad outdoors, subject to the capri- 
cious influence of the elements, and the destroy- 
ing work of an army of pests and parasites. 

It is this absolute uncertainty of results which 
makes farming on a large scale more dangerous 
than more modest and moderate systems of 
husbandry. Generally, in manufacturing, the 
larger the works, the more perfect the machin- 
ery, and the larger the contract, the cheaper can 
each article be produced and the greater the 
manager's profits. Uniformity of product, with 
its possible division of labor, reduces cost of 
production to a minimum. This would be true 
also in agriculture if the outcome in marketable 
material could be surely predicated. But it 
cannot; and, as in order to cheapen production 
there must be a uniformity in product, so there 
is the single resource, and destroying influences 
work havoc with the whole at once. This is 
evidently the weak point in what is called large 
farming, and here creeps in its uncertainty and 
danger. The great grain growers, for example, 
may be millionaires or bankrupts by the turn of 
a single season. Often those who have succeeded 
in the large style in other industries, essay the 
large in agriculture, and fail utterly because it 
is impossible to count upon sacks of wheat or 
boxes of fruit with the same certainty as one 
figures upon the outturn of so many kegs of 
nails or cases of brogans. 

These remarks are trite, but they are worth 
the making for the benefit of those who think 
they can leap at once from success in the count- 
ing house or the factory office to a wider success 
in agriculture. But though large ventures, es- 
pecially in the hands of the inexperienced in 
agricultural arts, are dangerous, there is still 
a base ground of certainty in general agriculture, 
wisely practiced, which is the surety of the 
world's food and shelter from the inclement air. 
The industry has its compensations as well as 
its dangers, and the former increase and the 
latter decrease in proportion to the diversity of 
practical wisdom in the man and the diversity 
of the crops which he handles intelligently and 
well. 

The two sides of the farmer's industry are 
well set forth in the following paragraph which 
we take from a paper recently read before an 
English farmer's club: "The life of a farmer has 
many attractions. A country life, personal ease, 
and independence; a comfortable home, where 
most of the necessaries of life are obtained at 
producer's prices, and a freedom from that need 
to study the feelings and prejudices of custo- 
mers to which most professions and trades are 
exposed. A farmer is master of his position. 
He has a certain weight in his neighborhood, is 
looked up to by the people in his employment. 
Looking at this bright picture, men of all trades 
and professions take to farming as naturally as 
a duck takes to water, but I am afraid only too 
often to find that farming successfully does not 
come so naturally to them as swimming does to 
the duck. Many men in middle life not trained 
for farming have been, doubtless, attracted by 
something like the bright picture I have drawn, 
and to compete against those the trained farmer 
had to pay the rent or allow his opponent to get 
in. I have given you some of the attractions of a 
farmer's life; allow me to paint the dark side of 
the picture. Farming is the most speculative 
investment, considering the small margin al- 
lowed for profit, that any one can put capital 
into. He can plow and sow, but he has no cer- 
tainty he will reap a profit. The crops are at the 
mercy of the weather up to the very day they 
are secured in autumn. His live stock are at 
the risk of disease and accident. And some of 
the luxuries we. farmers have been having for 
some years are bad seasons, with prices beneath 
tl e cost of production; a rapidly diminishing 
capital; harassed late and early to get the two 
ends to meet; and — it has happened only too 
often — an entire loss of capital; and then the 
bankruptcy court." 

Some of the conditions hinted at by the En- 
glish farmer wu have quoted, fortunately do not 



exist in this favored land, but there are enough 
hardships in agriculture the world over to dis- 
pel the idea that it is a business that any one can 
succeed at. Success in agriculture is the re- 
ward of practical skill, sound sense and untir- 
ing industry, and when attained it is admirable. 



Grasshopper Ravages. 

Our exchanges at Reno, Nevada, bring ex- 
tended accounts of the destruction of crops by 
grasshoppers in the region around Reno and 
.Sierra valley, California, where they have laid 
waste the country for the last three or four 
years. In Sierra valley the insects began 
hatching out at the north end, and last week 
the district was well nigh stripped of every- 
thing green. In the south end of the valley 
the insects did not appear till later, and farm- 
ers were in hopes they might harvest their crops 
before the hoppers became large enough to do 
great injury. 

Around Reno the chief damage done by hop- 
pers up to last week was in fields of timothy and 
alfalfa. The insects seem to have developed a 
Bpecial liking for alfalfa this year, and the 
growers find their green fields turning black or 
dark brown because of the myriads of the in- 
sects perching upon the alfalfa stems. The 
alfalfa is hardly »ripe enough for hay, but some 
is cut before the blossoming to save it from de- 
struction. The grain fields near by alfalfa aro 
but little invaded, and growers are somewhat 
in hope that the grain may ripen enough to cut 
before the alfalfa gives out. There seems to be 
nothing done in the way of battling or baffling 
the insect, except to turn stock into the threat- 
ened grain and thus secure fat cattle as a small 
equivalent for the value of the grain. 

The Phylloxera 

We learn from the Napa Register that a criti- 
cal examination of the vineyards of Napa county, 
by Dr. Bleasdale, Secretary of the California 
Vinicultural Society, has satisfied him that as 
yet Napa valley is free from the phylloxera. 
The ravages of this insect have become apparent 
from about six and one-half miles above Sonoma 
to the lower part of the valley, a length of 10 
or 12 miles. Within these limits large tracts 
of vineyard have been completely destroyed, 
and the vines have been uprooted and grain 
sown in their stead. The total area of vine- 
yard that has thus disappeared numbers hun- 
dreds of acres. The Mission vine, naturalized 
for over a century in California, is as badly at- 
tacked as the Reisling, Zinfindel, or any other 
variety grown. Extensive inquiries have satis- 
fied Mr. Bleasdale that the pest exists in this 
State only in Sonoma valley and in Fresno 
county, where it was introduced with cuttings 
of choice grapes from Europe. The exemption 
of Napa valley from phylloxera, notwithstand- 
ing its nearness to Sonoma, is due to the fact 
that the winged form of the insect is not pro- 
duced in California. 

Larvse of Chafers. 

Editors Prrss: — I send you by this mail some speci- 
mens of grub or insect, dug up by Mr. Roberts on the 
Sweetwater. He says he found many of them about the 
roots of his fruit trees. They are new to him and to me. 
If you know any good or harm of them please report. — G. 
II. Parsons, National City. 

The grubs are whitish, fat and a little less 
than one inch in length. Many are enclosed in 
an earthen cocoon. They are the larvae of 
some beetle of the class generally called 
"chafers." These larva> are usually very injuri- 
ous, being vigorous eaters of the roots of grass 
and cereal crops. These beetles are also destruc- 
tive of plants, being leaf-eaters of sharp appe- 
tite. There was considerable damage done by 
chafers in Los Angeles county last year, and we 
hear that they are reappearing. 



Queries \hd Relies. 



Poultry Diseases. 

Editors Press:— Our chickens are afflicted by a disease 
which causes a great degree of mortality amongst them. 
Out of SO, 10 of them have died within the last two days. 
It seems to attack them during the night, and in the 
morning the sick ones are unable to fly from the roost, 
but fall to the floor, where they remain from two to six 
hours, when death puts an end to their sufferings. On 
examination the interior of the fowl presents its usual ap- 
pearance, with the exception of the lungs being consider- 
ably inflamed, which may have been caused by the pain 
preceding death. Their feeding ground is the common 
farm premises situated on a creek overgrown with wil- 
lows; wheat fields adjoining the barn. Two years ago 
last winter they were attacked by a similar scourge, when 
20 hens died in four days. Could you or any of the 
readers of your valuable journal, name the ailment, and 
state a remedy ? It would no doubt materially aid other 
chicken raisers in our vicinity besides ourselves in the 
prevention of death in the poultry yard.— S. Sherwood, 
Salinas, June 17th, U80. 

Editors Press: — It is impossible to tell from 
this description, unless I saw the fowl and their 
surroundings, what is the disease. I can only 
guess at it. It may be that they are "shooting 
the red;" at that time they often die of seeming 
weakness. They should be fed stimulating 
food — some meat and red pepper in their food — 
onion tops cut up and mixed with meat and 
meal and well peppered with Cayenne pepper. 
The old hens may have died from apoplexy. If 
I saw the fowls and could have the questions, 
which would naturally suggest themselves if I 
were on the ground, answered, I could tell dis- 
ease and cure. I can now only recommend 
careful perusal of my pamphlet and to follow its 



directions as to feed, etc.— M. Eyre, Napa, Cal. 

If any other reader can speak from experience 
concerning this matter, we should like to hear. 
Reading and Redding. 

Editors Press:— Please tell me the proper pronuncia- 
tion of the word Reading, as applied to the name of the 
town and ranch of "Reading," in Shasta county; some 
pronounce it fiedding.—losx. 

The name of the town is Redding, so named 
at the time the California & Oregon railroad was 
constructed; and the town was laid out by the 
railroad authorities and J. B. Haggin (the latter 
owning the grant upon which the town is situ- 
ated). It was named, we understand, in honor 
of Hon. B. B. Redding, ex-Sec'y of State. The 
Reading grant— about 20 miles in length by 
from two to three in width, containing some 
26,000 acres — was confirmed by Major Pearson 
B. Reading, and consequently bears his name. 
Major Reading was an early settler and chose 
this tract as the choicest bottom land of the 
Upper Sacramento valley, it being above the 
flood and drouth-devastating region. As a por- 
tion of the community applied his name to the 
town and another portion applied the name 
Redding, an act was passed by the last Legisla- 
ture legalizing the name of Redding to the 
town. There is a Government reservation 
on the opposite side of the Sacramento 
river called Fort Reading, so named by the U. S. 
military authorities, and to prevent confusion 
the U. S. postal authorities have also adopted 
Redding as the name of the town at the present 
terminus of the C. & O. railroad. We say this 
much in order to put the facts on record 
and make the matter fully understood. With 
regard to the pronunciation of the two names, 
we would count them the same with either 
spelling, as Reading, the large Pennsylvania 
town, is called Redding by those who live 
there. 

Golden Wax Beane. 

Editors Press :— I send the product of three Golden 
Wax beans for a meal time test. The branch is one of 
six, nearly equal from one seed.— W. A. Sanders, Sanders, 

Cal. 

The beans were very good, and the sample 
made the bean section of a dinner for seven per- 
sons. The flavor was good, but doubtless not 
so fine a3 it would have been if the kettle had 
been nearer to the vines. 



A Grand World's Fair in New York. 

For two years a constant agitation has been 
kept up in New York for the holding of an in- 
ternational exhibition in this country in 1883. 
The dwellers in towns remote have, during this 
period, heard but little of the labors of the 
handful of public-spirited men who have per- 
sistently carried forward the movement to the 
point it has now reached. Patiently and pru- 
dently they have gone on from stage to stage, 
having the satisfaction at each successive step 
to witness a decided advance in all the essential 
elements of success. The holding of an inter- 
national exhibition in this country in 1883 is 
now an assured fact. The initiatory difficulties 
inseparably connected with a scheme of such 
magnitude, particularly those in regard to the 
obtaining of necessary legislation, have all been 
overcome, and the preliminary arrangements 
and complete organization of the United States 
International Exhibition Commission of 1883 
are being pushed forward to a speedy comple- 
tion. A special act of Congress providing for 
the holding of such exhibition has been ob- 
tained; bills have been passed in the New York 
Legislature granting to the Commissioners who 
may be appointed powers to acquire such lands, 
etc., as may be requisite, and the Governors of 
the several St tes are rapidly nominating Com- 
missioners to assist the project to a successful 
termination. The plan of the proposed exposi- 
tion is on a scale of such magnitude that it 
completely "eclipses everything of the kind in 
the past, and may probably never be surpassed 
in the future, and the movement has now en- 
tered upon a career of popular recognition and 
public favor which guarantee the ultimate ac- 
complishment of all its projectors have hoped to 
realize. 

A Note from Prof. Sanders. — A card 
which the Secretary of the State Horticultural 
Society received from Prof. W. A. Sandera, 
of Fresno county, too late for the meeting, is 
as follows : 

"With us Black Tartarian cherries do best of any we've 
tried; ripe now (June 24th). Moorpark apricots are be- 
ginning to ripen here on my farm. The season is unusu- 
ally late. Wood's Early apricot is all gone a half month 
ago. Fuchsias cannot be grown without perfect protec- 
tion from onr extreme sun heat. They literally burn up 
when it reaches 100' (no uncommon thing) in the shade. ' 

Ostrich Ranching in South America. — It 
seems that South America has entered the 
ostrich business. We read in the Buenos Ayres 
Standard that "the first African ostriches ever 
seen in this country arrived here on Monday 
from the Cape. They (101 birds) are owned by 
an Englishman, Mr. George Beaumont, who in- 
tend to start an ostrich farm in this province. 
These new immigrants have attracted much 
attention, and there is little or no doubt of their 
thriving in this climate." 

Horticultural Subjects for Discussion. — 
The subject chosen for discussion at the meet- 
ing of July 30th is peach culture, and Dr. J. 
Strentzel was invited to open the discussion. 
The floral subject will be "flower growing for 
perfumes, " to be opened by G. P. Rix ford. Mr. 

Designs on Riverside. — We learn that a 
party of 8 to 12 gentlemen of means, residing 
in Knox Co., 111., contemplate removing this 
season to Riverside, Cal., for the purpose of 
making that section their permanent home. 



July 3, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC B U H A 1 PRE 



A National Monument. 

The coming of the nation's favorite holiday, 
the Fourth of July, makes it timely to allude 
briefly to themes fit to call forth the patriotic 
flow. The year 1880, the country over, gives 
many promptings to national pride, and it is 
probable that Independence Day will be cele- 
brated with unusual rejoicings and gratulation. 
There is a spirit of progress and prosperity 
abroad in our industries. The depression born 
of disorganized affairs resulting from the great 
conflict, seems now to have wholly passed away, 
and the people now stand with all the glories of 
the past to urge them on, and the 
free field of the future before them 
in which to win their victories in 
industrial, social and scientific ad- 
vancement. It is a good time to 
review in mind the history of the 
republic, the glorious deeds of the 
early patriots, the priceless gifts of 
later heroes, and to picture the 
growth of the coming generations. 
If the results of such studies do not 
kindle the flame of patriotic pride 
in the heart of an American, such a 
one must be a soul so dead that no 
thought of greatness can awaken it. 

We have chosen as an illustration 
appropriate to the time, an ideal 
sketch of a monument to the memory 
of Washington. This design is in- 
tended by the artist to fitly embody 
the idea, not alone of the majesty of 
the character of our country's father, 
but to typify the growth of the 
principles which he held as the cor- 
ner-stones upon which to found a 
nation. It must be remarked that 
such a monument as yet exists only 
in the artist's drawings, but it is put 
forth to the view of the people as 
something worthy of their study, in 
the hope that some future year may 
see it, or something like it, hewn 
from enduring marble to remind 
coming ages of the veneration in 
which the great founder of the re- 
public is ever to be held in patriotic 
hearts. 

As most readers are aware, there 
is already a monument to the mem- 
ory of Washington in progress of 
construction at the national capital. 
Of this, it may be briefly said that 
it was commenced in 1848 by an as- 
sociation incorporated by Congress. 
After an expenditure of $230,000, 
raised by voluntary subscription, the 
monument came to a standstill for 
20 years. Thus for a score of years 
it stood an unfinished column of 174 
ft. in highth. By act of Congress, 
passed in 1876, appropriating the 
sum of $200,000, this monument is 
to be finished, and will form a lofty 
and imposing plain obelisk, 70 ft. 
square at the base and 470 ft. high. 
It is constructed of great blocks of 
crystal Maryland marble, lined with 
blue gneiss stone, and while simple 
and majestic in form, without at- 
tempt at ornament, will constitute a 
mausoleum that will last for ages, 
erected by the people of the whole 
country to its greatest citizen on a 
scale worthy of the nation. 

It is the design of the artist whose 
work we present on this page, to 
have the imposing plain obelisk 
which we have described, serve as * 
the central column of the majestic 
yet richly ornate structure shown in 
the engraving. It will certainly be 3 
more impressive to the average mind - 
to contemplate a structure of this 
kind, upon which may be carven the 
history of the country's progress and 
the ideal embodiments of the prin- 
ciples for which we contend, than to 
view a bare shaft, which, no matter 
how much imagination may adorn it, 
is still but a vast factory chimney 
and barren of grace and beauty. It 
may be that some generation which 
is to come after us, will take the 
plain shaft which we shall build, 
and thus develop from it a monu- 
ment which shall be more worthy of 
our country's progress in enlighten- 
ment and the science of government. 
To the future then this design for a national 
Washington monument is commended in the 
hope that ere long it will pass from paper to the 
enduring stone, and stand perhaps a thousand 
years in memory of the " Father of His Coun- 
try." 

Comparative Wheat Prices. — As there is 
much discussion just at this time of the compar- 
ative values of California and other wheats in 
the English market, we take from a London ex- 
change the prices per ctl. for the week ending 
May 31st, for the following wheats: 

Australian, 10s. 9d. to 10s lid. ; Oregon, 10s. to 10s. 
8d.; Walla Walla, 10s. 3d. to 10s. 4d. ; Californian, average, 
8s. to 10s. ; Club and choice, 10s. 2d. to 10s. 6d. ; Chilian, 
9s. lOd. to 10s. 3d.; American, white, 9s. lid. to 10s. 2d.; 
Red winter, 10s. to 10s. 8d.; No. 1 spring, 10s. to 10s. 4d; 
No. 2 spring, old, 10s.; New, 9s. 6d. to 9s. lid.; No.. 3 
pring, 9s. to 9s 3d.; Canadian, white, 10s. to 10s. 2d.; 

ed winter, 10s. 2d. to 10s. 6d.; Bombay, 10s. to 10». 7d. ; 

lcutta, 9s. Id. to 9s. 3d.: Saide and Daira, 8s. 4d. to 

,6d. 



Meeting of State Horticultural Society. 

The State Horticultural Society held its regu- 
lar monthly meeting at the Y. M C. A. Hall 
Friday afternoon, June 25th, A. T. Hatch, of 
Cordelia, in the Chair. The following exhibits 
were placed on the tables: Fine collection of 
cherries, John Rock, San Jose, including Black 
Tartarian, Napoleon Bigarreau, Great Bigarreau, 
Governor Wood, Cleveland Bigarreau, Black 
Eagle, Yellow Spanish and Koine Hor- 
tense; collection of lemons which were shown 
at the last meeting; spadix of date palm with 
staminate flowers, L. P. Rixford, Sonoma; cur- 



mium list submitted for the approval of the 
managers of the Institute. This approval was 
granted and the arrangement was consummated. 
A resolution was offered by Mr. Dwinelle that 
the society endorse the action of the Board of 
Directors in this matter, and all members be 
urged to do all in their power to secure a suc- 
cessful exhibition of plants and fruits. The 
resolution was adopted. Upon page 12 of this 
issue may be found the list of premiums of- 
fered. 

Mr. Rixford read the report of the Committee 
on southern California lemons, which we expect 
to publish next week. 

The subject of apricots was then opened with 
an essay by W. W. Smith, of Vacaville, which 
may be found on page 2. Discussion fol- 




IDE ALi SKETCH OP A NATIONAL WASHINGTON MONUMENT. 



rant and gooseberry bushes infested with borers, 
W. H. Jessup, Haywards, new and improved 
fastener for fruit-box cover, Wm. Cantelow, 
Vacaville; collection of fuschias and pansies, E. 
H. Rixford and Robert Hall, San Francisco; 
fine Lisbon lemons, Mrs. Kimball, National 
City, San Diego county. The following were 
elected members of the society: B. S. Fox, R. 
D. Fox and A. E. Pomeroy of San Jose; Jas. B. 
Mahoney and Rev. Ed Verrue of San Francisco, 
and J. De Barth Shorb of San Gabriel. Mr. 
Shorb is already an honorary Vice-President of 
the society by virtue of his presidency of the 
Southern California Horticultural Society. 

The Secretary read a statement of the trans- 
actions of the Board of Directors concerning the 
proposition made to them by the managers of 
the Mechanics' Institute, that the society have 
supervision of the horticultural departtnent of 
this year's Mechanics' fair. The proposition 
was accepted by the directors and a new pre- 



lowed upon the points involved. 

Mr. Dwinelle spoke of the necessity of can- 
ning choice fresh fruit if the best product is to 
be obtained. He deprecated the system of 
canning what the fruit market rejects. He also 
drew attention to dried nectarines as a product 
which might be looked after with profit. 

In answer to a question Mr. Smith remarked 
that he had not found root pruning of any value 
in preventing the falling off of apricots. He 
believes dropping fruit is a question of soil. He 
has trees which are a mass of bloom and set 
full of fruit, but the fruit drops when the size 
of peaB or cherries. Not more than 200 ft. 
away, but on different soil, the fruit clings and 
ripens well. 

Dr. Chapin asked whether it be desirable to 
transplant apricot trees in the dormant bud. 
Mr. Smith advised dormant bud in preference 
to two-year-old trees, but thought good one- 
year-old trees were best for planting out. 



Mr. Dwinelle alluded to the need of iron in 
orchard soil and cited the wonderful r< 
working small quantities of blacksmith 
sweepings into the soil of a peach orch; 
The scale which falls from the blacksmith's an- 
vil proves of value as a fertilizer. 

John Rock, of San Jose, advised using one- 
year-old apricot trees for orchard planting. He 
believed the dropping of apricots may be some- 
times attributed to frost. May frosts sometimes 
take off apricots as large as walnuts. This 
year in his section the cold winter restrained 
the blossoms and they came too late to be 
caught by the frosts. The result will be a full 
crop of fruit. 

James Shinn agreed with the preceding speak- 
ers that one year from the bud was the proper 
age for transplanting apricot trees, 
and peach and almond trees as 
well. He had not had much suc- 
cess with planting out in dormant 
bud, but such trees will do well 
with care. Mr. Shinn asked Mr. 
Smith if the gopher's work was his 
only reason for choosing the apricot 
root as a stock to graft on ? He 
had found that apricot buds will 
not take so well on apricot as on 
peach roots. He regarded the apri- 
cot root as an excellent stock for 
plums. The apricot root is longer 
lived than the peach root. Mr. 
Shinn also spoke of the value of the 
apricot for drying* as well as can- 
ning. 

Concerning the growth of apricots 
in Europe, Mr. Shinn had heard that 
the crop in Portugal would be very 
large this year. Mr. Rixford said 
that large quantities of dried apri- 
cots from Persia are sold in the 
European markets. Mr. Rock said 
the secret why California canned 
apricots sell so well in Europe is be- 
cause of the large size of the fruit. 
The apricots which grow in Europe 
are very small. The large varieties 
which do so well in this State will 
not succeed there except when 
grown against walls, etc. If our 
apricots are to do well abroad, we 
must grow the large varieties. 

Mr. Rock opened the discussion 
of cherry culture by exhibiting 
some fine samples of the Black 
Tartarian, Napoleon Bigarreau, Gov- 
ernor Wood, Great Bigarreau, Black 
Eagle, Cleveland Bigarreau, Yellow 
Spanish and Reine Hortense varie- 
ties. He stated that these were-the 
leading cherries of our market, the 
only others worthy of mention being 
the Early Purple Guigne, a small 
black cherry, and Knight's Early 
Black cherry, smaller varieties. On 
the subject of cherries, a letter from 
Leonard Coates, of Yountville, was 
read. It is printed upon page 
three of this issue. 

Mr. Smith spoke of gophers eat- 
ing the roots of cherry trees. He 
found they would eat the trees 
grafted on mahaleb roots, but not 
on mazzard roots. 

Mr. Hatch mentioned some cherry 
trees eaten off under-ground in a 
p:culiarway. It did not appear like 
the work of the gopher on almond 
trees. He had seen small, white 
ants around, but not other pests. 

[Mr. W. B. West of Stockton 
reports trees eaten off by white 
ants. — Eds. Press.] 

Mr. Jessup described the work of 
gophers in his orchard. He has 
currant bushes between the 10 wb of 
trees, consequently he can cultivate 
but one way. This leaves a narrow 
strip of undisturbed ground from 
tree to tree along the rows. 
Through this hard strip the gophers 
run and they cut off trees before he 
was aware of their presence. The 
weakening and wilting of the trees 
was the sign of trouble, and cutting 
down the ridge he found the run- 
way of the gophers. 

Mr. J. V. Webster spoke of sev- 
eral causes of decay in cherry trees. 
The tree is naturally delicate. 
He planted a lot of trees in clay 
soil, digging out large holes and fill - 
ing in with loam, manure, etc. 
The trees grew well until there 
came an extra wet winter. This filled the 
basins in which the trees were set and as the 
clay held water like a cup the trees were de- 
stroyed by the water standing around their 
roots. Mr. Webster spoke also of a mistake he 
made years ago in cutting off large branches of 
his cherry trees so as to plow under them. He 
would never cut off a large branch. He finds 
that the wound never heals. 

Mr. C. H. Shinn read an interesting article 
on fuchsia growing which we expect to print 
hereafter. Remarks upon the fuchsia were 
also made by F. Ludemann, who promised 
more definite information and an exhibit of 
best varieties at some future meeting. 

W. H. Jessup gave an explanation of his sam- 
ples of currant and gooseberry borer's work. 
These were detailed in his letter in last week's 
Press. 

The San Francisco Char ter has been finished 



10 



THE PACIFIC RURAL FRES 



[jtiiy 3, 1880; 



Mechanics' Institute. 

Fifteenth Industrial Exhibition 
Rules respecting the reception of goods, and 
for determining the awards of premiums, gold, 
silver and bronze medals, special premiums for 
California. 

Board of Managers. 
P. B. Cornwall, Pres. ; A. W. Starbird, Vice- 
Pres.; J. A. Bauer, Treas.; J. H. Culver, Sec'y; 
J. H. Gilmore, Supt. ; and A. L. Fish, C. Water- 
house, James Drury, Nathaniel Hunter, F. A. 
Frank, David Kerr, Samuel Dinsmore, J. R. 
Wilcox, George H. Hopps, Edwin Fretwell and 
George Spaulding. 

Standing Committees 
For the exhibition are: Auditing— Waterhouse, 
Frank, Kerr; Building— Drury, Wilcox, Star- 
bird; Circulars and Classifications —Fretwell, 
Bauer, Hunter; Printing and Advertising — 
Spaulding, Hunter, Hopps; Power and Machin- 
ery — Dinsmore, Fish, Wilcox; Rules, Regula- 
tions and Awards— Frank, Fretwell, Bauer; 
Tickets and Admission— Starbird, Kerr, Fret- 
well; Music and Decorations— Bauer, Starbird, 
Hopps; Privileges — Kerr, Starbird, Frank; Lo 
cation — Dinsmore, Hunter, Fish; Police — Hun- 
ter, Spaulding, Hopps; Horticulture — Fish, 
Waterhouse, Spaulding; Gas and Water — Wil- 
cox, Drury, Dinsmore; Art — Hopps, Water- 
house, Drury. 

Reception of Goods— Rules. 
The pavilion will be open for the reception of 
goods from and after Monday, July 26th, and 
the exhibition will open Tuesday, Aug. 10th 
and continue, Sundays excepted, from 10 A. M 
to 10 p. m. , until Sept. 11th. Articles may be 
entered for either exhibition or competition; if 
the latter, they must be in position not later 
than Aug. 13th. Application for space must be 
made at least two weeks before the opening. 
The managers will exercise the utmost care in 
protecting goods, but all articles deposited will 
te at the owner's risk. The Board will select 
three jurors for each class of articles. All pre- 
miums will be for the first degree of merit only. 
No second-class awards or decisions will be 
made or reported in any cases unless otherwise 
specified in the premium list. 

The Premium List 
Comprises the following divisions : I. Manu- 
factured produce — machinery. II. Manufact- 
ured products — metals. III. Manufactured 
products — wood, or wood and iron. IV. Man- 
ufactured products — animal and vegetable fab- 
rics* V. Chemical and natural products. VI. 
Food products. VII. Liberal and decorative 
art. VIII. Fine arts. IX. Horticulture. 

The divisions are subdivided into 47 classes, 
as follows: 1. Steam engines, boilers and appli- 
ances — 1 gold medal, 5 silver medals, 6 bronze 
medals, aud 5 diplomas. 2. Hydraulic machin- 
ery and steam pumps — 1 gold medal, 6 silver 
medals, 4 bronze medals, and 1 diploma. 3. Ma- 
chinists' tools and metal-working machinery — 
5 silver medals, 10 bronze medals, and 6 di- 
plomas. 4. Wood-working machinery — 1 gold 
medal, 9 silver medals, 13 bronze medals, and 5 
diplomas. 5. Printing and miscellaneous ma- 
chinery — 1 gold medal, 8 silver medals, 7 bronze 
medals, and 2 diplomas. 6. Mining machinery 
and appliances — 1 gold medal, 10 silver medals, 
and 3 bronze medals. 7. Laundry machinery 
— 1 silver medal, 3 bronze medals, and 2 di- 
plomas. 8. Fire apparatus and appliances — 1 
gold medal, 4 silver medals, 1 bronze medal, and 

2 diplomas. 9. Marine — 4 silver medals, 7 
bronze medals, and 1 diploma. 10. Sewing ma- 
chines, knitting machines, braiding machines 
and looms — 3 gold medals, 6 silver medals, and 

3 bronze medals. 11. Agricultural machinery — 

1 gold medal, 7 silver medals, 20 bronze med- 
als, and 8 diplomas. 12. Iron, steel and lead — 

4 gold medals, 7 silver medals, 5 bronze medals, 
and 2 diplomas. 13. Cooking, heating and ven- 
tilating — G silver medals, 1 bronze medal, and 1 
diploma. 14. General hardware — 1 gold medal, 

2 silver medals, 6 bronze medals, and 1 di- 
ploma. 15. Fire and burglar-proof safes and 
locks — 1 gold medal and 2 silver medals. 16. 
Cutlery and edge tools — 1 gold medal and 2 
silver medals. 17. Grates and mantels, mar- 
bles, artificial stone, earthenware* glassware, 
etc. — 1 gold medal, 8 silver medals, 5 bronze 
medals, and 2 diplomas. 18. Brass work, gas 
and lamp fixtures, plumbers' good, etc. — 1 gold 
medal, 9 silver medals, and 5 bronze med- 
als. 19. Carpenters', joiners', carvers' and 
Btair-builders' work, ornamental glass paint- 
ing, etc. — 2 gold medals, 7 silver medals. 
10 bronze medals and three diplomas. 20. 
Musical instruments — 1 gold medal and 4 
silver medals. 21. Vehicles and their attach- 
ments, children's carriages, hobbyhorses, etc. — 
1 gold medal, 16 silver medals and 6 bronze 
medals. 22. Furniture, upholstery, etc. — 1 gold 
medal, 12 silver medals and 5 bronze medals. 
23. Billiard tables. — 1 gold medal, 2 silver 
and 2 bronze medals. 24. Woodenware, brushes, 
wire goods, willowware, etc. — 1 gold medal, 6 
silver medals and 3 bronze medals. 25. Boots, 
shoes, leather, rubber goods, etc. — 2 gold med- 
als, 15 silver medals and 5 bronze medals. 26. 
Hemp, cordage, paper, furs, hair, etc. — 2 gold 
medals, 7 silver medals, 5 bronze medals and 1 
diploma. 27. Woolens, dress goods, carpets, 
cotton, etc. — 1 gold medal and 15 silver medals. 
28. Gentlemen's furnishing goods, etc. — 7 silver 
medals and 5 bronze medak. 29. Ladies' fur- 
nishing goods, dresses, cloaks, millinery, etc. — 
7 Bilver medals, 6 bronze medals and 1 di- 
ploma. 



30. Tobacco — 2 silver medals aud 3 bronze 
medals. 31. Chemical and pharmaceutical prod- 
ucts — 3 gold medals, 14 silver medals, 6 bronze 
medals and 3 diplomas. 32. Geology, miner- 
alogy, zoology, botany, etc. — 2 gold medals, 8 
silver medals, 2 bronze medals and 2 diplomas. 
33. Groceries, meats, flour, etc. — 14 silver 
medals, 9 bronze medals and 1 diploma. 34. 
Wines — 1 gold medal and 8 silver medals. 
35. Liquors and fermented products — 4 silver 
medals and 1 bronze medal. 36. Printing and 
lithographing, etc. — 10 silver medals and 5 
bronze medals. 37. Gold, silver and plated 
ware, watches, clocks, jewelry, bronzes, etc. — 1 
gold medal, 6 silver medals and 6 bronze medals. 
38. Scientific apparatus, etc. — 1 gold medal, 8 
silver medals and 12 bronze medals. 39. Sur- 
gical and dental instruments and appliances — 3 
silver medals, 3 bronze medals and 1 diploma. 
40. Hairwork, needlework, embroidery, shell- 
work, patterns, etc. — 3 silver medals, 4 bronze 
medals and 41 diplomas. 

41. Paintings in oil and water colors — $10 in 
cash will be awarded in this class for the most 
meritorious exhibits by local artists. The clas- 
sification of awards is not yet determined upon. 
42. Ceramic art — 7 silver medals and six bronze 
medals. 43. Sculpture statuary and carving — 
S silver medals. 44. Engravings, original draw- 
ings, penmanship, etc. — 13 silver medals and 1 
diploma. 45. Photography — 1 gold medal, 4 
silver medals and 5 bronze medals. 46. Plants, 
trees and flowers — 5 silver medals, 9 bronze 
medals and four diplomas. 47. Fruit — 4 silver 
medals and 3 bronze medals. 

In all, there are 648 prizes, besides $1,000 
cash, to be distributed among local artists in 
oil and water colors, as may be determined 
hereafter; but the managers do not consider the 
list complete, and any meritorious article on ex- 
hibition, not therein mentioned, will receive 
due consideration. 

California Premiums. 

Premiums will be awarded for the best dis- 
play in California make to the following: File 
cutlery, fire arms, assortment locks, assortment 
of edge tools, glassware, sample of galvanizing, 
and sample of electro-plating (done in San Fran- 
cisco), articles made from California wood, 
turned articles from California wood, plate- 
glass mirror, string or reed instruments, hacks, 
single top buggy, open buggy, hotel coach, 
double buggy, sulky, stage coach, brooms, gen- 
eral display of boots and shoes, ladies' and 
misses' hand-made shoes, men's hand-made 
shoes, machine-made boots and shoes, sole 
leather, fair leather, kid leather, morocco 
leather, calf skins, leather belting, rawhide 
goods, leather hose (100 ft.), lasts, bale of 
hemp, imitation hair, cordage, paper, paper 
rags, paper boxes, dress silks (25 yards), ribbons 
(10 varieties), manufactured silk, thread and 
twist, woolen goods, mats and matting, oil 
cloth, weaving, gentlemen's furnishing goods, 
umbrellas and parasols, gloves (goat or buck- 
skin, and kid), ladies' corsets, buttons and 
fringes, cigars, cigarettes, finecut tobacco, acids, 
candles, glue, shoe-blacking, writing fluid and 
mucilage, matches (quality and variety), coals 
(Pacific coast), fossils (ditto), petroleum, crude 
and refined, largest and most comprehensive 
collection of natural products of the Pacific 
coast, refined sugar, butter and cheese, hams, 
bacon and lard, codfish (cured), best general 
display of wines, best of sparkling, still, dry, 
white, sweet, port and claret wines, and cider, 
grape brandy, printed sheet music (done here), 
solid silverware, watch or clock, show cases, 
surveyors' instruments, hand-made lace work, 
specimen painting on pottery, painting on porce- 
lain, wood engraving, mechanical drawing by a 
pupil of the public schools, architectural draw- 
ings, generally by pupils of public and private 
schools of this city, landscape photography, 
raisins, etc. 



Fossil Butter. — At a late scientific meeting 
in London, Prof. Church read a paper on a sam- 
ple of butter, which must have lain for many 
centuries, buried in an Irish bog. Its probable 
age was judged to be about one thousand years. 
The sample contained nearly four per cent, of 
curd, which consisted partly of vegetable matter 
derived from the bog, but contained quite 
enough animal matter to prove that the butter 
had been originally made from animal milk, and 
was not a mere artificial fat. Its fatty charac- 
ter had, however, been entirely chauged, and 
the glycerides of which the fat had originally 
consisted had been decomposed so as to leave 
simply a mixture of the fatty acids, which con- 
stitute the acid portion of animal fats. The 
butter had, in fact, become changed into a sub- 
stance closely resembling in character and com- 
position the substance of which good composite 
candles are composed. The result is singular, 
as showing that length of time, combined with 
exposure to moisture, will effect the decompo- 
sition which the manufacturer of stearine has 
to effect by the agency of heat and acids. At 
the same meeting another paper was read 
on a sample of still older butter, which had been 
taken from an alabaster vase in an Egyptian 
tomb. It had evidently been melted and 
poured into the vase, aud carefully sealed over. 
This sample was probably about 2,500 years old, 
but the preservation had been so perfect that it 
was only slightly rancid, and had fully retained 
the chemical properties of genuine butter, the 
fats not having been decomposed to any sensible 
extent. This sample possessed a decided taste 
and smell of butter, while the sample from the 
bog was cheesy rather than buttery in smell. 



The Ocean Depths. 

Dr. Carpenter, the English physicist, has re- 
cently published in the Nineteenth Century some 
remarkable results of his elaborate studies of 
the latest deep sea explorations. The work of 
the scientific circumnavigation expedition in 
the Challemjer, though completed in 1876, has 
not until within a few mouths, if even now, 
been fully reduced, and some of its most im- 
portant discoveries are now announced by Dr. 
Carpenter, its originator. One of the first ques- 
tions its labors contribute to solve is the depth 
and configuration of the ocean basins. The 
prevailing notion of the sea beds, Dr. Carpenter 
shows, needs considerable modification, none of 
them having been carefully outlined, except 
that of the north Atlantic when sounded with 
a view to laying the first Atlantic cable. "The 
form of the depressed area which lodges the 
water of the deep ocean," he says, "is rather to 
be likened to that of a flat waiter or tea-tray, 
surrounded by an elevated and steeply sloping 
rim, than to that of the 'basin' with which it is 
commonly compared;" and he adds, "the great 
continental platforms usually rise very abruptly 
from the margins of the real oceanic depressed 
areas. " The average depth of the ocean floors 
is now ascertained to be about 13,000 ft. As 
the average hight of the entire land mass of the 
globe above sea level is about 1,000 ft., and the 
sea area about two and three-quarter times that 
of the land, it follows that the total volume of 
ocean water is 36 times that of the land above 
the sea level. 

These deductions, seemingly unimportant ex- 
cept to the votary of science, are destined per- 
haps to serve the highest practical purposes of 
future deep-sea telegraphy. The intelligence 
now quarried out of the enormous collection of 
later ocean researches shows the modern engi- 
neer aud capitalist the feasibility of depositing 
a telegraphic cable over almost any part of the 
ocean floor, and ought to give new confidence 
in the success of all such enterprises properly 
devised and equipped. When it is remembered 
that at the beginning of this century La Place, 
the great mathematician, calculated or as- 
sumed the average depth of the ocean at four 
miles (or 8,000 ft. more than Dr. Carpenter de 
termines it to be from actual surveys), and that 
La Place's conclusion was the received view 
among scientists until 1850, or later, we get 
some idea of the advance made in this branch of 
terrestrial physics by modern research. 

Not less interesting is a deduction Dr. Car- 
penter makes from the deep sea temperature 
observations in the north Atlantic. In conse- 
quence of the evaporation produced by the long 
exposure of the equatorial Atlantic current, its 
water contains such an excess of salt, as, in 
spite of its high temperature, to be specifically 
heavier than the colder overflows which reach 
the equator from the opposite Arctic and Ant 
arctic basins; and consequently it substitutes 
itself by gravitation for the colder water to a 
depth of several hundred fathoms. "Thus it 
conveys the solar heat downward in such a 
manner as to make the north Atlantic between 
the parallels of 20' and 40° a great reservoir of 
warmth." The climatic effect of this vertical 
transfer of equatorial heat is obvious. If the 
great heat-bearing currents which enter the 
north Atlantic traversed its bosom as surface 
currents they would expend their warmth 
largely in the high latitudes. But, as their 
heavy and highly heated volumes in large meas 
ure descend to the deeper strata south of the 
40th parallel, their stores of tropical tempera- 
ture are permanently arrested off our eastern 
coast and ultimately made subservient to our 
climate. 

Railroad Building in Arizona. — There are 
now, says the Los Angeles Express, June ISth, 
six trains running between here and Arizona, two 
new ones having been put on yesterday. This 
makes a departure every day of three trains 
from each end of the road. The company are 
pushing on the work of extending the road with 
increased energy, and say that as soon as they 
pass the range of mountains the other side of 
the San Pedro, they will reach a country where 
they will be able to lay three miles of track 
every day. They are impelled to this great 
energy in their work by the rapid movement 
westward of the Atchison and Topeka road. 
That road is now so far advanced that Arizona 
merchants can lay down goods cheaper by it 
from the East than they can by way of San 
Francisco. It looks as if the days of competi- 
tion among the great corporations were ap- 
proaching. 

Oregon Swamp Land Commission. — Sec'y 
Schurz decided June 7th, the Oregon swamp 
land cases arising in the Oregon City Land Office 
which were appealed last November. The 
Secretary reverses the decision of the General 
Land Ollice, and holds that the Oregon swamp 
grant was one HI priori, that there has not been 
auy forfeiture, either as to the land surveyed pri- 
or or subsequent to March 12, 1860, or wheth- 
er selected within two years from the adjourn- 
ment of the State Legislature or not, and con- 
sequently that all lands in Oregon actually 
swamp, must be certified to said State. This, 
and the Dennis Crowley decision, terminates in 
favor of the State of Oregon, all disputes be- 
tween the U. S. and the said State, that have 
been pending under the Swamp Land act of 
March 12, 1860, for 20 years. 



!lr\EC70r\Y. 



Purchasers of Stock will find in this Dirkctory th» 
Nambs of bomb of thb Most Rbliailk Brrbdkrs. 

Our Kates.— Six lines or lens inserted in this Directory at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 

^CATTLE. 



PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House. S. F. Importers 
ami breeders of all varieties of Thoroughbred Cattle, 
Sheep. Horses, and Berkshire Swine. All animals fully 

pedigreed. 



M. B. STURGES. Centerville, Alameda County, Cal. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle. Young 
Bulls and Heifers for sale. Correspondence solicited. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 
(orCotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



E. W. WOOLSEY, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Importer and breeder of choice thoroughbred Spanish 

Merino Sheep. 

L. TJ. SHIPPEE, Stockton, CaL Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



POULTRY. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importer 
and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Berkshire 
and Magie Poland-China Swine. 



MRS. L. J. WAT KINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 

Pekin Ducks, etc. 



A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



ALBERT BURBANK, 43 California Market, S. 
F. Importers and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry, 
Dogs, etc. Eggs for hatching. Send for price list. 

MRS. L E. McMAHAN, Dixon, Solano Co.. Cal. 
Importer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs 

for Hatching. Send for price list. 



SWINE, 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 

T. C. STARR, San Bernardino, Cal. Poland-China 

Swine and Black Cochin Chickens for sale. 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



BEES. 



JOS. D. ENAS, Sunnyside, Napa, Cal. Breeds pure 
Italian Queen Bees. Imported Queens furnished. 



GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 

In lO.OOO Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $400,000. 

OFFICERS: 

0. W. COLBY President 

JOHN LEWELLING Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS: 

G. W. COLBY President Butte Co 

JOHN LEWELLING, Vice-President Napa Co 

J V. WEBSTER AuuuedaCo 

URIAH WOOD San Benito Co 

J. O. MEUYFIELD Solano Co 

THOMAS M. CONNELL Sacramento Co 

1. 0. STEELE San Mateo Co 

SOLOMON JEWETT Kern Co 

C J. CRESSEY Stanislaus Co 

SENECA EWER. Napa Co 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for the 
transaction of general Banking business. 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted In the 
usual way. 

GOLD and SILVER denoslts receded. 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued for Gold and Silver. 

TERM DEPOSITS are received and interest allowed as 
follows: 6% per annum if left for 3 months; 1% per annum if 
left for 6 months: 8% per annum if left for 12 months. 

EXCHANGE on the Atlantic States bought and sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER, 

Cashier and Manager 

San Francisco, Oct. 15th. 1879. 



PACIFIC WATER CURE 

— AND — 

Electric Health Institute- 

Specially adapted to the cure of chronic cases such as 
Rheumatism, Neuralgia, Paralysis, Consumption, Asthma, 
Lead or Mercury Poison, etc. 

Our mode of treatment is mostly new and peculiar, and 
relieves the patient in a short time, mostly without the 
use of drugs. 

Good rooms and board, with competent and careful 
nurses furnished in the house. 

M. F. CLAYTON, M. D., 

Proprietor. 
Northwest corner Seventh and L Sts. , Sacramento, Cm 



Giles II. Gray. J auks M. Hanks. 

GRAY & HAVEN, 

Attorneys and Counsellers-at-Law, 

530 California St., - SAN FRANCISCO 



Grnbral Purchasing Agent, James B. Shcat, 410 and 

418 Davis St., S. F. 



July 3, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



11 



Scientific Press 




PATENTS obtained promptly; Gaveatsflled expeditiouely 
Patent re-issueB taken out; Assignments made and re- 
corded in legal form; Copies of Patents and Assignments 
procured; Examinations of Patents made here and at 
Washington; Examinations made of Assignments re- 
corded in Washington; Examinations ordered and re- 
ported by Telegraph; Rejected cases taken up and Pat- 
ents obtained; Interferences Prosecuted; Opinions ren- 
dered regarding the validity of Patents and Assign- 
ments; Every legitimate branch of Patent Soliciting 
Business promptly and thoroughly conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various inventions of this 
coast, and long practice in patent business, enable us to 
abundantly satisfy our patrons, and our success and 
business are constantly increasing. 

The ablest and most experienced inventors are found 
among our most steadfast friends and patrons, who fully 
appreciate our advantages in bringing valuable inven- 
tions to the notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals— thereby facil- 
itating their introduction, sale and popularity. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents. 
Office— 202 Sansome St., N. E. Cor. Pine, S. F 



A. T. DBWKT. 



W. B. RWKR. 



O. H. STRONG. 



BUY LAND 



Where you can get a crop every year; 
where you will make something every 
Beason; where you are sure of having a crop 
when prices are high; where you have a 
healthy place to live; where you can raise 
Bemi-tropical as well as other fruits; where 
you can raise a diversity of grain and vege- 
tables and get a good price for them. Go 
and see the old Reading Grant (in the 
upper Sacramento Valley), and you will 
find such land for sale in sub-divisions to 
suit purchasers — at reasonable rates and 
on easy erms. Send stamp for map and 
circular to Edward Frisbie, proprietor, 
(on the Grant), Anderson, Shasta Co., Cal. 



What is itt Everybody knows it is as 

essential to life as food itself. Yet when people are ill 
for the very want of revitalization through respiration, 
they dose themselves with drugs and bitters to the effect 
of demoralization! All Invalids should read Drs. 
STARKEY & PALEN'S(Phila.) Treatise on Oxygen, 
which is sent free to all who may ask for it. The subject 
Is worthy of investigation. References to physicians in 
San Francisco, who use and prescribe Compound Oxygen 
In practice. As prepared for home use (conveniently sent 
to any address) it may be obtained of H. E. MATHEWS, 
C06 Montgomery street, S. F.,- upon the same terms as 
furnished by Drs. Starkey & Palen, Philadelphia, Penn. 
Complete instructions with eacli package. 



A NEW BOOK. 

A Treatise on the Horse and his Diseases 

By B. J. Kendall, M D. 

35 Fine Engravings showing the 
positions aud actions of sick 
horses. Gives the cause, symp 
toms and best treatment of dis 
eases. Has i table giving th< 
1 dosed, effects and antidotes of all 
the principal medicines used for 
1 the horse, and a few pages on the 
action and uses of medicinea. 

Rules for telling the age of a 
horse, with a fine engraving show- 
ing the appearance of the teeth 
at each year. 

It Is priuteu 011 fine paper and has nearly 100 pages, 7}x5 
inches. Price only 25 cents, or 5 for §1, on receipt of which 
we will send by mail to any address. 

DEWEY & CO., 

202 Sansome St., S. F. 

Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
ing, Electrotyping and Stercotyp- 
_ 1 ing done at the office of theMiMNQ 
and Scientific Prkss, San Francisco, at favorable rates 




Engraving.! 



Poultry. 



THOROUGHBRED POULTRY. 



SAFE 
ARRIVAL, 

OP 

FOWLS 

AND 

EGOS 

Guar anteed. 




UNLIMITED 
RANGE. 

Healthy Stock 

116 ACRES 
Devoted to the 
Business. 



LANGSHANS. I now breed this justly celebrated 
Fowl. Send 3c. stamp for price list and circular describ- 
ng the different breeds I keep. Incubators. 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 

43TPamphlet on Breeding, Hatching, Diseases, etc., 
adapted especially to Pacific Coast, sent for 15c. 



BROWN LEGHORN EGGS FOR SALE. 

From selected birds. Also a few choice Fowls— Brown 
Leghorns, Spangled Hamburgs and Partridge Cochins. 
All yearlings or under. 

HENR7 PETERSON, 
Near the University, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal 



SUNNY SIDE APIARY. 

Pure Italian Queens and Bees, tested and untested. 
Young Queens ready April 1st. Also, Wintered-over 
Queens. Purity and safety guaranteed. Comb founda- 
tion, smokers, knives, bee-books, etc. Sample Premium 
Hive. Address with stamp, 

JOS. D. ENAS, 

Sunny Side, Napa Co., Cal. 



Fiif.t 




Five sizes are made to suit the dimensions of different 
par.ers, viz. : 18, 22, 26, 30 and 34 inches, inside measure. 

For Sale by DEWEY & CO., 

No. 202 Sansome St., S. F. 



COPP'S 

AMERICAN SETTLERS' GUIDE. 

Public Land System Explained; How to tell Township 
and Section Corners; How to Homestead and Pre empt 
land; How to Enter land under Timber Culture, Desert, 
Townsite and other Laws. Sent by mail postpaid for 50 
cents. DEWEY & CO, 

202 Sansome St. , S. F. 



Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
40,000 tons capacity. Storage at lowest rates. 
CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt. 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. - - Proprietors. 
Office— 318 California Street, Room 3. 



SEND FOB. THE 

$1.50 

Homoeopathic Medicine Case. 

Containing 12 principal remedies, with directions for 
use. Also Veterinary cases and books. Send for cata- 
logue. Address BOERICKE & TAFEL, 
Homoeopathic Pharmacy, San Francisco. 



■MM* MSB*. NOT FAIL to lend 
^{SSr^lBb 4Bt3T*1ttt f" r our Prlc* List for 
Bfl WS WK WS 1880. Fbjeb to any 
■ address upon ap- 
H JSi fll JH plication. Contain* 
•dS&t^&f* *QMl^^P descriptions of ev«ry- 
■■■■■Br VHT thing required for 
personal or family nil 
with «Ter 1,100 Illustrations. We ■ell All 

Roodl At wholesale price* In quantities to suit 
le purchaser. The only Institution In AmerlcA 
Who make this their special business. Addreia. 
MONTGOMERY WARD A CO., 

9*7 a Sa» W Abash At*., OhlOAfo. tit, 



REMOVAL. 

Joh.33. 2T. Geary, M. 3D. 

For the last 18 years at 632 Howard street, San Francisco, 
has 

REMOVED TO OAKLAND. 

Consulting rooms, Erie House, 1113 Broadway. 
Office hours, 1 to 5 p. m. Mornings and evenings at 
Marathon Park, Telegraph Avenue. 
Diseases of women and children a specialty for 26 years. 



The New Beekeepers' Text Book. 

By A. J. Kino. The latest work on the Apiary, 
embodying accounts of all the newest methods 
and appliances. Fully illustrated. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, for $1. DEWEY & CO., 202 Sansome Street. S. F 



Dewey &Co{ 2 a 2 m e s i?:}PatentAg'ts 



Stock Notices. 



E. W. WOOLSEY & SON, 

Importers and Breeders of THOROUGHBRED 




SPANISH MERINO SHEEP. 

We are breeding from FIRST PREMIUM stock of Ver- 
mont and California. Unsurpassed in quality and condi- 
tion. Purchasers are invited to examine. We are cultivating 
the style of wool pre-eminently required on this coast. 
^ Berkeley, Alameda County, Cal. 

HALF-BREED JERSEY 

HEIFERS FOR SALE. 

From First-Class 

AMERICAN DAIRY COWS. 

Deliverable at 837 Howard Street, San Francisco, or at 
San Bruno Station S. P. R. R. 

PRICES : 

One Week Old $ 5.00 

One Month Old 10.00 

Two Months Old 15.00 

Three Months Old 20.00 

Or at 50 cents less at JERSEY FARM, San Bruno. 

R. Q. SNEATH. 

RAMS FOR SALE. 

300 THOROUGHBRED 
And Graded 

SPANISH MERINO 

Rams For Sale. 
jaBtf'j 1 %W-^ r Bred from the first impor- 
WBlHfflgnTffnBjntl? m I J Nation of Spanish Merino 
**MBaHffl!B!HfflW!fflS!IP** Sheep to California, in 1854. 

Prices to suit the times. Residence, one mile north of 
McConnel's Station, Western Pacific Division C. P. R. R. 
P. O. address, MRS. E. McCONNELL WILSON, 
Elk Grove, Sacramento Co., Cal. 

TO SHEEP RAISERS. 

«00 THOROUGHBRED SPANISH MERINO 
mSST RAMS; 300 THOROUGHBRED 

OmSm FRENCH MERINO RAMS. 

For sale in lots to suit, and at greatly reduced rates- 
Apply to EUGENE AVY, Wool Commission Mer. 
chant, 320 Sansome St., Wells, Fargo & Co.'s building 




Seedsmen. 



BUY DIRECT! SEEDS, TREES,Etc. 

5 Cents per lb.— Egyptian Corn (white and brown); 
Broom Corn; Extra Early Vermont, Snowfiake and Bres- 
see's Prolific Potatoes; Pop-Corn. 10 CtS. per lb — Pearl 
Millet in heads; Sorghum; Evergreen Imphee (for feed); 
Evergreen or Golden and Dwarf Broom-Corn; Golden 
Millet 20 CtS. per lb.— Liberian, Kenny's, Amber, 
Oomseana and Neeazana Sugar Canes; Best Spanish Chufas; 
Pearl Millet in hulls. 40 CtS. per lb— Chinese Im- 
phee, largest and richest in sugar, (See page 250 Report 
of Commissioner of Agriculture for 1877). 

TREES at 5 to IO CtS. eacb- Chestnut, Walnut, 
Maples (sugar, red and silver); Catalpas, Ailanthus, Fir, 
Pine, etc. 25 CtS. per ] OO— Strawberry Plants, Poplar, 
Osier and Hop Root Cuttings. At 1 Ct. each — Arbor 
Vitae trees (1 foot high); Prickley Comfrey and Panicum 
Spectabile Root-cuttings; Pomegranate, Fig and Black 
Mulberry Cuttings. 

Semi-tropical and other Fruit Trees, CHEA P. 

itSTTrees, Seeds, etc., packed and delivered on cars 
without extra charge, or sent by mail for 16 cts. per lb. 
additional. Send for illustrated catalogue free. Address 

W. A. Sanders, SANDERS P.O., Fresno Co., Cal. 




Pocket Map of California and Nevada. 

Compiled from the latest authentic sources, by Chas. 
Drayton Gibbs, C. E. This map comprises information 
obtained from the U. S. Coast and Land, Whitney's State 
Geological, and Railroad Surveys; and from the results of 
explorations made by R. S. Williamson, U. S. A., Henry 
Degroot, C. D. Gibbs and others. The scale is 18 miles to 
1 inch. It gives the Judicial and U. S. Land Districts. 
It distinguishes the Townships and their subdivisions; the 
County Seats; The Military Posts; the Railroads built and 
proposed, and the limits of some of them; the occurrence 
of gold, silver, copper, quicksilver, tin, coal and oil. It 
has a section showing the hights of the principal moun- 
tains. The boundaries are clear and unmistakable, and 
the print good. 1878. Sold by DEWEY & CO. Price, 
postpaid, $2; to subscribers of this journal, until further 
notice, SI. 



Bound Volumes of the Prkss — We have a few sets of 
the back files of the Pacific Rural Prkbs, which we will 
sell for 83 per (half-yearly) volume. In cloth and leather 
binding, 85. These volumes, complete, are scarce, and 
valuable for future reference and library use. 



Lands for Sale and to Let. 



Rare Opportunity 

— FOR A — 
— OR — 

Farming Enterprise ! 



A tract of land, comprising 20,000 acres, lying in Town 
ship 16, south, range 19 and 20 east, in 

FRESNO COUNTY, 

Is offered in whole or in part, as a very desirable location 
for a Colony or extensive farming enterprise. 

This land is in the immediate vicinity of soveral Colo- 
nies, which are already in successful progress. 

Work for bringing water upon the land has already 
been commenced, and the land is so situated that it can 
be irrigated at very little outlay. It is also convenient for 
Railroad transportation. 

Terms Reasonable. 

For further particulars inquire of FRANKLIN D. 
COTTLE, No. 932 Howard Street, San Francisco, or> 
COTTLE & LUCE on the premises, or at Fresno 
City, Cal. 



fcfc 



FRUIT FARM 

FOR SALE 
Near Sa n Jo se, Cal. 

That fine place known as the 

CHENEY FARM," 

Adjoining Lick's Mill, is offered for sale. 



Was purchased a Short time ago for 
$25,000. Is offered for $20,000 and 
will pay a Good Interest on the in- 
vestment. 



There are 118 acres of choice land— 40 acres in Straw- 
berries, 7 acres in Blackberries, 700 young Pear Trees, 
and an Old Orchard. Has several flowing wells, a large 
house of 10 rooms, marble mantels, etc. The house is 
completely finished, Brussels carpets on most of the floors; 
parlor, sitting-room and bed-room furniture all nearly 
new. 

With Stock consisting of Horses, Cattle, Hogs, Fanning 
Implements, etc., sufficient for the place, all for the price 
above named. 

Satisfactory reasons given for selling. 



Apply to 



TERMS EASY. 
J. A. Clayton, 

REAL ESTATE AGENT. 

San Jose, Cal. 



Sheep Range For Sale. 

4*Eggg&& About 3,169 acres of deeded land, four cabins 
HHomF and corrals; plenty of good water. Has a front 
age of four miles on Elder Creek, and ih situated 
in Tehama county, in T 2ft and 26 N, R 6 W, M 
D M; will keep 6,000 Sheep. I have a good summer range 
which I will let go with it. For further particulars apply at 
the ranch. 

G. M. LOWREY. 

P. O. address, Red Bluff, Tehama County, California. 
March 20th. 1880. 




For Sale in large or small tracts, on easy terms, in 
the best parts of the State. 

McAFEE BROTHERS, 

202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



FRUIT AND GRAIN FARM FOR SALE, 

Near Sacramento, Cal. 

Eighty acres of choice land, two miles from city limits; 
half mile east upper Stockton road; 800 Fruit trees, one acre 
Grapevines, two acres Blackberries. Sixty-rive acres in Grain 
will be sold with or without crop. Good House and Out 
Buildings. Farm well fenced; rive Windmills and Horse 
Power; Fish Pond; three-quarters of a mile from good 

Mel 1. This property will be sold cheap. Terms cash. 

Apply at the ranch. J. K. HOUSTON. 



LAND 

convenient. U. 
trated circular, 
Reading Ranch, 



Good land that will raise a crop every 
year. Over 14,000 acrca for sale in lots to 
suit. Climate healthy. No drouths, bad 
floods, nor malaria. Wood and water 
S. Title, perfect. Send stamp for illus- 
to EDWARD FRISBIE, Proprietor of 
Anderson, Shasta County, Cal. 



Mining and Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 

The Mining and Scientific Press Patent Agency was 
established in 1800— the first west of the Rocky Moun 
tains. It has kept step with the rapid march of meclian- 
cal improvements. The records in its archives, its con- 
stantly increasing library, the accumulation of informa- 
tion of special importance to our home inventors, and the 
experience of its proprietors in an extensive and long 
continued personal practice in patent business, affords 
them combined advantages greater than any other agents 
can possibly offer to Pacific Coast inventors. Circulars of 
advice free. Address, DEWEY & CO., 

Office Mining and Scientific Press and Pacific Ru- 
ral Press, 202 Sansome Street, S. F. — 1879. 

Elegant Perfumed Cards, Chromo, Motto, Lily, Eto. 
15o. Gift with each pack. H M. Smith, OlintonrUle. Ct. 



60 



12 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July 3, 18S0, 



TENTS AND jgNVENTIONS 



List of U. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 
Inventors. 

From Official Reports for the "Mining and Scientific 
Press," Dewey & Co., Publishers and U. 
S. and Foreign Patent Agents. 1 



229, 

Cal. 
229, 

reka, 
229, 

Cal. 
229, 
229, 
229, 
229, 

Santa 



For the Week Ending Junk 22, 1880. 
,109.— Drying Apparatus— E. F. Ely, Santi Rosa, 

035 — Breech-Loadinu Firearm— W. R. Finch, Eu- 
Cal. 

030.— Newspaper File— W. C. Fitch, Sacramento, 

040.— Grafting Tool- C. W. Hoit, Petal uma, Cal. 
144.— Boot and Shoe— P. Kelly, S. F. 
147. —Gate— F. W. Lamb, Hydesville, Cal. 
181.— Track Clearer for Mower— W. Prindle, 
Clara, Cal. 



List of English patents applied for by Pacific Coast in- 
ventors: 

447.— Explobive Compound.— M. Tishirner, S. F. 
458.— Extracting Metals from Ore— A. C. Tichenor, 
585. — Umbrella— D Harris, S. F. 
773.— Bed— J. EL Archer, S. F. 
1,162.— Valve— W. Wilson, Oakland, Cal. 
1,216.— Photographs— E. S. Molera and J. C. Cebrian, 
S. F. 

1 217.— Photoorapus— E. S. Molera and J. C. Cebrian, 
S. F. 

1,280 —Beer— A. J. Spencer, San Jose, Cal. 

1,586.— Chronomktuiu Motor - E. S. Molera and J. C. 
■Cebrian, S. F. 

1,620.— Vessel— J. S. Taylor, S. F. 

1,669.— Boilers— E. S. Mole a and J. 0. Cebrian, S. F. 

1,752 —Ice Machine— C. C. Palmer, Oakland, Cal. 

1,786 — Pipe Lavinu Apparatus.- E. M. Hamilton aud 
C. N. Earl, Los Angeles, Cal. 

2,192. — Firearm —A. Schneider and T. Elliott, S. F. 

Note. — Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tele- 
graph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent busi- 
ness for Pacific coast inventors transacted with perfect 
security and in the shortest possible time. ,mam» . 



Silver medal and 
Bronze medal and 



Silver medal and 
Bronze medal aud 



. Bronze medal and 26 



Horticultural Premiums at Mechanics' 
Fair of 1880. 



PLANTS, TRF.ES AND FLOWERS. 

To the exhibitor making the best 
and most attractive continuous 
display of plants and flowers du- 
ring the exhibition 

Second do 

To the exhibitor making the best 
display of foliage, plants and 
ferns 

Second do 

Best group of hardy palms and 
arauieirias. . .-. 

Best group of orange or lemon 
trees, rarity, hight and growth 
considered (not less than 10 speci- 
mens) 

Best display of fuchsias in bloom in 
pots (not less tha!i 25 plants) . . . 

Best continuous display of cut (low- 
ers during the exhibition 

Second do > 

Best continuous display of gladio- 
lus (not less than 40 glasses) 

Second do 

Best display and variety of dahlias 

Second do 

Best display of ornamental grasses 

Best display of rustic work and fill- 
ing 

Best single specimen of rustic work 
and filling 

OPEN TO AMATEURS 



Silver medal aud 

Bronze medal and 

Silver medal and 
Bronze medal and 

Bronze medal and 
Diploma and 
Bronze medal and 
Diploma and 
Bronze medal and 

Silver medal and 

Diploma and 

OXLV. 



$10 

10 



Best 12 house plants 

Best display of cut roses 

Best specimen of climber on globe or trellise o 

Best collection cut flowers 10 

Best carnations 5 

Best 12 variegated-leaf geraniums 10 

FRUIT — OPEN TO GROWERS ONLY'. 

N. B.- No premium will be awarded unless the fruit is 
properly namod. 

Best collection apples $20 

BeBt 12 varieties apples 10 

Best collection pears 20 

Best 12 varieties pears 10 

Best collection peaches 20 

Best 6 varieties peaches 10 

Best 6 varieties canning peaches 10 

Best collection plums 10 

Second do 5 

Best collection prunes 10 

Best collection nectarines 6 

Best collection quinces 5 

Best collection figs 10 

Best collection oranges 15 

Best collection lemons 10 

BeBt collection limes 5 

Best display of grapes 25 

Best collection table grapes 15 

Best 6 varieties table grapes 10 

Beat collection wine grapes 20 

Best (I varieties wine grapes 10 

Best collection raisin grapes 15 

Best collection seedless raisin grajK'S 15 

Best dinplay Japan persimmons 10 

Best display pomegranates 5 

Best display blackberries 5 

Beat display raspberries 6 

Best display strawberries 5 

DRIED FRUIT. 

Apricots, best 10 tbs $5 

Apples, best 10 ltiB 5 

Prunes, best 10 lbs 6 

Peaches, best 10 It.a 6 

Plums, best 10 lbs 5 

Pears, best 10 lbs 5 

Figs, best 10 lbs 6 

Raisins, Cal., best box of 20 lbs. or more 25 

Seedless raisins, Cal., best box of 20 lbs. or more 16 

NUTS— CALIFORNIA GROWN. 

Almonds, best 10 ll.s $5 

Walnuts, best 10 lbs 6 

Chestnuts, best 10 lbs 6 



Tub Zimmerman Drier.— From the frequent 
mention we see of the Zimmerman fruit drier in 
our Eastern exchanges we infer that it is a ma- 
chine of good standing for family use. It is 
worth looking into and the advertisement in an- 
other column tells where catalogues may be ob- 
tained. 

Famine fever has appeared in Killbran, 
County Sligo, Ireland. At a meeting of the 
Committee of the Mansion House Relief Fund 
U was stated that the Fund afforded only three 
weeks' supply, 




CRYSTAL FALLS. 



The accompanying engraving illustrates one of many charming views near Anderson Springs, Lake county. It is 
drawn from a photograph taken by A. J. Perkins (gallery, No. 337 Hayes street, S. F.,) who has some two or three dozen 
more picturesque views taken upon the premiseB of Anderson & Patriquin, proprietors of the Springs The hight 
of the falls represented in our picture is about 12 ft. They are Bituated some little distance from the hotel on the 
right hand branch of quite a large brook, which comes tumbling over the boulders and rocks in rapid descent — its 
waters fairly roaring with agitation in some places and in others pleasantly rollicking and murmuring along. The 
falls are in a wild gorge. The water, almost icy cold and crystal clear, is a natural trout stream. 



Change in Land Laws. 

The new regulations set forth in the follow- 
ing letter from the General Land Ollice at 
Washington, are now in force. 

To District Land Offices — -Gentlemen: — Ap- 
pended hereto is a copy of the act approved 
May 14, 1880, which changes existing laws and 
regulations relative to the entry of certain 
classes of land: 

Sec. 1. That when a pre-emption, homestead 
or timber culture claimant shall lile a written 
relinquishment of his claim in the local land 
office, the land covered by such claim shall be 
held as open to settlement and entry without 
further action on the part of the Commissioner 
of the General Land Office. 

This will be held to apply only to the relin- 
quishments which are tilled subsequent to date 
of said act, viz: May 14, 1880. 

You are instructed not to accept or act upon 
any relinquishment, unless made before you, 
which has been duly subscribed by the claimant 
on the back of his duplicate receipt, acknowl- 
edged, witnessed and executed in a manner 
which under the laws of the State or Territory 
in which the land is situated would be sufficient 
as a valid transfer of real estate. In case of the 
loss of a duplicate receipt or declaratory state- 
ment, an affidavit of such loss must accompany 
the written relinquishment. 

Immediately upon a relinquishment duly ex- 
ecuted as above, being received at your office, 
you will proceed as follows: 

1. The Register will note on the relinquish- 
ment over his signature, the day and hour of its 
receipt by you. 

2. Write the words "cancelled by relinquish- 
ment" (giving date), opposite the record of the 
entry in the tract book, the register of entries 
and the register of receipts. 

3. Draw a line over the numbers of the entry 
on the township plat. 

4. On Monday of each week you are directed 
to transmit to this office all the relinquishments 
which have been accepted by you during the 
preceding week. 

When the relinquishment shall have been re- 
ceived and noted as above, you will hold the 
land embraced in the relinquished entry as sub- 
ject to settlement, or entry by the first legal 
claimant; the intention of said section, as under- 
stood by me, being only to prevent the delay 
resulting heretofore from awaiting action on 
such relinquishment by this office. 

Sec, 2 ia designed to secure to the contestant 



therein named, for the period of 30 days from 
notice of the cancellation of a prior entry of the 
character specified, a preference right to initiate 
his claim to the same land. It is not intended 
to grant such contestants the unconditional 
right to linal entry, as I construe the section as 
preceding settlement or entry by any other 
party during the period named. 

Sec. 3 places homestead settlers on unsur- 
veyed public lands on the same footing with 
pre-emption settlers under existing laws. This 
section protects the claim of an actual settler 
upon unsurveyed land, provided he shall make 
homestead entry of the land within three months 
from the filing of the township plat of survey 
in the district land office, the same as the pre- 
emptor is now protected by filing his declarator}' 
statement within the same period, and if the 
homestead settler shall fully comply with the 
law as to continuous residence and cultivation 
his statement defeats all claims interveniSu be- 
tween its date and the date of filing his home- 
stead application. In making final proof his 
five years' residence and cultivation will com- 
mence from date of actual settlement. — C. W. 
HoLCOMB, Acting Commissioner. 

Dairy or Fruit Ranches For Sale. — Eds. 
Press: — Among the many suitable places for 
"pleasant homes" that can be had in Santa 
Cruz Co., I will mention Mr. Frank Larkin's 
1,000-acre tract, near Watsonville, of which I 
send you an advertisement to-day. I am ac- 
quainted with the place, and think it to be all 
that he claims for it, and think it would be a 
chance for a number of persons to combine and 
buy themselves homes. He wants to sell be- 
cause he does not want the care of the place. 
The land is well adapted to the growth of grain, 
grass, or fruit, of all the varieties common to 
our climate, and particularly smaU fruit. — M. 
P. Owen. 

Prize to an American Windmill. — It will 
be a matter of interest to many to know that 
the first prize at the Great International Expo- 
sition at Sydney was awarded to the new Alt- 
house windmill. This recognition of excellence 
in a standard American machine is well de- 
served, and the agent, Mr. Woodin, will doubt- 
less give this award a place among his numer- 
ous laurels. 

A railroad official in Arkansas aaya that 
during the next two years more miles of railroad 
will be built in that State than in any other 
State in the South, 



The Forestry Inquiry.— We have already 
mentioned the expected arrival of Prof. C. S 
Sargent, forestry expert for the census office, 
and his associates. Later information from the 
East gives the plans of the forest examiners 
with more detail. They will begin by visiting 
Kansas to study the tree distribution on the 
eastern edge of the prairie and plain region; 
then they will go through Colorado, and possi- 
bly New Mexico, to examine on the spot the 
heavy timber in the canyons of the western 
spurs of the Rocky mountains. The labor com- 
pleted, they will proceed, via San Francisco, to 
Victoria, and thence southward through Puget 
Sound to Portland, Oregon; then south along 
the western Hank of the Cascade mountains to 
Roseburg, Douglass county, Oregon, where the 
party will make their headquarters for some 
time in order to examine the peculiar and little 
known forest vegetation of that region. Thence 
south again to the Mt. Shasta country, in north- 
ern California, where so many of the peculiar 
California trees were first discovered by 
Douglass and Jeffrey. From a botanical point 
of view the stay at Roseburg and in the neigh- 
borhood of Shasta will probably be the most in- 
teresting. The party will visit the great forest 
of Sequoias at the head of the Kern river in the 
southern Sierras. In Kansas and Colorado Mr. 
Sargent will be accompanied by Mr. Robert 
Douglas of Waukegan. and from Salt Lake 
westward by Dr. George Engelmann of St. 
Louis and Dr. Parry. The two latter, who are 
officially connected with the investigation, will 
pass the next winter in southern California, and 
return Fast by way of Arizona and New Mexico 
in the spring. 



The Sackett Boarding School. — This insti- 
tution has, in a very brief time, gained a lead- 
ing position among the many private schools of 
Oakland. The fact affords the best possible 
proof of superior merit. The principal, Mr. D. 
P. Sackett, has been long and favorably known 
there as a disciplinarian and teacher. The lo- 
cation of the school is convenient, healthful 
aud attractive. The comfort and well-beingof the 
students is an especial feature of the domestic 
department. The moral and the physical train- 
ing of the pupil is carefully conducted. In their 
mental training great prominence is given to 
the fundemental branches which must enter 
solidly into all genuine education. Parents who 
are in search of a school in which to tit their 
boys for the University or J for business, would 
do well to examine the catalogue, and visit the 
premises of the Sackett school. 

Prime Jersey Bull for Sale. — Attention ia 
called to the advertisement of a famous Jersey 
bull for sale by F. J. Barretto, of Downey, Los 
Angeles Co., Cal. Mr. Barretto is one of the 
leading prize takers at our fairs, and his stock 
is commended by all who have seen it. 

Andrrson Springs.— These celebrated hot and cold sul- 
phur, iron and soda springs are situated in the midst of a 
pine and spruce forest, in Lake county (a distance of 19 
miles from Calistoga, audio miles -by an excellent road— 
from the Great Geysera; the nearest and most accessible 
pine grove, to San Francisco and Sacramento), beside a 
living trout stream and surrounded by splendid mountain 
scenery; in the most invigorating and health-giving cli- 
mate in the State. Good attention is given to the health 
and enjoyment of all visitors Pricea are very reasonable. 
Address Anderson Springs, Lake Co. , Cal. 



Hall's Vegetable Sicilian Hair Rf.newrr is a scien- 
tific combination of some of the mostjiowerful restorative 
agents in the vegetable kingdom. It restores gray hair 
to its original color It makes the scalp white and clean. 
It cures dandruff and humors, and falling out of the 
hair. It furnishes the nutritive principle by which the 
hair ia nourished and supported. It makes the hair moist, 
soft and glossy, and is unsurpassed as a hair dressing. It 
is the most economical preparation ever offered to the 
public, as its effects remain a long time, making only an 
occasional application necessary. It is recommended and 
used by eminent medical men, and officially endorsed by 
the State Assayer of Massachusetts. The popularity of 
Hall's Hair Rencwer has increased with the test of many 
years, both in this country and in foreign lauda, and it is 
now known and used in all the civilized countries of th* 
world. 

For Sale by all Dealers. 



Citizens of San Jose and vicinity, who wish thoroughly 
good dress making, at reasonable prices, are reconi- 
mended to call at the establishment of Mrs. N. A. San- 
ders, just west of the Farmers' Union. 

Fresh attractions are constantly added to Wood- 
ward's Gardens, among which is Prof. Gruber's great 
educator, the Zoographicon. Each department increases 
daily, and the Paviliou performances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder- 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 



Sample Copies —Occasionally we send copies of this 
paper to persons who we believe would be benefited by 
subscribing for it, or willing to assist us in extending its 
circulation. We call the attention of such to our pros- 
pectus and termB of subscription, and request that they 
circulate the copy sent. 

It will be a special favor to us if sub- 
scribers will forward their subscriptions at 
tbis time. Remember our terms are $3 a 
year if paid In advance. 

Extra Copies can usually be had of each issus of the 
paper, If ordered early. Price, 10 cents, postpaid. 

Forward your subscriptions, and pay for 
the "Rural' r a year in advance at $3. 

Tub Yosemite is strictly first class and the leading hotel 
iu Stockton. Prices moderate. Jas. Cavkh, Propr. 



July 3, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



13 ^ 




Note. — Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, Wednesday, June 30, 1880. 
The trade of the week has been rather more interesting 
jhan usual. Some Grains have shown more life, and Wool 
has advanced a little, apparently enough to set trade ago- 
ing again. The operations of the exchanges and the street 
transactions are becoming more interesting. The city 
generally bids fair to awake from the lethargy of the last 
few months. 

Abroad the Wheat prices are shading down, as they 
always do as harvest draws nearer, and the English expect 
a home crop of much better amount and quality than they 
have had for the last 4 years. The course of prices has 
been as follows: 

Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been as 
recorded in the following table : 





Cal. Average. 


OliUB. 


Thursday 


8s 6d@9s 


3d 


9s 5d@ 9s 


lid 


Friday 


8a 6d@9s 


2d 


9s 4d<3 9s 


lOd 


Saturday 


8s 5d@9s 


2d 


9s 4d@ 9s 


lOd 




8s 5d@9s 


2d 


9s 4d@ 9s 


lOd 


Tuesday 


8s 4d@9s 


Id 


9s 3d@ 9s 


9d 


Wednesday . 


8s 4d(*9s 


Id 


9s 3d@ 9s 


9d 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare with same date in former years as follows: 

Average. Club. 

1878 9s lld@10s 3d 10s 3d@10s 9d 

1879 88 6d@ 9s 3d 9s 2d@ 9s 6d 

1880 8s 4d@ 9s Id 9e 3d® 9s 9d 

The Foreign Review. 

London, June 28. — The Mark Lane Express, reviewing 
the British Grain trade for the past week, says: De- 
Bpite somewhat too much rain, crops have made satisfac- 
tory progress, and anticipations of good crops are becom- 
ing more confident. The supplies of home-grown Wheat, 
both at Mark Lane and in the country, are insignificant. 
Sales were only practicable at a shilling decline. Growers 
yielded with reluctance, but the abundance and relative 
cheapness of fine White foreign Wheat rendered the mill- 
ers Bomewhat indifferent to native Wheat. The weather 
now is of paramount importance. There is still a feeling 
of depression, which is due, in a great measure, to the 
liberal imports into London, which where 135,000 quarters 
during the past fortnight. Trade during the week was 
confined to supply the immediate wants of millers, who 
were able to satisfy themselves at a decline of fully a shill- 
ing per quarter on White and 6c on Red descriptions. The 
weather and crop prospects have brightened. American 
shipments all favor buyers. Maize was firmly held for last 
Monday's full rates. Trade closed with decidedly weaker 
tendency for Wheat. The arrivals at ports of call have 
been moderate, and the demand for Wheat has been inac- 
tive. There have been few sales, mostly for the conti 
nental market, at a decline of a shilling per quarter. Only 
3 cargoes of Maize were received, and owing to its scarcity 
26s 3d was paid for mixed American. In Wheat for ship 
ment there is a downward course. There has been a fair 
business in mixed American Maize on passage and for 
shipment, at about late rates. Sales of English Wheat 
last week were 23,205 quarters, at 44s 8d $ quarter, 
against 36,260 quarters, at 42s 6d quarter, the corre- 
sponding period last year. The imports into the United 
Kingdom, for the week ending Jure 19th, were 1,063,831 
cwts Wheat, and 255,863 cwts Flour. 

Eastern Grain and Provision Markets. 

New York, June 26. — The General Merchandise markets 
reflect the dullness of trade which is incident to the sea- 
son. Breadstuffs are dull and depressed under the large 
and undiminished supplies and the limited export demand 
both of which are induced largely by the very early and 
favorable crop prospects at home and abroad, and the con- 
sequent pressure to sell the old crop before the new ar 
rives, and the delay till then to purchase. Provisions are 
dull, lower and neglected. 

Chicago, June 26. — Except for a gradual and steady 
weakening in prices, there has been no change in Grain 
during the week closing to-night. The shrinkage has been 
small on the whole, but it indicates the approach of good 
harvests and a confidence in the weather and prospects 
that are encouraging to the farmers. Receipts of Wheat 
are practically nothing at present, but a magnificent bulk 
of Corn continues to pour in, regardless of harvests or 
lowering rates. The amount is, however, likely to lessen 
as the month goes out. Sales for the week for July option 
were as follows: Wheat, 87$(j*91£c (the lowest price to- 
day and the highest on Monday); Corn, 34?,@35Jc; Oats. 
24Jt@26ic; Pork, S11.35@12.22J; Lard, SG.60<a6.92i. Re 
specting Provisions, it is to be said that the rise in prices 
is the logical result of the small manufacture of Pork and 
Lard. These 2 products have been neglected by packers, 
because at the high current rates for Hogs it was impossi 
ble to make them with profit. The high prices for Hogs 
have been maintained, because there was an unusual de^ 
mand for fancy cuts, and these could be made with profit 
by packers, so that they took all the Hegs that came. The 
heavy receipts of both Cuttle and Hogs, and the stiff rates, 
seem to be runnir.g a race in which neither will yield. If 
rates decline, the receipts immediately show marked 
lessening. If they advance, receipts increase. The pro- 
ducers watch the market and the prospect with keen eyes, 
and are posted by their factors here It is a pretty fight, 
and it would not be surprising if the Hog product was 
crowded up much higher than present figures before the 
summer closes. Closing cash prices were as follows: 
Wheat, 88}@89c; Com, 34J@34gc; Oats, 24Jc; Rye, 75c; 
Barley, 71i@72c; Pork, $11.95; Lard, $6.65. 

New York, June 29.— The receipts of Grain at this port 
have been unprecedentedly large, both for yesterday and 
for the past week. Yesterday the arrivals were, in round 
numbers, 550,000 bushels of Wheat and 740,000 bushels of 
Corn. For the week ending the 26th they aggregated 
5,213,330 bushels. The exports since Saturday were very 
large, being of Wheat 230,000 bushels, and of Corn 550,- 
000 bushels. The visible supply has increased during the 
week in Wheat 200,000 bushels, and in Corn 89,000 bush- 
els. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, June 26. Wool is neglected. Sales of Cali- 
fornia, 45,000 lbs Fall, 19J@22c. 

Boston, June 26.— The Wool market is more active for 
all kinds with a steadier and better feeling, and bottom 
prices have evidently been reached. There is a move- 
ment in new Spring California this week, sales comprising 
334,900 lbs at 25@36c, of which considerable was choice 
Northern at 35@36c. There is a better demand for 
washed fleeces, with sales of 171,000 lbs. In unwashed 
fleeces a fair business is doing, and for pulled Wools there 
is increased demand, but no improvement in prices. 
Transactions in foreign Wool included 500,000 lbs Monte- 
video, said to arrive several weeks ago, at 36J@42c, but 
just delivered. This is about 5c $ fi> above the present 
current rates. Sales include Ohio, Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia fleeces, X, XX and XXX, at 44@48c; new X Michi- 
gan, 40c; old Michigan X and No. 1, 42@47ic; Wisconsin 



fine, 45c; Ohio fine Delaine, 48c; Combing and Delaine, 
unwashed, 33£@36c; Georgia, 34J@36c; Texas, 31@34c; 
Lake, 35c; Missouri, 35c; choice Kentucky, 37c; unwashed 
and unmerchantable fleeces, 23@37; Spring California, 25 
@36c; Fall do, 26i@32ic; scoured, 48@50c; Super and X 
pulled, 42@53c; Montevideo, 35@36c; Australian, 43@48c; 
English combing, 50c; Scotch combings, 42c. The total 
sales for the week were 26,177,700 lbs, of which 1,304,400 
were domestic. 

Philadelphia, June 29. — Wool is firmer and the supply 
light, ana the demand improving. Oregon fine, 28@30c; 
medium, 30(»35e; coarse, 28@30c; California, 25@30c; 
medium, 28@32c; coarse, 25@28c; New Mexican and Colo- 
rado fine, 20@30c; medium, 25@30c; coarse Carpet Wool, 
22@25c; pulled extra Merino, 40<345c; Super, 40@43c; 
Lambs' Super, 40@45c. 

New York Dried Fruit Markets. 

New York, June 26. — Foreign Fruits are very quiet. 
Raisins are unchanged. Prunes are unsettled and weak. 
New, 5Jc; old, 3|c. 

Receipts of Domestic Produce. 

The following table shows the San Francisco receipts 
of Domestic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day. 
as compared with the receipts of previous weeks : 



Artiolbs. 


Week. 


Week. 


Week. 


Week.I 


June 9. 


June 16. 


June 23. 


June 30. 


Flour, quarter sacks . . 


6,984 


80,174 


65,104 


38,834 




19,706 


56,321 


41,354 


40,451 




24,575 


25,029 


9,007 


16,035 




3,787 


3,002 


10,606 


1,474 




12,114 


14,235 


6,524 


9,256 




8,494 


10,367 


4,165 


2,873 




9,068 


7,950 


8,802 


9,855 


Onions, sacks 


1,688 


1,850 


1,658 


1,700 




5,351 


5,858 


4,938 


7,012 




4 


18 


18 




902 


760 


945 


952 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 



10 



BAGS— The Bag market seems to feel the better im- 
pression in the Grain prospect, and dealers report the 
trade finning. There is no change in rates. It is said 
that lots which were bought at 9ic a few days ago, have 
been resold at 10c in lots of 100,000 Bags. Holders say 
they are confident that their goods will be called for. 

BARLEY— Sales of Barley have been considerable, al- 
though prices have not changed. We note sales, 2,000 
sks Bay Feed at 70c; 250 sks choice Coast do, 70c, and 60 
tons fair do at 65c. 

BEANS— There is no change. 

CORN— Corn is about the same as at our last report 
although it has been a little off meantime. We note sales 
of 700 ctls Large Yellow at $1.12}. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— All are talking the Butter market 
a little weaker, but there is no material reduction in rates. 
The receipts have been a little larger than the demand 
took up, so the effect is natural. It seems altogether too 
late for a break in values, so probably a few days will 
stiffen things up again. Cheese is ru'ing from 7@10c $ 
lb. 

EGGS— The bulk of California Eggs are selling from 19 
@21c, but some choice lots, extra fresh, still bring 22Jc. 
The market is very quiet. 

FEED— There is no change of consequence either in 
Hay or Ground Feeds. 

FRESH MEAT — Trade is quiet and prices unchanged. 

FRUIT— Our list shows considerable fluctuations, 
generally in the line of reduced prices, as the receipts of 
all early Fruits are becoming large. Red Astracan Apples 
are now in. Black Figs have also appeared, and sold at 
35c $ lb. Prices of other Fruits may be found in our list. 

HOPS— Prices are stationary. Reports from California 
yards state that the growing plant is generally in good 
condition and promise. 

LIVE STOCK— We note sales: 259 Store and Cows, 
mixed, $33 ¥ head; 82 head at $32 V head; 500 head at 
$35.20 $ head; 417 head, mixed, at $28 ¥ head; 309 Calves 
at $10.25 each; 300 Hogs at 5Jc; 525 Hogs at 5c; 320 stock 
Hogsat4Jc; 500 Sheep at $2 each; 420 Lambs at $1.25 
each, in the country; 460 Sheep at $1.87} each. 

OATS- Oats are quiet and sales few; 200 sks Humboldt 
Feed brought §1.42} $ ctl. 

ONIONS— All kinds are still 00@65c $ ctl. 

POTATOES— Old Potatoes are now out of the market, 
and prices are now for the new crop. Receipts are quite 
moderate so far. 

POULTRY— Young Roosters, Broilers and tame Ducks 
are lower, as quoted in our list. Other sorts are un" 
changed. The trade is very quiet. 

PROVISIONS— Quiet and unchanged. 

VEGETABLES — Our list shows many fluctuations. 
Eggplant is now in, and has sold at 20c 13 lb. 

WHEAT— The millers are doing nearly all the business. 
We note sales: 200 ctls choice Sonora, for cracked Wheat 
at $1.65; 200 ctls do, for the same purpose, S1.61J; 400 sks 
choice Milling, $1.60; 2,000, 1,000 and 125 sks do do, 
$1,57}; 575 sks good do, SI 55; 1,400 sks fair do, $1.50; and 
285 sks, for superfine, at $1.37}. 

WOOL— The demand is better and prices are advanced 
i@2c all around. Trade is going on freely, and there 
seems a disposition to clear up the Wool in hand. The 
demand is good, especially for choice lots. One house has 
sold 150,000 lbs at the prices given in our list. 



BEANS A PEAS 

Bayo, ctl 9o @1 05 

Butter 1 10 (81 15 

Castor 3 25 @3 50 

Pea 1 25 @1 35 

Red 95 (81 05 

Pink 95 (81 05 

Sm'l White 1 05 -81 15 

Lima 5 50 @>7 00 

Field Peas.b'lk eyel 25 (81 50 
do, green.. 1 10 (81 25 
BROOM CORN. 

Southern 1J@ 2 

Northern 2i<8 3i 

CUICXORY, 

California 4 @ 4; 

German 6i@ 7 

DAIRY PRODUCE, ETC 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, tt> 20 (8 22J 

Fancy Brands - 8 23 

Pickle Roll — @ — 

Firkin, new - @ 224 

Western — @ — 

New York — @ — 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal, tt).... 7@ 
N. Y. State — @ 

EOOS. 

Cal. fresh, doz.... 20 @ 22 

Ducks' 19 (8 21 

Oregon 16 @ 17 

Eastern. by expr'ss. — @ 18 

Pickled here — (8 — 

Utah — (8 — 

EEED. 

Bran, ton 12 50 (813 00 

Corn Meal @26 50 

Hay 6 00 @12 00 

Middlings (816 00 

Oil Cake Meal. ..30 00 @ 

Straw, bale 40 <g 475 

noun. 

Extra, City Mills.. 5 25 (85 50 
do, Co'ntryMill3.4 50 ^5 00 

do, Oregon 4 50 (84 75 

do, Walla Walla.4 50 @4 87} 

Superfine 3 50 (84 00 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qual'y, lb 6 @ 

Second 5 @ 

Third 4 @ 

Mutton 3 @ 

Spring Lamb 4 @ 

Pork, undressed... 5 (8 

Dressed 7g@ 

Veal 6 @ 

Milk Calves 6h<g 

do choice, . . 7 @ 
GRAIN, ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl... 65 @ 70 
do. Brewing... 75 <a 87 

Chevalier 1 20 35 

do, Coast.. 1 00 @1 15 

Buckwheat 2 25 (82 50 

Corn. White 1 30 @1 40 



[WH0LE8ALB.1 

Wednesday m., 



June 30. 1S80. 



Filberts 17 @ 18 

ONIONS. 

Alviso — @ — 

Union City, ctl.... — @ — 

San Leandro — @ — 

Stockton, new 60 @ 65 

Sacramento River. 60 (8 65 
POTATOES. 

Petaluma. ctl — @ — 

Tomales — @ — 

Humboldt — S — 

" Kidney — (8 — 

" Peachblow. — (8 — 

Cuffey Cove — @ — 

Early Rose, new. . 50 # 75 
Half M'n Bay, new 25 (3 50 

Alvarado, red — (3 — 

Sweet — @ — 

POULTRY A GAME. 

Hens, doz 6 C0(8 7 00 

Roosters 5 00(3 8 00 

Broilers 2 50@ 4 00 

Ducks, tame, doz.. 3 00(8 4 50 

Mallard — @ — 

Sprig — @ — 

Teal — @ — 

Widgeon - @ — 

Geese, pair 1 25(8 1 50 

Wild Gray, doz.. — (3 — 

White do — & — 

Turkeys 14 @— 16 

do, Dressed 16 @— 18 

Snipe. Eng — (3 

do, Common.... — @ 

Quail, doz — @ 

Rabbits 75 @ 1 00 

Hare — (8 1 50 

Venison — @— — 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, extra 

clear, lb 11 @ 115 

Medium 11 @ HI 

Light 12 <g 125 

Lard 10{@ 115 

Cal. Smoked Beef 12 (3 125 

Shoulders - @ 9 

Hams, Cal 11 @ 115 

Dupee's 13 @ 135 

None Such 13 <8 135 

Wbittaker 125@ 13j 

Royal 13S<3 14 

Palmetto — (8 —• 

H. Ames & Co... 135(8 14 

Armour 135@ 13* 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 10 @ 12 

do, Chile 4 @ 6 

Canary 5 (8 6 

Clover, Red 14 @ 15 

White 60 @ 55 

Cotton -- @ 20 

Flaxseed 25@ 3 

Hemp - @ 10 

Italian Rye Grass 30 @ — 
Perennial 30 @ 



Yellow 1 10 @1 12; Millet, German. 



Small Round.... — (31 15 
Oats 1 35 ai 50 

Milling — (81 55 

Rye 65 (81 00 

Wheat, No. 1 1 52J(8l 575 

do, No 2 1 425(81 475 

do. No. 3. 

Choice Milling.. 1 10 @1 625 
HIDES. 
Hides, dry 175@ 18 

Wet salted 10 @ 105 

HONEY. ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 225(8 25 

Honey in comb.... 12 @ 14 

do. No 2 — @ — 

Dark — — 

Extracted 5J@ 65 

HOPS. 

Oregon. 25 @ 30 

California, new... 35 @ 40 

Wash. Ter 25 <8 30 

Old Hops 6 % 10 

NUTS-Jobbing. 
Walnuts, Cal 12 (8 15 

do Chile 8 (3 10 

Almonds, hd shl lb 8 (8 10 

Soft sh'l 18 (8 20 

Brazil 14 (8 15 

Pecans 16 <g 17 

Peanuts 9(810 



10 (8 
7 (3 
3 @ 
li@ 

3 ~ 



do. Common 
Mustard, White. 

Brown 

Rape 

Ky Blue Grass 20 @ 

2d quality 16 @ 

'Sweet V Grass. ... — @ 

Orchard 20 @ 

Red Top - (8 

Hungarian 8 @ 

Lawn 30 (8 

Mesquit 10 (3 

Timothy — @ 

TALLOW. 

Crude, lb 5S <g 5! 

Refined 75 ® 7j 

WOOL. ETC. 

3PRINO. 

Southern and Sac Joaquin. 

Loint, free 23 @ 24 

Short, free 21 (3 23 

Seedy 18 (8 20 

Slightly burry ... 21 (8 23 

Burry 19 @ 20 

Northern. 

Choice, free 28 (8 32 

Burry 25 (8 27 

Oregon. Eastern . . 23 <» 25 

do Valley 2i (8 30 



Commission Merchants. 



DALTON & GRAY, 

Commission Merchants 

And Wholesale Dealers in all kinds of 

Country Produce, Fruits, Etc. 

404 and 406 Davis St., 

Bet. Washington and Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. 



CHAS. RYHNER, 

(Member of the S. F. Produce Exchange. 

GENERAL COMMISSION MERCHANT. 

— Dealer in — 

FLOUR, GRAIN, FEED AND PRODUCE. 

216 Davis Street, 
Between Clay and Commercial, - - SAN FRANCISCO. 
Consi nments of all kinds of Produce solicited. 

DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

Reference.— Tradesmen's National Ban*, N. Y.; Ell 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y.; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
mento, Cal. : A Lusk & Co. , San Francisco, CaL 



PAGE, MOORE & CO., 

WOOL and GRAIN 

Commission Merchants. 

NOS. 211 AND 213 CLAY STREET, 

San Francisco. 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



Butter, California 

Choice, lb 

Cheese 

Eastern 

Lard, Cal 

Eastern 

Flour, ex. fam. bbl8 

Corn Meal, lb 

Sugar, wh. crshd 

Light Brown.... 

Coffee. Green 

Tea, Fine Black. .. 

Finest Japan 

Candles, Admt'e.. 
Soap, Cal 



RETAIL GROCERIES. ETC. 

June 30, 1880. 

@ 12 



25 @ 
18 @ 
25 (8 
18 (8 
20 (8 
00 «/;t 

2i@ 
llh't 

8 @ 
23 @ 
50 Ml 
55 (81 
15 @ 

7 & 



Wednesday m 

Rice , 

45 Yeast Pwdr. doz..l 50 (82 00 
25 Can'd Oysters doz2 00 @3 50 
30 Syrup, S F Gold'n 75 (81 02 
Dried Apples, lb.. 10(8 14 
25 Ger. Prunes.... 124(8 10 

00 Figs, Cal 9 (8 15 

3 Peaches 11 (8 10 

13j Oils, Kerosene 50 @ 60 

" Wines, Old Port... 3 50 (85 00 

French Claret 1 00 (82 50 

Cal, doz bot 3 00 @4 50 

Whisky, O K, gal. .3 50 (85 00 
French Brandy. . ..4 00 (88 00 



BAGS AND BAGGING. 



Eng Standard Wheat. lOi'dlOj 
California Manufacture. 
Hand Sewed, 22x36.. 10S@10J 

22x40 12 @12J 

23x40 — @13 

24x40 13J@14 



[JOBBING prices. 1 

Wednesday m., 



June 30, 1880. 



45 inch 9J<310 

40 inch 9 @ 9} 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand Sewed, 3J tt)..— @50 

4 lb do 52J<355 

Machine Sewed — (350 



Machine Swd, 22x36. 10{(8103 Standard Gunnies....— (814 

Flour Sacks, halves.... 9 (glOJlBean Bags 7 (3 7{ 

Quarters 6 W 7 Twine. Detrick's A....— (835 

Eighths 4 @ 4} " " A A.. -(837 

Hessian, 60 inoh — @14 " Lonesdale, Ex. . .— (840J 

I " " Stand- @36 



FRUIT MARKET 

Apples, basket.. — 35 C8— 75 

do, box - 60 (8 1 25 

Apricots, bx.... 1 00 (3 1 121 
do Royal. 1 15 (8 1 25 
Bananas, onch.. 2 50 (8 4 00 
Blackberries, lb.— 8 (3— 10 

Cherries — 4 (3— 6 

" B. Tartar'n— 7 (8— 9 
Cherry Plums, bx- 65 (8 1 25 

CitroiiB, Cal., 100 (8 

Cocoa nuts. 100.. 7 00 (3 8 00 
Currants, chest.. 6 00 @ 6 25 [ 

Figs, black @— 35 

Gooseberries — — 4 (3— 7 

Limes. Mex 7 00 (3 8 00 

do, Cal, box. . . 1 75 let 2 25 
do, large, box. 5 00 (3 7 00 
Lemons, Cal bx. 2 60 @ 3 00 
Sicily, hoi .... 8 00 (8 9 00 

Australian @ 

Oranges. Cal M.25 00 (335 00 
do, Tahiti. . .30 00 @35 00 

do, Mexican @ 

Peaches, box. ... 1 00 (3 2 00 



I WDOtiBSALB. I 

Wednesday m., June 30. 1880. 



do pared ... 18 @— 20 

Pears, slicKl 9 (8 10 

do, peeled... 9 (3 11 

Plums 4 (8 5 

Pitted 15 @— 17 

Pnuies 124@ 13 

Raisins, Cal, bx — (8 1 50 
do. Halves... 1 75 @ 2 00 
do, Quarters.. 2 00 (3 2 25 

Eighths 2 25 (3 2 50 

Lond'n Lay'rs bx — (8 2 00 
do. Halves.. 2 25 (8 2 50 
do, Quarters 2 50 (8 2 75 
do, Eighths. 2 75 (8 3 00 
Zante Currants.. 8 (3 10 

1' E<> KT A IS !,!■>. 
Asparagus, bx. ..— 25 05 — 50 

ISeets, ctl (8 1 00 

Beans. String...— 3(8— 3J 
" Fountain. — 4 (3 — 5 

" Wax - 5 @- 6 

Cabbage, 100 lbt (8— 75 

Carrots, sk — 40 @— 50 

Cauliflower, doz @— 75 

Chile Peppers, lb. 
Cucumbers, doz. 



35 (3 - 40 

Pears, basket...— 35 (8 — 60 Cucumbers, doz.— 15 @— 40 

do. box — 75 (3 1 00 |Egg Plants, II. .. @— 20 

Pineapples, doz. 7 00 (8 8 110 Garlic, New. lb..— 3 (8— 4 
Raspberries, ch't 4 50 (3 7 00 iQreen Corn, doz.— 12J(a— 20 
Strawber's ch'st. 8 00 (810 00 iGreen Peas, tt) . .— lj<3— 2 

SugarCane, hdle 1 50 (8 2 75 [Lettuce, doz 10 (8 

OKIF.lt »'l:i ST. Mushrooms, tb.. @-- — 

Apples, sliced, lb 10(3 11 Parsnips, lb (8— 1 

do, quartered. 8 @ 9 .Horseradish 6 (3— 8 

Apricots 15 (8— 18 1 Rhubarb, bx.... 25 @— 40 

Blackberries — @ 15 jSquash, Marrow 

24 fat, tn 

10 I Summer, lb ■ 

8 'Tomato, tb — 15 (3— 20 

6 ITurnips, ctl — 50 @— bO 

13 1 White — 50 f3— 60 



Citron 23 @ 

Dates 9 (3 

Figs, pressed — 7 @ 

do, loose 4 (3 

Peaches 12 (8 



- @- - 
3 (8- 4 



SIMON SWEET & CO., 
Wholesale Commission Merchants, 

GRAIN, POTATOES, FRUIT, BUTTER, EGGS, POUL- 
TRY, GAME, WOOL, WOOL BAGS, HIDES, 
PELTS, BEANS, TWINE, TALLOW, etc., 
and CALIFORNIA and OREGON 
PRODUCE of ALL KINDS. 
227 & 229 Washington St., San Francisco. 
Consignments Solicited. 



JAMES B. SHEAT, 

(Member of the S. F. Produce Exchange. 

Commission Merchant and General 
Purchasing Agent. 

416 & 418 Davis Street, S. P. 

Consignments of Grain, Wool and all Country Produce so- 
licited. Also orders for purchasing Merchandise, Sacks, Im- 
plements, etc., promptly attended to. ftsTReferences— Win, 
T Coleman & Co., The Grangers' Bank, J. W. Grace & Co., 
Lynde & Hough. 



M. VULICEVICH, 
Importer and Commission Merchant 

IN 

FOREIGN and DOMESTIC FRUIT. 

Removed from 520 & 522 Sansome St. , to 
504 Front St., S. P. 




Liberal auvances on consignments. 

Wool Sacks, Twine, Shears, and Ranch Supplies furnished 

Pay Cash in advance- $3 a year for the 
Rural Press. Credit rates. $4. 



E. DETRICK. 



J. H. NICHOLSON 



K DETRICK <& CO., 

SOLE PROPRIETORS AND MANUFACTURERS OF THE CELEBRATED 

DETRICK "E W " 22x36 GRAIN BAG. 

CALCUTTA, DUNDEE and PACIFIC JUTE HAND-SEWED BAGS always on hand. 
OUR No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 SECOND-HAND GRAIN BAGS selected and graded with care. 

r«l^TTTTlTT^g! < 3, 4 and 5-ply for Grain Bae;s, 6 and 8-ply for Potato Gunnies, 3-ply extra fink for Flour 
^ YV JLX« Xu9* Bags, made expressly for our trade and QUALITY GUARANTEED. 

FLOUR BAGS printed to order without extra charge. POTATO GUNNIES, Wool, Bean, Ore and 

Salt and Seamless Cotton Bags. 

Sole agents west of the Rocky Mountains for Russell Manufacturing Company's 

Patent Solid Cotton Belting, 

tg- CHEAPER THAN LEATHER OR RUBBER, AND BETTER THAN EITHER, "m 

119, 121 and 124 Clay St., and 118 and 120 Commercial St., San Francisco 



14 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July 3, 1880. 



THE 

WELCOME CHORUS ! 

A NEW SONG BOOK FOR 
HIGH SCHOOLS. ACADEMIES AND SEMINARIES. 

By TO. S. TILDEN. 

PRICE— $1.00 or $9.00 PER DOZEN. 

A srrand good book, of 255 pages, well filled wiih the 
beet Part-Songs, a large collection of Sacred Music for 
practice, and opening and closing exercises, also the ele- 
ments, on a now plan. Specimen copies mailed, post-freo, 
for Jl 00. 

Take with you to the seashoro or tho mountains, one of 
Ditson&Co.'s splendid volumes of bound music. More 
than thirty are published. Some of them aro: 

Arthur Sullivan's Vocal Album $1 00 

Gems of English Song. OS Songs 2.00 

Gems of German Song. 79 Songs 2.00 

Sunshine of Song. US Songs 2.00 

Gems of Slrauss. 80 Waltzes, etc 2.00 

Cluster of Gems. 43 Piece? 2.00 

Home Circle, Vol I. 170 Pieces 2.00 

Also take for the summer THE MUSICAL RECORD, 
which will bring new music every week. $2 per year. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., BOSTON. 

C. H. Ditson & Co., 843 Broadway, N. Y. 

MAST.FOOS&CO. 

SPRINGFIELD, 0. 

MANUFACTURERS OF TUB 




Never Freezes in 

Winter Time. 
frij 8end for oar 
M^lF Circular* and 
wnsMMr- l»ricc LUI. 



To D. E. GOLDSMITH, 
General Agent for the Pacific Coast. 



419 Sansome Street. 



SAN FRANCISCO. 




Windmills ! 
HORSE POWERS! 
TANKS AND PUMPS 

Ruilt and repaired at 
No. 51 Beale Street, S. F. 

Send for circulars. 
P. W. KROGH & CO. 

(Successors to W. L Tdbtin.) 




OIL PORTRAITS. 

— The Best — 

At Lussier & Hill's New Studio, 

No. C Eddy Street, rooms 99 and 100, 
Opposite Baldwin Hotel. 

Portraits In Oil at all prices from $15 to $1,000, to suit 
the customer. Satisfaction guaranteed in all cases. 

P. S.— Special attention is called to our Portraits from 
Photographs of deceased persons. 

Come in and see our work, everybody. 

San Francisco, Cal. 



AMERICAN 

MACHINE AND MODEL WORKS. 

Experimental and Fine Special Machinery, Planing, 
Gear Cutting, PattcrnB, Models for Inventors, etc. 
Printing Press and General Machine Repairing. 
Punches, Dies, Taps, Reamers, etc., made and repaired 

I. A. HEALD, Proprietor. 

514 Commercial Street, abovo Sansome, San Francisco. 

^Utt M/i/^ Calvert's Carbolic 

SHEEP WASH, 

$2 per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON, 
8. F., Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. 




THRESHING MACHINERY FOR SALE. 

Bice Engine. Ames Engine 8x10 Straw Burners. 40-inch 
Separator. Jackson Feeder, Derrick Spools aid Derrick 
complete, all 2<1 hand. Wanted, to buy a 9 inch Hoadley 



The American Exchange Hotel. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 

Is situated on Sansome street, next adjoining Bank of California, and is in the very center 

of the great city. 

Sansome Street is one of the finest and principal business streets in S. F. 




S5MMIL 




The Hotel is situated within two blocks of the U. S. Land Office and U. S. Survevor General's Office; also within 
two blocks of the City Hall, Supreme Court and all the District Courts; within two blocks of the Postoffico and 
Custom House. All places of amusement are convenient to the Hotel. Street cars for all parts of the city pass the 
Hotel every minute. 

THE AMERICAN EXCHANGE HOTEL 

Having been recently renovated and refurnished throughout is in every respect the BEST FAMILY HOTEL in San 
Francisco. It has Two Hunircd Rooms, well ventilated and neatly furnished, and being easy of access, flre-pron' 
and Bunny, is decidedly the Hotel for comfort and convenience for the traveling public. 



TsTatlianiel Onrry & Bro., 

113 Sansome Street. San Francisco, 




Sole Agents for the 

Sharps Rifle Co., of Bridgeport, Conn. 

FOR CALIFORNIA, OREGON, ARIZONA, NEVADA, WASHINGTON TERRITORY AND IDAHO. 

Also Agents for W. W. GREENER'S Celebrated Wedgefast, Chokebore, Breech-loading DOUBLE GUNS; 'an 
all kinds r,f GUNS, RIFLES and PISTOLS maile by the Leading Manufacturers of England and America. 
AMMUNITION of all kinds in quantities to suit. 



Save Money by Using THE CALIFORNIA SPRING TOOTH HARROW. 



Read the Following 
Testimonials: 

Sacramk.nto, Jan. 20, 1880. 
Messrs. Batchelor, Van Gelder 
& Co. : 

Gents:— This is to certify that 
I have tried the Spring Tooth 
Harrow on summer-fallow vol- 
unteer and winter plowed land, 
and am pleased to say that it 
does better work than any 
Harrow that I have used, es- 
pecially on land that has been 
plowed for a length of time 
and has become compact. 
Respectfully yours, 

H. M. LA RUE. 

Pres. State Ag'l Society. 

San Joss, Dec. SO, 1879. 
Batchelor, Van Gelder i: Co: 

Gents: — This certifies that I 
have this day purchased a 
Spring Tooth Harrow, after 
having tested it to my entire 
satisfaction; aud cheerfully say 




that I consider it superior to 
any implement I have ever 
seen for thorough cultivation 
of the earth, apd that they are 
just what every man with an 
orchard, vineyard or wheat field 
needs. Yours truly, 

JOSEPH ARAM 



I fully coneurwiththeabove 
MARK FARNEY. 

Send for Circulars and Testi 
monials or come to our office, 
and we will occupy your time 
for a day with similar matter. 

Batchelor, 

Van Gelder & Co., 

Manufacturers. 
902 K Street SACRAMENTO. 



Educational. 



MISS COCHRANE'S SCHOOL 

FOR YOUNO LADIES AND CHILDREN. 

No. 1036 Valencia St., a P. 

The next session will open August 4, 1SS0. Boarding 
Pupils limited to Ten. For terms apply to 

M. B. COCHRANE, Principal. 



CALIFORNIA 



AT OAKLAND. 



In consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Rerrins 
have adopted A NE W LABEL, bearing their Signature 

thus, 

which is ilaced on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 

SA UCE, and without "which none is genuine. 

Ask for LEA 6> PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse arid B/ackwell, London, 
eVc, <5fc. ; and by Grocers and Oilmtn throu-hout the World, 

To be obtained of GROSS St OO.. San Francisco. 




ALBERT DICKINSON, 
Dealer in Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Red Top, 
Blue Grass, Lawn Grass, Orchard Grass, Bird Seeds.Etc. 
POP CORN. 

115, 117 and. 119 Klnzie Street, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. 



The Next Session Will Begin 
July 19th, 1880. 

Rev. DAVID McCLURE, Ph. D., 



PRINCIPAL. 



Oakland, Cal. 



THE DECEIT 

Classical & English School, 

1265 Franklin St.. Oakland Cal. 
The Sixth Year Begins July 14th. 



This School prepares boys for tho State University or 
Eastern Colleges. S one of our students has ever /ailed 
to pass the entrance examinations. There are no board- 
ers, but hoard will be found in select private families, 
for those who may desire it. Many of our best students 
havo been from the country. 
For Catalogues address tho Principal, 
GEORGE FREDERIC DEGEN, A. M., 
Oakland, Cal. 



GOLDEN GATE ACADEMY. 

Oakland, Cal, 

A Flint-class Boarding ami Day School will begin Its next 
term July 27, 1880. For information visit the Premises or 
apply to Rev. H. E. JKWKTT. M. A.. Principal. 



MONEY TO LOAN ! 
$500,000 

To loan, in one sum or in amounts to suit on Wheat Lands, 
Wheat in Warehouses, and other good collaterals at cur- 
rent rates of interest. 

Savings Bank Books. 

The hieheet price paid for balances in The Savings and 
Loan (Clay St.,) Odd Fellows', Masonic, French, Farmers 
and Mechanics', by 

JOHN T. LITTLE, 

302 Montgomery St., rooms 1 and 2, San Francisco. 



Traveling Agents. 

We want several canvassing agents who will 
make it their business to solicit subscriptions 
and advertising for our first-class progressive 
newspapers. Men of ability and experience can 
secure good pay and permanent employment. 
Send references and state your past occupation, 
etc. , to the publishers of this paper. 



Books on Agriculture, Etc. 

The following among other books will be sent post-paid on 
receipt of publishers' prices, annexed:— Tobacco, its culture, 
manufacture and use. 500 pages. 93.50;— The Patrons of Hus- 
bandry, 500 paces. S3 75;— The Women of the Bible. 77 en- 
gravings, $4;— Wells' Kvery Man His Own Lawyer. 612 pages, 
$2.75;— American Husbandry, 2 vol., 81.50;— Gray's Agricul- 
tural Essays, $1-— Langstroth's Honey Bee. 81.50;— Randall's 
Sheep Husbandry. 81 .50;— Agricultural Engineering, 81.50; 
New Bee-Keepers' Text Book, 81;-Pacific Rural Hand- 
hook. 81;— Ronp's Easy Calculator, 81;— V. S. Land Law. 
50 Cts.;— Woodward's Graperies. Etc., M;— Sugar from 
Melons, 25 Cts. ;— Strawberry Culture, 50 Cts.;— Layre* 
Belles Lettres, 81;— Holt's Map of California and Ne- 
vada, to subscribers. 81; — Back Volumes Pacific Rural 
Press (bound) 85; unbound, 83;-Picturesque Arizona. $2. 
Address DEWEY 4 CO.. Publishers, 202 Sansomo St.. 8. F 



Should con- 
sult DEWEY 
& CO., Amur- 



California Inventors 

ican and Foreign Patent Solicitors, for obtaining 
Patents and Caveats. Established in 1860. Their long 
experience as journalists and large practice as patent 
attorneys enables them to offer Pacific Coast inventors 
far better service than they can ebtain elsewhere. Send 
for free circulars of information. Office of the Mining 
and Scientific Press and Pacific Rural Press, No. 202 
Sansome St. , San Francisco. 



Inventors, and others interested, will receive Dewbt 
& Co.'s Miking and Scientific Press Patent Aoenct 
Circular free on application at this office. It contains 42 
pages of hints and information about Patents, Patent 
Laws, Patent Office Regulations, and how to obtain valid 
patents. 



AGENTS WANTED SzxrZZJt, M- 

tins Machine ever invented. Will knit a pair of 
HtocklugP, with heel and toe complete, in HO mln- 
u t «• ». 'Will also knit a great variety of fancy articles, 
for which there Is nl ways a ready market. Send for cir- 
cular and terms to The Twombly Knitting ma- 
chine Co., 409 Washington St., Boston, Mass. 



50, 



Perfumed, Snowflake, Chromo, MottoCards, name in 
'gold and jet 10c. U. A. SrRisu.. E. Wallingford.Ct. 



July 3, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS 



Agricultural Articles. 



W. H. Carson. John D. Winters 

WOODLAND 

Agricultural Implement Manufactory, 

Woodland, Yolo County, Cal. 




The undersigned manufactures the WINTER'S DER- 
RICK, the reputation of which is now established, having 
been in constant use for the last four years. 

Also WINTER'S HAY PRESS, the most economical 
Press now in use. Ten tons of hay from this Press can be 
put into a car. Price, §200. 

Also TOP DRAPER for Header Spout. This Draper pre- 
vents the wind from blowing the straw away and wasting 
wheat. No reaching down the Spout to assist elevation. It 
will elevate down grain as well as standing grain. Price, §30. 

WINTERS & CARSON. 



The Famous "Enterprise," 

PERKINS' PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixtures. 

These Mills and Pumps 
reliable and always give sat 
lBfaction. Simple, strong and 
durable in all parts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double bearings for the crank 
to work in, all turned an 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively self regulating 
with no coil spring or springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
Joints, lovers or balls to get 
out of order, as such things 
do. Mills in use six to nine years in good order now, that 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizeB of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands in 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infor- 
mation, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, ' 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LTVERMORE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINFORTH, RICE 
81 CO., 401 Market Street. 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 





Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match in 
Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly m^de by practical men who have 
been long in the business aud know what is required in the 
construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. Suf- 
ficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over cradle 
knolls without changing the working position of the shares. 
It is so constructed that the wheels themselves govern the 
action of the Plow correctly. It has various points of supe- 
riority, and can be relied upon as the best and most desira- 
ble Gang Plow in the world. 

Iron Founders, Machinists and Manufacturers of Improved 
Agricultural Implements. General Jobbing and repairing 
done in the best manner at most reasonable rates. Send for 
circular to MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton, Cal. 



HAY PRESSES. 

GOVE'S PATENT 
Centennial and Eagle Improved Presses, 

For Farmer's use. Capacity, 10 to 15 tons per day. 
Combining strength and durability. Easily moved. Will 
be sold low for the cash 

Price, $175. 

For Circulars or Orders address JOHN H. GOVE, 
Eureka Warehouse, Box 1,122, or of DAVID N. HAW- 
LEY, 201 and 203 Market St., cor Main, S. F. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to $1.60 per gallon. For directions and tes- 
timonials apply to FALKNER, BELL <Ss CO., 
Sole Agents, 430 California Street, S. F. 



50 



Per/unud, gilt edge & chromo Cards, inelegant case, name 
In gold, 10a Atlantic Card Co., B. Wallingford, Ot 



Prescott House. 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 

O. P. BECKER, Proprietor. 
OTFree Coach to the House. 



ARE YOU GOING TO PAINT? 

THEN USE THE 

Averill Missed Faint? 

The Best, Most Durable ar\d 
Beautiful of all Pair\ts. 




ji CENTENNIAL i 

Prepared Ready for use, and of an\ \^% C0WM >^ ,0 ijL 
Desired Shade or Color. y^t^^ajS/^^!' 



TRY IT AND BE CONVINCED! 



O. S. ORRICK, Gen'l Agent, 



No. 417 Market Street, near First, 



San Francisco, Cal. 



THOS. POWELL'S ELECTRIC ELEVATOR. 




AT WORK 




The greatest labor-saving Ma- 
chine now in use. Scatters no 
Grain out while unloading. 
Large stacks can be made. Men 
work cheap with this Machine, 
and a boy can do a man's labor. 
The time is one and a half min- 
utes to unload. A header will 
cut fire acres more in a day by 
not waiting for a wagon. There 
are fewer stack bottoms in a 
field. The ground 'for stacks is 
not cut up by the wagon, and no 
Grain is lost. Several Hundred 
are now in use. Send for Cir- 
cular and Price List. Address 

THOS. POHEli, Patentee, 

AT 

H. O.'SHAWJPLOW WORKS, 
iStockton. Cal. 1W , , 




Fairbanks' Scales. 

PORTABLE PLATFORM SCALES, 

SUITABLE FOR 

Weighing Hay, Grain, Dairy Produce, Etc. 




All Sizes. 240 to 3,000 lbs. Capacity. 

FAIRBANKS & HUTCHINSON, 

417 Market street, San Francisco. 



RICHARDS & SNOW, 

SUCCESSORS TO BARKER & SNOW, 
IMPORTERS OF 

IRON PIPE AND PLUMBERS' STOCK, 

Sole Agents for the Yale Lock Mfg Co., 
American Tack Co., 

AND FOR THE SALE OF AMOSKEAG AXES. 
406 & 408 MARKET ST., S. F. 



Agricultural Books. 

Orders for Agricultural and Scientific Books in general 
will be supplied through this office, at published rates. 



CQ Gold, Crystal, Lace, Perfumed & Chromo Cards.name 
a in gold and jet, 10c. Clinton Bros., Clintonville, Ct 



A. Aitken. 



F. N. Fish 



AITKEN & FISH, 

Premium Pioneer Marble Works, 

617 K St., Bet. Sixth & Seventh. - SACRAMENTO. CAL- 



YOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
Ten Cents. STEVENS BROS., Northford, Conn. 




Three sizes— warranted to clean from 60 to 150 bushels per 
hour perfectly. 

Has taken the First Premium at California State Fairs 
from 1870 to 1880. 

THE NASH & CUTTS 
Improved Gram Cleaner 

Will not only separate mustard seed, cheat, barley, oats 
cracked wheat, etc., in a satisfactory manner, but is alike 
successful in cleaning alfalfa and flaxseed, a feat performed 
by no similar machine. Will also clean FASTER and BET- 
TER, with less TROUBLE and WORK than any other 
Cleaner now in use. 

Reasons Why Farmers Prefer Our 
Cleaner to any Other. 

1st. THE IMPROVED NASH & CUTTS GRAIN 
CLEANER is built solely for cleaning California-raised 
Gr ain or Seed. 

2d. Being located here, we know what is wanted much 
better than Eastern manufacturers. 

3d. As the Factory is in Sacramento, extras can be or- 
dered without delay, requiring only the Number and Date 
of the Cleaner. 

Farmers and Dealers are particularly cautioned against 
spurious imitations. Be sure that the one you buy bears this 
Trade Mark: "THE IMPROVED NASH & CUTTS GRAIN 
CLEANER." All others are frauds. See that it is manu- 
factured by "H. D. NASH k CO., Sacramento, Cal. 

We mention the ah'ive for the protection of our customers 
who want the GENUINE. Every Cleaner fully warranted. 

Prices at Factory— No. £ §33; No. 2, $40; No. 3, $55. For 
further particulars addreBS 

H. D. NASH & CO., 

906 K Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

Sole manufacturers of "The Improved Nash & Cutts Grain 
Cleaner" on the Pacific coast. 

S3T We also make a Cleaner to attach to Threshing Ma- 
chines that will clean ALL any Machine can thresh. 

Baker & Hamilton, General Agents, San Francisco and 
Sacramento, Cal. 



A Valuable Invention. 

TYLER'S PATENT 

Hay and Grain Unloader, Stacker, Barn 
Filler and Distributer. 

THE HAYMAKER'S FRIEND. 

o m 
S^Slfri 




111 1 




JERRY TYLER. Sole Prop., Milford, Lassen Co., Cal. 



M. COOKE. R. J. COOKE 

PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 
ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

US' Communications Promptly Attended to. 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cookb & Grbsory 

Jackson's Agricultural Machine Works 

AND FOUNDRY, 

6th and Bluxome Sts., near S. P. R. R., San Francisco. 

Manufacturer of Feeders and 
Elevators, with recently invented 
Spreader. Horse Forks for Head- 
ings or Hay. Folding Derricks. 
Hoadley Straw-Burner and Auto- 
matic Cut-off Governor for Por- 
table Engine. Separator Shoes 
andRepairs. WINDMILLS for 
Stockmen and Gardeners. B 
and sell second-hand Threshi 
and Engines. Machine Castings 
a specialty. Address 

BYRON JACKSON, Prop'r. 




IMPROVED MACHINES 



FOR LAYING 



Asbestine Sub-Irrigation Pipe 

For sale at Davisville, Yolo County, Cal. 
Apply to Li. A. GOULD. 



60 



Cbromo, perfumed, Snowflake& Lace cards, name on all 
lOo. 'Game Authors, 10c. Lyman &Co., Cliutouvllie, Ot 



16 



TIE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[July 3, 1880. 



CHOICE 

Irrigated Vineyard Lands. 

PLEASANT HOMES, 

Good Society and Good Schools ! 
THE WASHINGTON IRRIGATED COLONY, 

In Fresno Co., Cal., presents 

GREAT INDUCEMENTS 

To those seeking HOMES and PROFITABLE INVEST- 
MENTS. This Colony, situated within five miles of the 
Railroad and County Seat, contains over 



7,000 Acres 



Of Rich Irritable' Lands, subdivided into lots with 
Streets and Avenues with ABUNDANT WATER RIGHTS 
and IRRIGATING CANALS CONSTRUCTED, and with 

Perfect Title to both Land and Water. 

Fresno County is already recognized as the best in the 
State for Vineyards; and tho abundant facilities for Irri- 
gation affords 

Complete Protection from Phylloxera, 
Which is already so destructive to the dry vineyards of 
the State. These lands are being sold at 

Low Prices and on Liberal Terms. 
Nearly 3,000 Acres are already purchased, and are being 
improved by excollent families, whose numerous Alfalfa 
fields, fine cows, and FLOURISHING CHEESE FACTORY 
attest the industry and sagacity with which they provide 
a support, while they cultivate their Fruits and ample 
Vineyards. For full information apply for Circulars at 
the office of the 

WASHINGTON IRRIGATED COLONY. 

22 Montgomery St., S. F. or at the Colony. 
Wendell Easton, Trcas. J. W. North, Genl Agt. 



Dairy Farm^For Sale. 

Four miles west of Watsonville, in Santa Cruz county, 
Cal. One Thousand Acres of first-class Dairy Land, 
which will he sold in whole, or in part to Buit purchaser, 
very cheap. The place can bo divided into 10 or more 
small Farms, with 

Lasting Springs of Pure Water, 

On each 50 acres. All under feffce, and 400 acres under 
cultivation. Living water, enough to irrigate nearly all 
the place. 

Plenty of Firewood. 

For particulars enquire of 

FRANK LARKIN, on the place. 

Pajaro Valley Nursery 

FOR SALE. 

Situated in the Town of Watsonville 

WAS ESTABLISHED IN 18G7. 

Contains 27 acres of land. There is about 60,000 trees 
under cultivation, embracing all the leading varieties of 
Fruits, with Shade and Ornamental Trees, 7 acres of the 
best varieties of Strawberries, RaspberrieB and Blackber- 
ries, together with all the necessary Tools, Buildings, 
etc., for conducting a first-class business. An abundance 
of water for Irrigation. 

The proprietor being compelled to sell for the reason 
that he is about to leave the State, offers to any one wish- 
ing to engage in a profitable and well-established business 
a very great bargain. For further particulars apply to 
JAMES WATERS, Prop., 
Watsonville, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 



FIRST PREMIUM 

JERSEY BUU FOR SALE. 

Having bred to my .feraey hull, "Blythe," for the past 
three yearn. I now offer Mm for Bale at a moderate price, 
lie is out of "Fantail." 4168, she from "Frankiu 3d," 781, by 
imported "Quaker," 887. The sire of "lilythe" is "Prince of 
Ktaatsburgh," 2398. imported from the Island of Jersey by 
W. B. Dinsmore. "Blythe" was dropped April, 1877. He is 
a solid, light silver gray; black switch and tongue; very yel- 
low skin and hams, and shows very high breeding. In 1878, 
as a yearling, he was awarded the first premium at the State 
fair, and at two District fairs. Also in 1879 as a two-year- 
old, at the State Fair and at three District fairs, making in 
all seven times that he has been exhibited, taking the FIRST 
PREMIUM every time. He is a tine hreeder. and his calves 
which are largely heifers, tak»- after him in color and points 

I will sell him fur Til UK K IH'NDRKD DOLLAR* (sioti) 
on cars, In Downey. Not one-quarter the c^st of importing 
hia sire. And he will no doubt nearly pay for himself if ex- 
hibited at the coming fairs. 

F. J. BARRETTO, Downey, Cal. 



ANGORA GOATS. 

FIVE HUNDRED HEAD of GRADED ANGORAS, 
from { to 1516, for sale for cash or exchange for cattle. 

Apply to D. F. NEWSON, 
Arroyo Grande, Cal. 



Rent paid two and a quarter years buys one . 
UlCnU BEST CABINET OR PARLOR ORGANS 
IllAoUll tN T,IE WORLD; winners of highest 
distinction at f.veky world's fairfor 13 
AND years. Prices, 851, $57, $66, $84.8108, to 
HUH a •■ $500 and upward. Also for easy pay- 
II A M I IN merits, $5 a month or $6.38 a quarter 
I IH 111 Hll and upward. Catalogues free. MASON 
n n P I il O & HAMLIN ORGAN CO., 154 Tremont 
IIKIiQIl.N *>'•• B<w*on; 48 East 14th St. (Union 
UIIUHI1W S«|uare),N. Y. ; 149 Wabash Av. Chicago 



SADDLES, c/j 
HARNESS, ^ 
LEATHER. £ 



^ W. DAVIS, 

I 410 Market St., S. F. 
Manufacturer and Dealer in 
ALL GOODS in this line. 
iSTSend for Catalogue. 



This paper is printed with Ink lurnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South loth 
St.. Philadelphia & 59 Gold St., N. Y. Agent 
for Pacific Coast— Joseph H. Dorety, 120 
Sutter.St., S. F. 



This Cut Illustrates tb.© 

Giant Riding Saw Machine 




00 

J> 
-J* 
m 
so 

£° 

zn 

33, D 



cog 



THE ORE4T SUCCESS of this WOIVDERFITI. IMPROVED LABOR-SAVING 
CJIA vr KllMXi SAW MACHINE is fully demonstrated by the number in use and the 
present demand for them. It saws L< of any size. »«S" One man can saw more logs or 
cord wood in one <iay, and easier, than two men can the old way. It will saw a two-foot 
log in three minutes. Every Farmer needs €»ne. Township agents wanted. Send for 
Illustrated Circular and Terms. 



2.1 
o p 
° m 
ft" o 

sl 
3 

s» 
3 

CP 



IMPORTANT. 



Beware of all imitators and infringers. We arc an old reliable house, and own and control five 
perfect patents on these Giant Riding Saw Machines. jf^We warrant every Machine. 



DEWEY <5c CO.'S 



Scis&iific Press 




Patent Agency. 



[ESTABLISHED 1860.1 
Inventors on the Pacific Coast will find it greatly to their advantage to consult this old 
experienced, first-class Agency. We have able and trustworthy associates and Agents in Wash- 
ington and the capital cities of the principal nations of the world. In connection with our edi- 
torial, scientific and Patent Law Library, and record of original cases in our office, wo have 
other advantages far beyond those which can be offered home inventors by other Agencies. The 
information accumulated through long and careful practice before the Office, and the frequent 
examination of Patents already granted, for the purpose of determining the patentability of 
inventions brought before us, enables us often to give advice which will save inventors the 
expense of applying for Patents upon inventions which are not new. Circulars of advice sent 
free on receipt of postage. Address DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 202 Sansome St., S. F. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. GEO. H. STRONG. 



RECORD OF SUPERIORITY. 



I S78— AWARDED 
J. H. STROBRIDGE, 

■ c •- — i Premising: 

Pen 5— Breeding Ewes 822 50 

Pen 5— Yearling Ewes. 22. SO 

Pen 5— Ewe Lambs 22 50 

Pen J-Ram Lambs 52.50 

Yearling Ram (1st and 2d) 38.50 

Two-year-old Ram 22. 

Ram and five of his Lambs 30.00 

Sweepstakes) 

For best Ram of any age or breed. , , ,., 

and Ave of his Lambs 75.00 ^SitS^K^mM^TVl^^m^ 

THOROVGUUKEU MPANIHH MtlllNO 

We offer for sale this season 100 head Superior Rams. Yearlings and two-year-olds. Also 100 head Yearling Ewes and 
50 head aged Ewes. These sheep are all free from disease. Are LONG STAPLED, WHITE WOOLED and HEAVY 
SHEARERS. Have a faultless constitution. Are larger and in better condition than any Hock of Thoroughbred KpaniBh 
Merino Sheep in the State. Prices the same as last year, (ml ts by mail promptly tilled. ( Mir Ranch is only 14 miles from 
Oakland by rail. Trains running each way every few hou'8. J. II. STROBRIDGE. Haywards, Alameda. Co., Cal. 
E. W. Pekt, Agent. 



1 



1819 AWARDED 
J. H. STROBRIDGE, 
I it -i I'reniliiius: 

Pen 5— Breeding Ewes 822.50 

Pen 5— Yearling Ewes 22.50 

Pen 5— Ewe Lambs 22.50 

Two-year-old Ram 22.50 

Yearling Ram 22.50 

Ram and five Lambs 30.00 

Pen of 3 Ram Lambs 22.50 

Sweepstakes: 
For best Ram and live of his 

Lambs, of any age or breed 75.00 

SHEEP. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

San Francisco Savings Union, 533 California street, cor- 
ner Webb. <For the half year endi> g with .lune 30, 1880, 
a dividend has been declared at the rate of six (8) per 
cent, per annum on Term Deposits, and (6) per cent, per 
annum on Ordinary Deposits, free of Federal Tax, pay. 
able on and after Wednesday, July H, 1830. 

LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



Mrs. Colgate Baker's 
BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL 

For Young; Ladies, 

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Contents of Pamphlet on Public Lands of 
California, U. S. Land Laws, Map of 
California and Nevada, Etc. 

Map of California and Nevada ; The Public 
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at Large. 

Instructions oi the U. S. Land Commis- 
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Abstract from the U. S Statutes —The Law 
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Published and sold bv DEWEY & CO., S. P 



507 Mechanical Movements. 

Every mechanic Should have a copy of Brown's 607 Me- 
chanical Movements, illustrated and described. Inventors, 
model makers and amateur mechanics and students, will 
And the work valuable far beyoud its cost. Sold by 
Dkwky & Co., Patent Agents and publishers of Mining 
a.nd Scikntific I'rrhb, San Francisco. Price, $1. (post paid 



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— IN — 

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MARBLE AND ENCAUSTIC TILES. 

OTDesigns sent on applying for them. ~iJ3 

w. h. Mccormick. 

861 Market St., opposite Baldwin's Hotel. 




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Sakta Clara, Cal.,' April 18, 1680. 

Messrs Dewey & Co. Gentlemen:— I received the Let- 
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together with the extra copies that I ordered on the 20th 
ult. Also a copy each of your most valuable weeklies, 
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of patent. You will please accept my thanks for the 
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your firm to all who mav wish to procure Letters Patent 
Very respectfully yours, Ed. O. Benset. 

P. O. Box 248. 




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^■SPECIALTY FOR SO YEARS. ESTABLISHED I 
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Volume XX.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 10, 1880. 



Number 2 



Improvement of Merino Sheep in Ger- 
many. 

Some time ago we gave an illustrated article 
descriptive of the improvement of form and in- 
orease of product of Merino sheep by a century 
of breeding at Rambouillet. We have now two 
engravings showing the results gained in devel- 
oping the Merino by German breeders. Hon. 
J. R. Dodge, in his work as expert at the 
Vienna exposition, made a special study of this 
point and secured the engravings which we re- 
produce from the report of the Department of 
Agriculture. 

The Merinos of Germany have been greatly 
modified in later years by crossing, so that it 
might be impossible to find a flock with the pre- 
cise characteristics of 20 years ago, though bear- 
ing the same name. The Electoral, Negretti 
and Rambouillet are mingled according to the 
whim or judgment of the breeder, the better to 
suit his views of the demands of the market for 
wool or meat, and the result is the loss of the 
distinctive character of theoriginals. It might 
be impossible to find at the present day a count- 
erpart of the Saxon ram of the Electoral-Escu- 
rial blood, an engraving of which is given in 
Fig. 1. The spindle legs have been shortened, 
the flat ribs rounded, the bald head covered, 
and the very fine super-Electoral fleece has been 
displaced by longer, coarser and more abundant 
wool, which brings more money at a slightly 
reduced price per pound. This was the prize- 
ram of Von Thaer's flock, one of the best and 
most highly improved in Germany. The wool 
was of excessive fineness, very short in staple, 
though not of full length when the drawing was 
made in August. The folds and wrinkles so 
fashionable since, were even then deemed desir- 
able as indicative of a large proportion of fleece 
to live weight; indeed, we are told that the 
Spanish shepherds were wont to kill the tight- 
skinned lambs of the best flocks, fearing their 
influence in producing light and thin fleeces. 
Nor would it be easy to find the Negretti type 
of those days. 

The Merino of the present day, whatever its 
name, is a producer of a good quality of cloth- 
wool, is compact and strongly built, with a 
head of good breadth and medium length, a 
short, full neck, a straight back, round barrel, 
and good breadth of shoulders and rump. The 
heads, belly and feet of approved types are well 
covered, and evenness of fleece is deemed an 
important consideration. The wool is of me- 
dium length and fineness, nearly uniform upon 
all parts of the body, the fiber closely set, and 
the "closure" of stubble as nearly perfect as 
possible to protect the fleece from dirt. 

A brief reference to the prominent breeding- 
flocks represented in the exhibition will indicate 
the status and tendency of wool-breeding in 
Germany. Among the best merinos exhibited, 
though bearing fleeces remarkable for weight 
rather than fineness of fiber, were those of the 
flock of Herr Robert Gadegast, of Thai Oschatz, 
Saxony, which includes 1,000 animals kept as 
breeding stock, the males yielding fleeces of 8 
to 10 lbs., the females clips of 4 to 5 lbs. of close 
and even fiber, good felting property, with 
abundant yolk. The old flock of Herr R. Holtz, 
Saatel, Barth, Prussia, which has been in course 
of improvement for more than half a century, 
and now numbers 1,500 large sheep, good feed- 
ers, yielding a long fiber suitable for carding, 
was well represented. Washed fleeces average 
about 7 lbs. 

Among the stock noted for fineness of wool, 
the flock of Herr Rudolf Mens, Jordansmuhl, 
Silesia, presented fleeces of exceptional fineness 
weighing about lbs. Herr Alfred von Rad- 
zinski-Rudno, of Lipton, showed Electoral 
sheep of Prussian Silesia, from a noble flock of 
1,000, bearing fleeces of superior fineness, with 
an average weight of 3 lbs. A Silesian flock of 
200 founded 60 years ago upon the stock of 
Prince Lichnowsky, and afterward crossed with 
Negretti rams, was represented by the entry of 
Count Arthur Prinzenstein, Hoschutz. An ex- 
cellent quality of cloth-wool, weighing about 
5 lbs., per head, is the result of breeding on this 
estate. A notable flock, at times including 
1,100 pure-bred sheep, owned by Herr Adolf 
Heinrich Steiger, Lentewitz, Meissen, Saxony, 



has been bred for more than 30 years, without 
any admixture of blood, with reference to fine- 
ness, elasticity and evenness of fiber. The orig- 
inal stock was imported from Spain by Prince 
Reuss in the beginning of the present century. 
The rams shear 12 to 14 lbs.; the ewes, 5 to 
6 lbs. 

Among the breeders of Rambouillet Negrettis, 



Value of Improved Sheep. — The wide- 
awake nature of the Australian wool interest is 
shown in the price which the wool growers are 
willing to pay for animals fitted to improve their 
flocks. There were a number of sheep sent 
from the French national sheep fold at Ram- 
bouillet to the Sydney exposition, and after the 




FIG. 1. THAER'S ELECTRO ESCORIAL RAM OP 1845. 



Herman Kannenberg, Gerbin, Prussia, is promi- 
nent. This flock exhibited great evenness and 
elasticity of fleece, with fiber 2 \ inches in length 
upon ewes and 3 inches upon the rams. Fig. 2 
gives a good illustration of the style of this 
flock. The sire of this ram sheared 27 lbs of 
unwashed wool, which weighed 17 lbs. after 
washing in hot water. The average weight of 



fair they were sold at auction. There were 12 
animals, and the prices obtained reduced to 
United States money was about as follows: 
Ram, 2 yrs., $750; ram, 4 yrs., $605; ram, 3 yrs., 
$300; ewe, 4 yrs., $150; ewe, 3 yrs., $180; 3 
ewes, $150 each; 4 ewes, $150 each. 

California Wines. — An item in the recogni- 




FIG. 2. KANNEN BERG'S RAMBOUILLET-NEGRETTI RAM OF 1873. 



fleeces of the full-grown animals of this flock of 
600 is 6^ lbs. 



At Anderson Springs the Fourth was very 
sociably but quietly observed. A picnic dinner 
was given by Mrs. Anderson and her daughters 
in the grove surrounding the hotel. Some 75 
persons partook of the bountiful repast enchant- 
ingly spread amid delightful surroundings. A 
few campers and neighbors were among the in- 
vited guests. The hostess (nearly 70 years of 
age and one of the sprightliest of the party) 
was well toasted for the patriotic and kind- 
hearted spirit_shown. 



tion of California wines is gained from a letter 
written to J. De Barth Shorb, of San Gabriel, by 
a house of wine dealers in Bordeaux, the great 
wine market of France. They ask for samples 
of California red wines, saying that they think 
they may do some business in them. California 
supplying France with wine may be rather a 
startling idea to those who have not followed 
the course of the wine interest closely, but it is 
bound to come to that if agencies now in pro- 
gress have due course. It is not unpleasant to 
think that we are going to have back again some 
of the money we havo paid France for her 
wines. 

Five steamships landed 1,806 immigrants at 
Castle Garden, New York, June 30th, 



Viticultural Meeting in Sonoma District. 

The coming meeting of the Viticultural Com- 
mission in Sonoma, Sonoma Co., promises to be 
one of great interest and importance. The days 
of meeting will be July 23d and 24th. The 
chief matters under consideration will be topics 
pertaining to the ravages of the phylloxera. The 
commissioner for the Sonoma district, Mr. De 
Turk, announces that a preliminary meeting of 
the viticulturists of the Sonoma valley will be 
held, July 10th, to make arrangements for the 
reception of visitors, and for a systematic ex- 
amination of vineyards affected by the disease. 

Visitors from other counties should arrive in 
Sonoma on the evenipg of Thursday, July 22d, 
in order to be in time for the scientific addresses, 
which will be delivered on the following morn- 
ing. It is intended to devote Friday and Satur- 
day, July 23d and 24th, to a careful discussion 
of the whole subject of the phylloxera, aided by 
personal examination in the vineyards. 

Dr. Herman Behr, of San Francisco, and M. 
A. De Lacretelle, have already notified the ex- 
ecutive committee that they will be present and 
address the meeting. Other practical addresses 
will be made by experienced viticulturists. All 
who are interested in the subjects under discus- 
sion, are cordially invited to attend the meetings. 



Ambitious Australia.— The good fortune 
which attended the Australian shipment of meat 
to England in the cold chambers of a steamer, 
prepared for that purpose, has set up the country 
several pegs in its own estimation. In fact it 
has brought about what we would call a "boom" 
in Australian productions. A correspondent of 
one of ourEnglish exchanges gives the old coun- 
try fair warning that the great island continent is 
to distance all competitors in supplying food to 
England. The writer states that Adelaide alone 
would have over 200,000 tons of breadstuff's to 
export, and that New Zealand likewise had a 
large surplus. Referring to another phase of the 
food question, he says that a new industry will 
soon be started out there — namely, the sending 
to London of fresh beef and mutton, butter and 
cheese, all maintained in excellent condition by 
refrigerating process. Large companies, he 
mentions, are forming in Melbourne, Sydney 
and Queensland, anticipating good results from 
the business; and the several Governments are 
going to assist in the establishment of refriger- 
ating stores up-country, and running carriages 
fitted with the refrigerating apparatus, so that 
the stuff may be shipped without delay. He 
concludes by saying— "You will have fresh beef 
and mutton delivered in London at 5d. per lb., 
fresh butter at 9d., and best cheese at 8d. 
What with wheat, flours and other necessaries, 
we shall soon supersede America." This is 
rather a long programme to carry out at a single 
sitting, but such are the particulars on the small 
bills. Well: it matters little, America has a 
way of trying a new business, when one fails. 
We can grow sailors for the Australian trade. 

The University Grain Experiments. — We 
passed a part of the glorious Fourth in the re- 
tirement of the University experimental 
grounds as one of a party in charge of Mr. 
Dwinelle, lecturer on practical agriculture. A 
very interesting review was made of the great 
varieties of cereals, the seed of which was ob- 
tained in Europe for test under California con- 
ditions. It would delight any observing grain 
grower to have the opportunity to examine so 
many kinds of grain, each showing its peculiar 
traits of growth and distinctive characteristics. 
Mr. Dwinelle will keep close watch and record 
of these points, and will report them ere long so 
that all may profit by them. The large plots 
grown to show the effects of different modes of 
culture and different fertilizers promise to afford 
valuable deductions also. This experimental 
branch of the work of the College of Agricul- 
ture is receiving the approval of many farmers 
who visit the grounds, and certainly a half-day 
cannot be better employed, when one comes to 
the city, than by a visit to Berkeley and a study 
of the growths upon the University grounds. 



18 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July io, 1880. 



Correspondence. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents. —Eds 



El Dorado County Notes. 

Editors Press:— I arrived a few days ago in 
this romantic and quaint old mountain village 
after a pleasant trip from Sacramento, through 
that beautiful and fruitful agricultural, horti- 
cultural and vinicultural region, through which 
the Sacramento & Placerville railroad runs, to 
Folsom; thence by stage to this place. In the 
Sacramento valley the farmers were busy reap- 
ing an abundant harvest; the green and golden 
landscape presenting to the eye of the traveler 
a gorgeously picturesque scene, to be met with 
only in California. At Folsom we strike the 
foothills, and for 22 miles, by stage, are rolled 
up and down the rocky hillsides and through 
the ravines and canyons which cut the country 
into a thousand different irregular shapes; all 
the time, however, tending upward until by the 
time this point on the American river is 
reached, we are 4,000 ft. above sea level. Of 
course we leave behind us, when we begin the 
irregular ascent at Folsom, the sea of golden 
grain we have passed through, and which hap- 
pily escaped from the blasting northers, and 
orchards and vineyards now greet us on all 
sides. 

As to fruits, the apple crop alone is a good 
one; the pears, plums and cherries, average; and 
peaches an entire failure. The vineyards all 
present excellent prospects, and the yield will 
be abundant. This will apply to the entire 
region from Folsom to Coloma. 

I paid a short visit to the ranches of Henry 
Mahler, F. Veercamp, E. M. Smith, W. H. 
Valentine and others near this place. They are 
among El Dorado county's most successful farm- 
ers and most respected citizens. The Coloma 
vineyard, owned by Mr. Robert Chalmers, near 
the town of Coloma, is one of the most interest- 
ing and attractive features of the locality. One 
hundred and twenty-five acres are covered with 
vines, comprising over a dozen varieties of 
grapes, including the Catawba, Green Hunga- 
rian, Isabella, Tokay, Muscatella, Cucomungo, 
etc. I was, of course, introduced into the im- 
mense cellars and vaults, in which are kept the 
wines and brandies for which this Coloma vine- 
yard has long been famous. I was courteously 
shown through and about the premises by Mrs. 
Chalmers, the indefatigable, intelligent and 
amiable hostess. The mammoth hotel in course 
of erection on the place, and the numerous 
other improvements, will, when completed, 
make of the Chalmers hotel and vineyard a most 
charming and sought-for resort. Over 40,000 
gallons of wines and brandies are made here in 
a single season. 

At Green valley, on the route hither, we met 
Mr. Arthur Litten, one of El Dorado county's 
largest Angora goat raisers. His llocks and 
herds of this choice hair-producing animal are 
in a most thriving and healthy condition, and 
his clipping this season lias been very profitable. 
He is one of the Pacific Rural Press' most 
appreciative readers. We also here met Mr. 
Skinner, another patron of your valuable paper, 
who has a fine vineyard and distillery. Last 
December the old gentleman came near sud- 
denly bidding adieu to all earthly things at the 
dictation of an assassin, who stealthily fired a 
round of buckshot into his left shoulder, in the 
immediate region of his heart; the charge first 
crashing through the window while Mr. Skin- 
ner sat in his parlor, absorbed in the perusal of 
the Rural Press, on that silent winter night. 
The would-be murderer, supposing he had killed 
his victim, tied into the chaparral and escaped, 
but the old man to-day is well, having fully 
recovered, and offers §1,000 for the apprehen- 
sion of the assailant. 

To-morrow I visit the ranch of Mr. N. D. 
Burlingham, one of the oldest and most experi- 
enced mining men of El Dorado county, resid- 
ing in the Garden Valley district. He and 
"Doc" Alderman are the fortunate owners of 
three or four of the best mines of this famous 
gold-producing region, among them the Espe- 
ranza, Old Judge and others, well known to 
everybody save the Pine St. victims of your 
city, for the dividend-paying stocks of none of 
these are to be found on any of the boards. But 
more of mines and mining, ranches and ranch- 
ing, at another time, A. J. B. 

Coloma, June 29th. 

Lassen County Notes. 

Editors Press: — I have long been a reader of 
your valuable paper, and take a great interest 
in reading it, and it seems to me that every 
number is better than the last. I am a farmer, 
and would almost as soon think of doing with- 
out a plow as to do without the Rural. I 
thought I would send you a few items about 
this part of the State, but as this is my first at- 
tempt, and being a poor scribe, I hope you, will 
judge it accordingly. 

This is a very backward spring and summer. 
Crops are fully one month later than last year. 
I commenced haying at this date last year, but 
it will be nearly a month before I can cut any- 
thing this year, for timothy has just commenced 
to head out. It has been a most remarkable 



season; there has been so much wind that it has 
dried the ground out, so that after all the rain 
and snow that fell last wi»ter there will be 
short crops if we do not have some rain soon. 
Last Friday and Saturday night we had sharp 
frosts that did a good deal of damage to gar- 
dens, and some say that grain in the upper end 
of Honey Lake valley is hurt. The fall-sown 
grain, which was just heading out, is hurt the 
most. The fruit was too far advanced to re- 
ceive any harm. There is a prospect of a large 
fruit crop this year; blackberries and straw- 
berries excepted, they were injured by the 
severe winter weather. 

I understand that the grasshoppers are doing 
a good deal of damage to crops in Long valley, 
this county. We all have our troubles in some 
way or other. While the north wind in the 
lower counties scorches everything up, it brings 
to us a frost, and perhaps this is a fact that but 
few are aware of, but it is nevertheless true. 

The loss in sheep and cattle was very great 
here last winter, some losing nearly all by not 
having hay to feed them. Stock men are be- 
ginning to see that it does not pay to keep largo 
bands of sheep and cattle and nothing to feed 
them on in case of a hard winter. They may 
manage to winter on the range for three or four 
winters without feeding, and then comes a hard 
winter and the owner loses half, or perhaps all, 
as in some instances that I know of, and then 
all his labor and all that he has invested is lost. 
More anon. G. R. Wales. 

Janesville, Lassen Co. 



California Lemons. 

At the last meeting of the State Horticultural 
Society G. P. Rixfordand W. W. Smith, the com- 
mittee appointed to examine the large collection 
of Californialemonsexhibited at the May meeting 
by L M. Holt, of Riverside, submitted the fol- 
lowing report : 

The collection embraced 16 different lots of 
fruit, including the following. Lisbon, on 
orange and lemon stocks, J. W. Wolfskill, Los 
Angeles; Lemon of Genoa, from A. B. Chapman, 
Los Angeles, and A. Brigden, Pasadena; P.ureka, 
on orange stock, from J. Banbury, Pasadena, 
and J. W. Wolfskill, Los Angeles; Seedlings 
from J. De Barth Shorb, San Gabriel, J. F. 
Crank, Pasadena, and J. W. Wolfskill, Los 
Angeles; Olivia from Geo. C. Swan, San Diego, 
and Knobby from G. W. Garcelon, Riverside. 
The last mentioned, however, rotted before the 
tests were made. An average specimen of each 
lot was carefully weighed, the quantity of juice 
measured and all were tested for bitterness of 
rind by being sliced in water, to which sugar 
was added and left to soak for 24 hours. No 
tests for strength of the acid in the different 
specimens were made, as no appliances for the 
purpose were at hand. The repeated and care- 
ful tests made by Mr. Holt and the lemon com- 
mittee of the Southern California Horticultural 
Society have effectually settled the merits of 
the different varieties in this respect, and all 
who are interested in the question are referred 
to their reports. 

Of the sixteen different lots, those presenting 
the most attractive appearance, size, beauty of 
form and texture of skin being considered, were 
the Lemon of Genoa and .1. F. Crank's seedling. 
The seedling fruit, as would be naturally ex- 
pected, was the largest and for this reason turned 
out the largest amount of juice, but generally 
of low strength compared to the other va- 
rieties. It would be unjust to make a compari- 
son for thickness of skin, as the different periods 
of time that had elapsed since the various speci- 
mens were gathered, had, from drying out, made 
the skin of those the longest pluckedthe thinnest, 
and vice versa. The same circumstances probably 
affected the bitterness of skin to some extent, 
those long gathered having lost a portion of 
their bitter flavor, if they ever had any. The 
Olivia and two or three of the seedlings were 
found to have a slightly bitter flavor, but not 
sufficient to materially affect the quality of the 
fruit. In fact, none of the specimens developed 
more bitterness than would many imported 
lemons under the same treatment. Some of the 
specimens, including the Lisbon, Lemon of 
Genoa and Eureka contain so large a number of 
seeds as to be an objection. These specimens 
were found to contain from IS to 26' well devel- 
oped seeds, which, if a common average, will be 
found to injure them to some extent as a mar- 
ket fruit. The market demands a medium size, 
handsome formed, delicate, thin-skinned fruit, 
with plenty of juice of good acid strength. All 
the qualities are combined in several of the sam- 
ples in question, and the lemon grower may con- 
fidently plant them knowing that his fruit will 
successfully compete with the best imported. 

Judging entirely by the appearance and qual- 
ity of the specimens before us, we find the Eu- 
reka, Olivia and Lisbon lemons to come nearest 
to filling all the requirements of first-class fruit, 
while a number of others, including Crank's 
seedling, deserve propagation and further trial. 

Of course the orchardist will not be guided 
entirely by the quality of the fruit in selecting 
the varieties to plant, as vigor and productive- 
ness of the tree, and absence or presence of 
thorns are important considerations. Finally, as 
a whole we find the collection to be very supe- 
rior in many respects, showing the wonderful 
improvement that skillful cultivation and intel- 



ligent selection has made over the ordinary 
seedling, and the great capacity of our Califor- 
nia soil and climate for the production of new 
and improved varieties of fruit. No cultivator 
of experience would now think of planting a 
grove of seedling lemon trees, whose coarse bit- 
ter-rind fruit will be unsalable as soon as the 
market is supplied with the product of the im- 
proved varieties now being extensively planted. 
Your committee believe that lemon growing in 
this State is a promising industry, and that the 
ability of our growers to compete with the best 
Mediterranean fruit in our own market, as well 
as that of the Atlantic States, is no longer a 
matter of experiment or uncertainty. 

Since the above was written the following re- 
port on lemon tests has been received from Mr. 
L. M. Holt of Riverside, and is submitted as of 
special value in this connection. 

To the Committee on Lemons of the State Hor- 
ticultural Society: — In accordance with your re- 
quest I submit herewith the result of lemon 
tests made on sample lemons taken from each 
exhibit before the State Horticultural Society 
at its May session. They all kept in good con- 
dition up to the present time — June 21st — when 
the tests were made, with the exception of one, 
the Knobby, grown by G. W. Garcelon of Riv- 
erside, which I found decayed. The lemons as 
a lot were the best I ever tested and many cf 
them were equal to the imported fruit. 

I find the average quantity of juice to be 33%. 
I also find that with one exception the lemons 
on orange stock give a percentage of juice above 
the average, while the lemons on lemon stock, 
with the exception of the Olivia and Crank's 
seedling, have a percentage of juice below the 
average. As might have been expected, all 
lemons which showed a low percentage of juice 
had a coarse-textured pulp and usually a thick 
rind. The Eureka lemon keeps up its reputa- 
tion pretty well as regards percentage of citric 
acid while the two specimens of Lisbon are be- 
low the standard. The Olivia still shows a 
good record and has been tested enough to rank 
it as a tirst-class lemon. 

In determining the quality of the lemon from 
these tests it is necessary to consider both the 
percentage of juice and the percentage of citric 
acid; or compare the amount of citric acid as 
expressed in the last column with the weight of 
the lemon. This comparison places Swan's 
Olivia at the head of the list and the imported 
Malaga second. Following is the table : 





n 


> 

6 B 


s 

a 


p 2 


> 




tr 


3 2 
ll 


a 
a 


cent 
cid. 


1 § 










. p 




NAMF. OF LKMON. 


D" 
§ 


: 


! 


• « 
. 


i 




S 






1 






i 


: "e 


I 




• SO 






CD 






• 


; £ 










trie 






4.5 


12. 


33 


8.56 


1.03 


Shorb Seedling budded on 














4.37 


10. 


28 


7.27 


.73 




6. 


12. 


30 


6.05 


.83 


Seedling budded on orange by 














3.12 


9. 


36 


7.28 


.65 




4.26 


11. 


82 


8.18 


.89 




3.56 


10.5 


37 


6.42 


.67 




3.37 


10. 


37 


8.56 


.85 


Eureka on orange (Banbury). . . 


3.06 


8.25 


34 


7.77 


.64 


Eureka on orange (Wolfskill). . 


3.26 


9.6 


37 


6.63 


.63 


Eureka on lemon (Wolfskill).. 


3.25 


8. 


31 


7.23 


.58 


Lisbon on lemon (Wolfskill)... 


s.eo 


8.5 


28 


6.85 


.58 


Lisbon on orange (Wolfskill). . . 


3.37 


10. 


87 


6.69 


.67 


Lemon of Genoa on lemon 














3.80 


9. 


30 


7.06 


.64 


Lemon of Genoa (Brigden) 


3.50 


9. 


32 


8.50 


.77 




2.37 


8. 


38 


7.23 


.68 




3.64 


10. 


33 


7.41 


.72 



With regard to bitterness I made but three 
tests. The Crank seedling is not bitter. The 
Shorb seedling is quite bitter, but the same 
lemon budded on orange stock is entirely free 
from bitterness. The other lemons are not 
bitter, with the exception of Wolfskill's XX, 
and the two seedlings sent by him, one repre- 
senting the ordinary bitter seedling and the 
other a sample from probably the oldest lemon 
tree on orange stock in southern California; 
these are bitter. 

Guarding Strawberries from Dry Winds. 
What the editor of the Rural New Yorker de- 
scribes as a successful experiment in protecting 
his strawberries from a dry south wind, may 
help some of our readers to save their fruit from 
a dry north wind: Just as our strawberries 
began to ripen one season, a very violent, hot, 
southern wind prevailed, which dried up the 
ripening fruit and began to shrivel the green. 
Having an abundance of clean, coarse, water- 
meadow hay in a stack, we took from this and 
spread it about three inches thick over the 
strawberry bed, and let it lie there till the 
evening of the third day. We then raised it 
off the outside row and found the berries filled 
out large and full as in cool, calm weather. We 
picked the ripened fruit from this row, and the 
next evening raked off the hay from the second 
row to cover the first, and thus proceeded from 
day to day till rain fell and the weather be- 
came cooler. Then we removed all the hay 
from the bed, except what was wanted to 
mulch under the vines, to keep the berries clean 
from the ground. If the fruit of two rows were 
wanted, one for tea at evening and the other for 
breakfast the next morning, we raked off two 
rows, leaving one uncovered during the night, 
as it seemed all the better for getting the dew, 
and the berries were fresher and finer for pick- 
ing in the morning than even those were in the 
evening. Clean straw, we presume, would have 
been just as effectual as hay, and either of these, 
scattered thinly at night over a bed of straw- 
berries, would preserve them from frost. 



The Manufacture of Parmesan Cheese. 

According to an interesting paper on Par- 
mesan cheese, written by Dr. Prato for the Ital- 
ian Annali dell' Agricultura, the process of 
manufacturing the popular dairy produce is as 
follows: — The cows are milked by women and 
girls at evening, and the milk carried in 
wooden or tin pails to the cheese-room, a sort 
of shed enclosed with walls on two or three 
sides, and having in the center a furnace with 
its copper. The milk is measured, strained 
through a cloth, and placed in flat, shallow 
dishes ranged round the wall of the cheese-room. 
There iB another delivery of milk in the morn- 
ing, which is measured in the same way. When 
all the cream has been removed, the milk is 
placed in the copper, and raised to a tempera- 
ture of S9 3 Fahr., which is considered best. 
The fire is then drawn, and rennet added. 
Natural rennet from the calf is always used; it 
is stirred in and left for an hour. Next, the curds 
are reduced to a state of even and uniform com- 
minution with the aid of a long stick provided 
with projecting points and a brush-like end of 
wire. This operation having been carefully 
performed, a small quantity of whey is added, 
and good saffron, in the proportion of half a 
drachm per 20 gallons of milk, is well stirred 
into the mass. The fire is fagain set going, 
the contents of the copper being now main- 
tained at 113" Fahr., and kept well stirred un- 
til it is known by the feel that the cooking has 
proceeded far enough, when the copper is lifted 
off, ana the contents are allowed to cool, so that 
the casein may be precipitated. To facilitate 
the Drocess a little cold skim-milk is added, and 
at the end of a quarter of an hour precipitation 
is complete. The curds accumulate in the mid- 
dle, and are removed with a cloth. The cheese 
is lifted out in a cloth and pressed under a thick 
wooden plate weighted with a heavy stone. 
When the whey is well squeezed out, the linen 
cloth is replaced by a hair cloth, fresh weights are 
added, and the cheese trimmed round from time 
to time. After this, it is carried to the salting- 
room where it is covered with salt. Here it re- 
mains three weeks, being constantly turned 
over and salted on each side in turn during that 
period. Lastly, it is carried to the drying- 
room, well scraped and brushed, and the sur- 
face oiled. The whey from the cheese is made 
into ricotta, which is eaten, salted or baked, by 
the peasants instead of cheese. It is heated to 
a temperature of 170° Fahr., stirring constantly. 
A little fresh milk or buttermilk, or, if the milk 
be not sour enough, a little sour milk, is some- 
times added. In time, the ricotta or curds 
form on the surface and are collected and 
pressed in molds. The refuse is given to the 
pigs. The cream removed at the commence- 
ment of cheese-making is made into butter. 

Sei.k.Cleaning Floors. — Now that many of 
our dairymen are building fine barns it may in- 
terest them to know of an arrangement which 
has been used for some time in the East. Auto- 
matic platforms, by which the stable may be 
made to clean itself, can be made. One dairy- 
man has had one in operation for more than two 
years. Not five minutes of time have been ex- 
pended in his stable in two years in cleaning. 
Let the fore feet of the cattle stand on a 
wooden platform and their hind feet upon an 
iron grating, made of wrought iron bars three- 
eighths of an inch thick and one and one-half 
inches wide. The bars of the grates are placed 
one and five-eighths inches apart, and rests on 
iron joists one-half inch by two, these resting 
on an angle iron sill at the back of the platform, 
and the other end resting on the wooden plat- 
form. Through these gratings the droppings 
fall. Hsrris Lewis once said that "cowscannct 
be kept clean unless you sit up all night with 
them." This plan sits up with them and keeps 
them perfectly clean. There must be a re- 
ceptacle below the grate which must be cleaned 
when tilled; but this cleaning is no more labor 
than when the manure is thrown out into a 
pile. Gratings can be put in for about six dol- 
lars per cow and will last a life-time. The cat- 
tle stand upon these bars with ease. Their 
feet stand across the bars. The grating can- 
not be used in barns in which the manure 
freezes. No wood- work comes in contact with 
the manure, and therefore there is no wood to 
to be rotted. If winter dairying is to be in- 
augurated, cows must be kept clean. The plat- 
form costs no more than the bedding of a cow 
for one season. This platform saves all the 
liquid as well as solid manure in the gutters un- 
der the platform. This saving the liquid man- 
ure is equal to the whole coat of the grating in 
a single year. In Flanders the liquid manure 
of a cow is estimated at £10 per year. 



A Mixed Ration for Cows.— Mr. Henry 
Stewart tells the Rural Neu> Yorker that after 
feeding cows for years, and making a large 
number of tests of different kinds of feeding 
substances he has settled down to a mixture of 
corn, oats and wheat bran ground together — not 
merely mixed— in equal parts by weight, as 
the best and most profitable food for cows, 
either for milk or butter, and on 10 pounds per 
day as the ration that can be most economically 
employed. The bran used is the common com- 
mercial sortu8ually Drocured in the market, and 
which has been cleanly scoured of all particles 
of flour or middlings. 



July 10, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC KURIL PRESS. 



T^E flELD. 



Country Help. 

Editors Press : — There has been consider- 
able said through the columns of the Press on 
the labor question. Now, if you will permit 
me for the first time, I want to have my say. 
In the first place I think Mr. Kamp's saying, in 
the June 19th number of the Press, caps the 
the climax of all that has been said or will be 
said on the matter. I think there is hardly a 
reader of the Press but will pronounce what 
he has said, or at least most of it, unmitigated 
nonsense; the idea of any farmer in the State 
being able to pay his hired help $1.50 or $2 per 
day and expect any return for his investment 
and labor is simply nonsensical in the extreme, 
at the price produce brings and has brought for 
the last few years. But I presume Mr. Kamp 
is not a farmer, or he would not gush about 
paying his hired help such wages, because they 
have nothing but their "muscles and will for 
capital." Mr. Kamp may be a very benevolent 
man, and, if he is a farmer, may be willing to 
help with his capital and labor this poor man 
that has no capital but "his muscles." That 
course may do for him, but it would be a ruin- 
ous course for everyone to adopt, because it 
would soon place the employer in a position or 
condition that he would be unable to pay his 
hired help anything. But the presumption is, 
Mr. Kamp is human, and, just like any other 
human being, will not hire a man for fun, and 
would just like to make a "little something" 
over and above food, lodging and wages out of 
his hired help, and it is very certain if he pays 
$1.50 or $2 a day and board that in the end of 
the year he will come out at the small end of 
the horn, so far as making is concerned. 

But then he says that to pay the above wages 
"farming must be done properly," that is, there 
must be a large amount ot brain work thrown 
in with the capital and labor of the farmer to 
pay this $1.50 or $2 a day to hired help. Now 
I will make the broad assertion that there is 
not a farmer in the State of California (Mr. 
Kamp included, although he may have the 
brain of a Webster or Clay,) who is able to pay 
such wages and have any margin on the capital 
invested, except it may be a few days in har- 
vest. As to farming being more profitable in 
this State than any other, I think the farming 
community throughout the State will not say 
so. There are difficulties to contend with here 
of a peculiar nature, owing to the climate and 
soil. The yield on the average is no greater 
than elsewhere; prices are no better and labor 
is higher, so that to take everything into con- 
sideration, farming in this State is uphill work 
with the most of men. Mr. Kamp must cer- 
tainly be an exception if he can farm it and pay 
his hired help $1.50 or $2 a day. Let us see if 
I am correct; facts and figures will show. We 
will put one man's wages at the lowest figure of 
Mr. Kamp, $1.50 a day, which comes to the 
nice little sum of $468 for one year; and I do 
not think Mr. Kamp can board a man for less 
than $3 per week, which, added all up, comes 
to over $600 per year. Now if Mr. Kamp can 
pay over $600 a year to each man he hires, and 
interest on the money invested in land, horses, 
farming implements, etc., it is beyond my com- 
prehension how he can do it. It can only be 
done in this way, if Mr. Kamp is a rugged, 
hearty, double-fisted fellow, with a healthy, 
strong, hard-working woman for a better half, 
with a half-dozen or so chunks of boys and girls, 
and they will all pitch right in with this hired 
man, together with Mr. Kamp's brain power, 
they might possibly succeed in raising this 
hired man's wages at the end of the year. But 
if Mr. Kamp has not the above-named appli- 
ances to help him to pay his farm help, I would 
advise him not to try the experiment. 

I believe it is right and proper to pay hired 
help all that can be paid in justice. Some men 
may be worth more and some less, but none 
worth Mr. Kamp's estimate of labor. I think 
both farmers and hired help have a bad system 
in this State. The farmer only hires a few 
months in the year — consequently the hired 
man has only employment that length of time, 
and must have large wages or he will have to 
go hungry or steal a part of the year. It would 
be better for the employer and employed if, in- 
stead of working a few months for $1.50 or $2 
a day, they would get employment the year 
round at small wages — then they would have a 
home and employment the year round, and in a 
few years, with economy, they would save up 
enough to get a home of their own, with a wife 
and family to sweeten the toils of life. Perhaps 
I have spun this out a little too long, but I 
could not do justice to Mr. Kamp and say less, 
but my next may be on a different theme. I 
will not write in the dark as Mr. Kamp has 
oomplained of some others, but give my name 
in full. Richard Johnston. 

Humboldt Co., Cal. 

[There is a thread of the argumentum ad 
hominem running through our correspondent's 
letter which we regret, but the disposition is 
apparently a fair one and the style sprightly. 
Please try and make arguments altogether im- 
personal, then no sensitive natures can be 
wounded. — Eds. Press.] 



Flax Growing.— No. 3. 

Editors Press: — In my last letter on the cul- 
tivation of flax I promised to give the many 
readers of the Press my experience in the har- 
vesting, threshing and cleaning the seed for the 
market. In the first place, the cultivation of 
flax on the coast has been in a great measure 
experimental, and has brought out various ideas 
and devices for doing the work in the most 
economical and labor-saving way. The cutting 
is much the same as oats or barley, with the 
exception that it is much slower — six to eight 
acres being a good average day's cutting. . 

It has been the general idea that the flax must 
stand until the straw was all ripe clear to the 
ground. This idea has been given up, however, 
after three years of getting caught in the rains 
with our threshing. I am convinced that as 
soon as the bolls and small stems or runners, on 
which the bolls grow, are dry, the seed has had 
all the nourishment it can get from the stalk, 
and is just as well and better cut then, than to 
let it stand, say, three to four weeks longer for 
the straw to get dry, as we have been in the 
habit of doing. Last year my flax was ripe by 
the middle of July and I did not commence to 
cut until the 14th of August, and the conse- 
quence was that the rains came and caught me 
in the midst of my threshing, and most of my 
neighbors were in the same boat. Threshing wet 
flax is the most tedious and vexing thing a man 
can do, and I think it would have tried the 
patience of Job, if he had been in the business. 
Flax that is cut when the straw is rather green, 
threshes a great deal better than when allowed 
to stand until very dry, as the straw does not 
grind up so badly and tax the sieves so heavily. 
Also the longer it stands after it is ripe, the 
greater the loss. The small stems which hold 
the bolls, soon become so dry and brittle that a 
great many break off in the handling and are 
lost; and the straw, when very dry and brittle, 
grinds up so badly that the separation of the 
chaff from the seed is much more difficult than 
when the straw and fiber are tougher. 

The threshing of flax is very slow and tedious. 
The seed is so light that it is very hard to sep- 
arate it from the endless varieties of foul seeds 
that we have to contend with, and the fiber 
winds on the shafting, and in fact everywhere 
about the machine, and often makes it neces- 
sary to stop and cut it off. It has to be fed 
very slowly and evenly to save and clean the 
seed. From 100 to 150 ctls. has been about as 
much as the best machines could thresh per 
day, and clean ready for market. It seems as 
though no machine or device can be found that 
will separate the seed from oats, turnip, mus- 
tard, and a great many other foul seeds. There 
have been several cleaners got up, but none of 
them can do the \\ ork fast enough. If we had 
a machine that could thresh and clean 300 or 
400 sacks per day, it would do ; but when we 
have to pay 25 cents per ctl. for the threshing 
and all other expenses, and only get 100 or 150 
sacks per day, it is tough. But we still live in 
hopes that some inventive genius will come to 
our relief with a machine that will do the work 
more rapidly and in better style. Some im- 
provement is very much needed in this class of 
machinery. 

Stacking. 

We have been in the babit of hauling the flax 
to the machine out of the piles, or just make a 
base of a stack at each setting, to start on in 
the morning, while the flax is wet, and when 
dry, haul in to the machine. This plan has 
been pretty well abandoned as unsafe in this 
foggy climate. This year the most of the flax 
will be stacked with an eye to standing the 
rains that we usually have in the early fall. 
Threshers Needed. 

There will be work for all the machinery that 
can be had on the coast this season, to get 
through before rain. The flax crop is looking 
very fine, and wheat and oats show no signs of 
rust or blight yet. I will not trespass further 
on your valuable space at this time, but will, in 
my next, speak particularly of the cost of the 
crop and of the profits, if any there be. 

Farmer. 

Pescadero, San Mateo Co., Cal. 



To Test Milk for Water. — A German 
chemist furnishes a very simple procedure for 
testing the amount of water in milk, which can 
be applied by anyone. All that is required is a 
small quantity of gypsum (plaster of Paris), say 
one ounce. This is mixed with the milk to a 
stiff paste, and then allowed to stand. With a 
milk of 1.030 specific gravity, and a temperature 
of 60° Fahr., it will harden in 10 hours; if 25% 
of water is present already, in two hours; if 
50%, in one and a half hours; and with 75%, in 
30 minutes. Skimmed milk which has been 
standing for 24 hours, and is of 1.033 specific 
gravity, sets in four hours; with 50% of water, 
in one hour; and with 75%, in 30 minutes. 
Heat should not be applied, as then the use of 
the thermometer would be required. This test 
is certainly very simple and not costly. 

Important to Fishermen. — The Scientific 
American says it is a well-known fact that fish 
always return to the same ground each year to 
spawn, but that it has recently been discovered 
that they always follow the left-hand side of 
the river on their trips to the spawning grounds, 
and returning take the right-hand side of the 
river. Our fishermen should remember this. 



Old-Fashioned Flowers. 

Editors Press: — I write in their behalf to 
the generation.who know nothingof them — who 
have no remembrance of the scarlet runner, or 
morning-glory, shading the window of an old 
homestead, of the hollyhocks and peonies of the 
good old days. To the readers of the Press 
bred in the Southern States one need only to 
speak of the yellow jessamine and the Cherokee 
rose to awaken a host of precious memories 
among the elders. 

Permit us a word concerning the history of 
the Cherokee rose. It is native of China, and 
at an early day took so kindly to the South as 
to be classed among our indigenous plants. It 
is like the banskia in its habit of growth, a 
rampant climber, will hide barns or outbuild- 
ings in a year or two with its vivid, polished 
leaves, and when covered with its large, waxen- 
white flowers, is a heavenly sight indeed. Bot- 
anists know it as the Rosa laevigata. 

The "sweet briar" is to the North what the 
Cherokee is to the South. The poets long ago 
sung its praises under the name of Eglantine. 
Who can forget its fragrance after a June 
shower ! Who that has chanced to find a wild 
bush in autumn, covered with its crimson fruit, 
has not admired it anew in its winter dress ! 
This is Rosa rubiginosa. There are gardeners' 
varieties, the "royal," the "scarlet," the "celes- 
tial," but none exceed the soft pink of the old- 
fashioned brier. 

These two members of the rose family have 
kept the faith originally given to flower saints, 
and, all unspoiled by culture, are the key-notes 
of an endless flower song. Two or three other 
old-fashioned roses ought to be in every garden. 
The ayrshire, the boursault, the crimson, and, 
above all, the original provence, or cabbage 
rose. None of these roses require much care, 
except in pruning. They may be said to take 
care of themselves, and are often found in de- 
serted gardens, as if keeping watch for the 
hands which once tended them, now cold and 
still. 

For late summer effects no plant is more de- 
sirable than the hollyhock. The Parisians value 
it, and have carried its culture to apparent per- 
fection. The double varieties are more sought 
after, but the single are most to our taste, where 
the colors are pure and well contrasted. A 
shaded line of hollyhocks, along a garden fence, 
is a very appropriate disposition of them. The 
florists furnish them in every tint and shade, 
except blue. To get a pure contrasting blue, in 
a tall growing plant, one must depend upon two 
other old-fashioned plants, viz., aconite and bee 
larkspur. I have rarely seen either of these 
in California, but they are superb, grown in 
1 masses upon a lawn. 

And among humble plants we have to bring 
forward the claims of bachelors buttons and 
mariolds. The marigolds are especially fitted 
to shine on this coast, where all composite plants 
flourish so wonderfully. One should see a 
special show of African marigolds, with their 
velvet petals ranging through the color scale 
from black to the palest straw and cream color, 
streaked, blotched, spattered with fire, to get a 
marigold fever. We hope our Horticultural 
Society will remember them among the many 
claimants for attention. 

And then we had, in every old-fashioned 
garden, crysanthemums, another family which 
modern florists have made so much of, that we 
scarcely know them as descendeuts of the loose, 
straggling, but always welcome November 
blooms. 

" Lichnidia, " too, pure colored with spotted 
stems, is now represented by gorgeous varieties 
of perennial phlox. " Sweet William," ditto, 
and the humble thyme goes forth gilt and silver 
edged. 

In planting an " old-fashioned garden" the 
lilac and snowball with the peony would of 
course find place. Grass pinks would adorn 
the borders. Ribbon grass and sweet grass 
must fill odd corners. Flower de Luce, and all 
the lovely old-fashioned bulbs, especially daf- 
fodils, must hide under lilac bushes, flowering 
cherries and almonds. 

Have not these ancient floral favorites a claim 
upon our loving thoughts, equal at least to that 
of our grandmother's china, and chintz or bro- 
cade gowns ? In these days of exaggerated ad- 
miration to the old-fashioned in art, why not 
revive the original devotion to the surroundings 
of a home, which developed the taste and re- 
finement upon which art culture rests ? China 
painting is a pleasing accomplishment, but it 
cannot give to body or spirit half the enjoyment 
or real culture which old-fashioned people gained 
in their old-fashioned gardens ; and what our 
young folks need is not to reproduce or servilely 
to imitate the work of an earlier period, but to 
seek fresh inspiration in the perennial fountain 
of nature. Jeanne C. Carr. 

Pasadena, June 26, 1880. 



Average Speed on Railroads. — The aver- 
age speed on English railroads is 46 miles an 
hour; on the French roads : 37 J; on the Ger- 
man, 40, and on the American, 37. On the 
English roads, 6J-ft. driving wheels are quite 
common; and some of the fast lines have 8 and 
9-ft. wheels, and one line has 10-ft. wheels. 



StfEEp ^nd Wool. 



The Half-Year's Wool Trade. 

E. Grisar & Co., of the Wool Exchange of 
this city, have furnished us with their usual 
review of the wool trade for the six months 
ending June 30, 1880. We quote as follows : 
The spring season of 1880, has been the com- 
plete reverse of 1879. At the beginning of the 
year the supply of wool in warehouse was unusu- 
ally small. Throughout the fall prices had ad- 
vanced without cessation, and finally reached a 
point higher than any attained since 1871. 
During January and February, Eastern mar- 
kets were active and constantly advancing, so 
that California wool growers had reason to ex- 
pect exceptionally high rates for their product. 
In many cases efforts were made to contract for 
wools before they were shorn, but the amount 
of business done in this way was very limited, 
on account of the indisposition of growers to 
accept prices offered, although they were higher 
than had ever been paid, excepting in 1872. A 
few of the producers in the southern portion of 
the State sold, but in no other section. The 
first wools were from the interior of the State, 
and reached this market about the middle of 
March; meeting with eager competition and re- 
alizing extreme prices. The quantity received 
was small, and for nearly a month arrivals were 
meager, as the long expected rains fell heavily, 
and almost constantly all over the State during 
April, which prevented shearing. The result 
was that wools arrived from the southern and 
middle counties about the same time that some 
of the northern sections were sending forward 
their wools. Stocks therefore accumulated 
rapidly and growers added to this result by be- 
ing averse to selling. Having become accus- 
tomed to the idea of receiving extreme prices 
they were reluctant to accept ruling rates. In 
the meantime extreme dullness had succeeded 
to great activity in the Eastern markets, prices 
declined constantly, and as sales were very 
limited, shippers were completely in the dark 
as to what they could afford to pay here. This 
uncertainty still continuing, we have, therefore, 
had a market unsatisfactory to all interested, — 
growers have been disappointed in prices real- 
ized, and buyers because the market has been 
continually declining. During the last few 
days there has been more activity, but the gen- 
eral market during most of the season has shown 
little signs of life. Some large growers and 
purchasers of wools at extreme prices have for- 
warded their wools East. Manufacturers, di- 
rectly or through their agents, have been the 
chief support of the market, as shippers have 
operated with great caution and very sparingly. 
Although the market has generally been quiet, 
there has been sufficient demand to absorb sup- 
plies gradually and the stocks to-day are much 
smaller than was expected. 

Character of the Wool. 

The average of the clip is good, as early rains 
caused the grass to start and sheep were gener- 
ally in good condition, although extreme and 
prolonged cold weather during the winter in- 
jured feed in some sections. The abundant 
rains of April, and the consequent delay in 
shearing, made the staple of wool unusually 
good. The clip from the southern coast and 
lower interior counties was the best for several 
years. Last year, many of the wools from these 
sections were dusty, but this year they have 
been lively, well grown and strong; and although 
more sightly, the difference in shrinkage has 
not been so great as seemed at first. From the 
extreme north very little wool has been received, 
so it is difficult to determine the comparative 
conditions, but in other northern sections the 
wools have been about the same as last year. 
The clip of the State in 1880 will probably be 
less than that of last year, as many sheep have 
been driven out of the State, and in some sec- 
tions the loss has been heavy. 

State of the Market. 

The first receipts of long stapled wools were 
sold at 36c. The market value of similar wools 
to-day is 23c. to 24c. The market for southern 
coast and middle counties production opened at 
33c. to 34c. and declined until similar lots now 
bring only 20c. to 23c. On northern wools, the 
decline has been less marked, as this descrip- 
tion did not arrive until after the market had 
declined materially. First sales were made at 
29c. to 30c, and on these rates a shrinkage of 
from 10% to 15% has taken place. The demand 
for this class has been good, and no accumula- 
tion has taken place. On fancy conditioned 
parcels the market has been strong, at 29c. to 
30c, and during the past few days an advance 
of about one cent per pound has been made. 
Other descriptions are also firmer owing to dim- 
inished supply. The stock of California wool 
to-day probably does not exceed 8,000 bags. 

Receipts from Oregon are almost altogether 
Eastern. Stocks to-day are large. Prices are 
nominal, as very little has been taken by ship- 
pers. The wools are decidedly inferior to those 
of last year, as they are in poorer condition, 
more unsightly, and contain more alkali. The 
amount of valley wool received is too small to 
furnish any reliable opinion as to the general 
character of the clip. 

Freight overland has been 2Jc. per lb. By 
Cape Horn, lc. per lb. Sailing vessels have 
taken an unusually large proportion of the ex- 

[CONTINUED ON PAGE 26.] 



20 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[July io, 1880. 




Correspondence invited from all Patrons for this Department. 



Union Meeting at Alhambra Grange. 

Editors Press: — Are we as farmers a social 
people or not ? How different the answer to 
this question to-day from that of 20 years agone, 
especially in those communities where that 
great bugbear, a Grange secret society, lias 
planted its footprints. Very frequently in the 
dark past of country life have families lived al- 
most within sight of chimney smoke, and yet 
never have broken the spell that divides the 
stranger from a neighbor, nor parted the thin 
veil of silence that needs but a voice and a 
kindly shake of the hand to forever lift such 
brooding silences as maketh of such homes iso- 
lated spots, where comes no outside friendships 
to brighten life or cheer the sad weary hours of 
sickness and trouble. 

In this dearth of social life, into this world of 
all work and all play, came the verification of 
that proverb "the Lord bestoweth nuts leaving 
ug to crack them," in the casting of those strange 
Grange nuts into the agricultural fields of these 
United States. Well have they taken root; and, 
if in the cracking we fail to get a rich harvest of 
kernels, then be ours the fault. 

Such the range of thought engendered by our 
Alhambra Grange meeting of June 2!>th, when 
Bro. Spilman, State Master, and Bro. Adams, 
State Secretary, came as neighbors to talk and 
confer with those farmers whose grain covers 
the hills and valleys that nestle around Mt. 
Diablo, and lie against the coast, or, in other 
words, in Contra Costa county; here, too, sat our 
friends, the Demings, from Solano, "over the 
hills and far away, " and I might say over the 
waters, too. Danville, Walnut Creek, added 
their quota to this mixed Grange household, 
while a voice from the dead past of Antioch 
Grange was heard giving a hope of its revival 
and resurrection. 

Two sisters and one. brother took the fourth 
step of the patron's ladder, and were thus ad- 
mitted into full fellowship with those pioneers 
who have partially at least cleared the fields of 
those prejudices that are numberless; hence, 
time only may uproot them; this can only be 
fully accomplished by perfecting the social scale 
of the farmer, and in proportion as this comes, 
so will fade that mildew of clodhopperism that 
has not only blighted a most respectable calling, 
but turned many a young promising man from 
the widest range of mental and physical labor, 
namely, the fields of agriculture, to the more 
narrow proscribed paths of so-called learned pro- 
fessions. 

Ingenuity of flower artists left graceful 
touches, bright tints and a fragrant redolent 
spell of buds and flowers in our Grange room; 
but this was superseded by pupils well skilled 
in culinary arts, and who reigned supreme in the 
dining room; clatter of knives and forks, chatter 
of merry tongues tilled more than an hour, and 
was only hushed by the masterly stroke of the 
gavel. 

Worthy Master Spilman being called to the 
floor most beautifully eulogized the conception 
of our Order, and especially dwell upon the in- 
fluence of Sister Clara Hall, in making woman 
not only a co-worker, but co-equal in all the 
rights as well as responsibilities of this organi- 
zation. In a plain concise manner, in keeping 
with his boasted farmer's calling, was shown by 
•itations of woman's work and almost untold 
powers, how wisely our founders had laid their 
groundwork, and planned for man and woman 
to stand side by side as well in practice as in 
theory. Much, very much was said, but be it 
enough for these columns that good Grange 
seed was sown, not to the uninitiated multitude, 
but perhaps more to the purpose, upon minds 
and hearts that do not always palpitate in keep- 
ing with our every-day Grange movements and 
meetings, but in a lukewarm way, or newly 
aroused sense of duty, come upon great occasions. 

Bro. Adams followed in a happy style, playing 
more particularly upon the co-operative strings 
of Grangerism, showing conclusively that in 
"union there is strength," and also in uni- 
formity of action, is followed by a proportionate 
success, the highest, noblest meed of labor. 

Good of order called forth voices from visiting 
brothers and sisters, and their hearty response 
to the welcome so freely given, was but a fore- 
runner of the greeting they on the to-morrows 
would extend to all patrons, for to Walnut 
Creek and Danville was yet the privilege of hold- 
ing an uncracked nut; this nut, we know from 
past experience, is like unto the loaves and 
fishes of old, sufficient to feed not only the few 
but the many. 

Thus was told in one of those happy re-unions 
common to a good patron's creed, that it is well 
for man and woman to live in the coils of such 
social bonds, as they tend not only to strengthen 
and perfect physical life, but to exalt" and 
quicken mental and intellectual forces to such 
a state of fruition on earth, as giveth a happy 
foretaste of that final crowning of immortality. 

Mrs. Maria B. Lander, 

Martinez, July 4, 1880. 

Prom Another Correspondent. 

Editors Press:— We spent such a delightful 
day with Alhambra Grange on Tuesday. June 
29th, the temptation to tell you about it be- 
comes perfectly irresistible. We started about 
nine o'clock from our home on the Straits 
of Carquinez, in the fast sailing plunger, the 
I'lowboy, which is the property of our good 



neighbor, Mr. Edwards, who was kind enough 
to take us with him on his way to Benicia. As 
Martinez is on the opposite side of the Straits, 
it was necessary for him to go out of his way to 
oblige us; this kindness was greatly appreciated. 
It has already been remarked that the Plowboy 
is a fast-sailing boat, consequently we were 
in danger of arriving at Martinez before the ap- 
pointed time, so we sailed up near the large 
ferry boat, the Solano, and watched the train 
move aboard this great floating palace. After 
blowing her whistle, which was echoed back by 
the surrounding hills, this immense result of 
man's mental and manual labor, left her slip at 
Port Costa for the other side. We then sailed 
over near Benicia to see the large wharf being 
built there beside the ferry slip for the shipment 
of wheat by Messrs. Balfour, Guthrie & Co. 
From here we crossed to the port to which we 
were destined, where we were met by Bro. 
Adams and my father, who had come on the 
train. We thanked our kind neighbor for the 
pleasant sail, bade him good day and immedi- 
ately proceeded to the hall of Alhambra Grange. 
Here we were welcomed by some of our friends, 
the good brothers and sisters, who were laden 
with baskets and boxes. Now every good 
Granger can guess what was in those mysterious 
looking baskets and boxes. We ascended to 
the Grange hall, where we found sister M. B. 
Lander and some of the young sisters arranging 
flowers and preparing for the reception of visitors. 

There were representatives from Danville, 
Walnut Creek and Vallejo Granges, and Mr. 
Smith represented the dormant Grange of An- 
tioch, which he said was about to awaken. The 
gentleman told us, in the course of his remarks, 
which were quite scientific, that "the tide flowed 
out and the tide flowed iu." This being true, 
it is perfectly natural that the tide of good fel- 
lowship should again flow in among those who 
have once enjoyed the society and advantages of 
the Grange. The earlier part of the day was 
employed in conferring the fourth degree upon 
two ladies and one gentleman. W. M. Spilman 
and Bro. Deming were invited to assist the 
Worthy Master of Alhambra in his labors. 
After the degree had been conferred and two 
new sisters and a brother welcomed as full- 
fledged Patrons, we were invited to repair to 
the lower hall to partake of the good things 
that the ever thoughtful matrons had spread for 
our refreshment. We now had no doubt about 
the contents of those numerous baskets and 
boxes. Each had- contributed its share to the 
bountifully laden table before us, which almost 
groaned under its burden. I can assure you 
that we did ample justice to this collation, for 
we had an early breakfast, and then the sea air 
is said to have an appetizing effect. Among 
everything that was excellent, there were some 
very fine cherries from the ranch of Dr. Strent- 
zel. 

The meeting iu the afternoon was called to 
order by W. M. Dr. Strentzel, and Worthy 
Master of the State Grange, B. It. Spilman, was 
introduced and treated us to a very excellent 
and interesting address upon the advantages of 
the Grange to its members, and also to those 
without the gates. He made some very com- 
plimentary, but very true statements about the 
noblework the sisters are doing and theadvantage 
the Order is to them. Bro. Amos Adams was 
then called upon and made some very pleasing 
remarks in regard to the Business Association, 
(■rangers' Bank and Patron. Mr. Woods next 
spoke and showed us that he thoroughly en- 
dorsed the remarks of the preceding gentleman. 
A gentleman from Walnut Creek, whose name 
I did not hear, astonished us by telling us there 
was a class of 13 to be initiated into their Grange 
on Thursday. We were glad to hear this and 
would like to hear it from all other Granges in 
the State. Several other brothers and sisters 
spoke, and the meeting being a closed one, was 
then closed in due form. Some of the other 
members of our by no means small family, hav- 
ing arrived to take us home in the yacht, 
" Wave," we bade good night to our kind and 
hospitable friends, and after a delightful sail 
found ourselves once more treading upon the 
soil of Glen Cove rancho. Clara Demino. 

July 5th, 1880. 

Carry on the Work.— From a well written 
essay In the Michigan Orange Visitor, by a 
farmer's daughter and a matron in the Grange, 
we extract the following: We know that we 
are often surrounded with the most trying cir- 
cumstances; and trivial things that come to 
annoy us seem to gain increased power until 
we are tempted to falter on the way. We 
know that sometimes there is so much for busy 
hands to do, there are so many hard duties de- 
volving on the tired father, it seems like ask- 
ing too much to require him to hitch up and drive 
to the Grange. But when we get there we feel 
paid for the extra exertion required. The 
meeting of sisters and brothers whose hearts 
we know are true, to whom we may look for 
sympathy, the bright faces and cheerful tones 
of friends we have learned to prize, enlivens 
and refreshes and gives us strength for the 
duties that follow on the morrow. Patrons 
and matrons do not deceive yourselves. Here- 
in you can pluck grains of solid comfort when 
the germs of dormancy are about to take root 
in your hearts. Spare yourselves the pangs of 
such weaknesses in jour lifework. Be men 
and women in the most "trying circumstances" 
and allow not "trivial things" to annoy you 
and gain "increased power." In the Grange 
you have a proud inheritance to bequeath to 
your posterity. Act not the part of cowards, 
now, when the zenith of success and glory is 
within your grasp. 



^q^iciIltvJi^l flojEs. 



CALIFORNIA. 

ALAMEDA. 

Introducing Plants. — Washington Reporter, 
June 26 : Many years ago Mr. A. Patterson, of 
Decoto, brought with him, from the East, a lot 
of cuttings and roots of the pecan, sassafras, 
sugar maple, mulberry and walnut trees, and 
they can now be seen in full growth. Only the 
mulberry trees are in bearing. In bringing the 
cuttings Mr. Patterson experienced considerable 
difficulty, they having to be moistened every 
day. The cuttings having been taken in the 
autumn, on reaching Panama they began to 
sprout and grow, and considerable skill had to 
be exercised in transplanting them into Cali- 
fornia soil and climate. 
BUTTE. 

The Harvest. — Oroville Mercury, July 2 : 
The farmers are so busy in the harvest fields 
that but few of them have been in town this 
week. The weather is very favorable, being 
cool and accompanied by light winds. On the 
red lands the grain has shriveled but a very 
little. The most of it will be plump as usual. 
Owing to the fact that but little of it has been 
injured by rains, the yield on this land will be 
full as good as last year. On the black and the 
adobe lands the crop is fully 20% ahead of last 
year. But very few acres in this part of the 
county have been injured at all, while field after 
field presents an appearance that gladdens the 
heart of the farmer. The scarcity of field hands 
is greatly felt, and were it not that Chinamen 
can be obtained, large fields of grain would be 
left to be threshed out by the wind. 

Debris Suit.— There was filed in the office 
of the County Clerk this week, by F. C. Cusk, 
attorney for G. W. Colby, of Nord, a complaint 
containing 16 pages of printed matter, wherein 
the plaintiff alleges that the Spring Valley Min- 
ing and Irrigating Co., a corporation, has dam- 
aged him in the modest little sum of $-11,250, 
by running sand, tailings and other debris from 
its mines at Cherokee Flat upon the lands of 
plaintiff, destroying to a great extent his crops 
for the past three years. 

Wages. — Record, July 3 : Two dollars per 
day is the standard price for labor in this 
county, also for heading and threshing, with the 
exception of the separator tenders, sack sewers, 
forkers, engineers and header runners, whose 
pay is much more, although some ranchers seem 
to think that they can hire men for less; but, 
generally speaking, the men who work for small 
pay are those who work for a very short time, 
and the inconvenience of securing a new crew 
every two or three days more than offsets the 
difference in prices paid for labor. Good work- 
ing men are scarce in this section. If there be 
a superabundance of this kind of workmen in 
other counties, they can find work here at 
standard prices, and if they are of industrious 
and temperate habits, they will have no trouble 
in securing work for the entire season. 

COLUSA. 

The Crops. — Sun, July 3: We are pleased to 
be able to state that the crops are turning out 
much better than was anticipated after the con- 
tinued north wind. It was thought that the 
greater part of the wheat would be shrunken, 
and scarcely merchantable, but the most of it 
will be excellent wheat. Mr. Campbell, who is 
farming the Glide land this year, has been 
threshing for a fortnight, and finds the yield to 
be about IS sacks to the acre. This one farm 
will have 125,000 bags of wheat to sell. This 
is plain land. Most of the river wheat has filled 
very well. John Deeter brought us a sam- 
ple of his club on his home place, which is as 
tine and heavy as any we ever saw. We spoke 
last week of the crops on the east side of the 
river, and now we think the west side, except 
some of the poorest alkali land, will turn out al- 
most as well. Julius Weyand showed us some 
samples from the neighborhood of Arbuckle, 
which were very fine. The average per acre 
throughout the county will be very large — in 
the neighborhood of 25 bushels to the acre — 
some place it as high as 30. Colnsa county will 
have an immense surplus for export this season. 

FRESNO. 

New Incubator. — Republican, June 29 : A 
Bronze turkey gobbler belonging to Mrs. Inns, 
on the Central Colony, concluded, as the price 
of poultry was advancing, that lie would go 
into the business. P>olling an egg out of a hen's 
nest, he fixed himself up a nest, and commenced 
setting in good earnest. The egg was taken 
away from him, but he succeeded in getting 
another. Finding that he was determined on 
having a family of his own, Mrs. Inns furnished 
him a nest full of eggs, and for the past ten 
days he has attended to business assiduously. 
What he will do when they are hatched out re- 
mains yet to be seen. 

Threshing. — Messrs. Frank Chapman and 
Ed. Burnett started up their new thresher at 
Mark Chapman's place, about five miles from 
Centerville, on the 16th inst. The grain is ex- 
cellent, and their machine works like a charm. 
Grain in this section escaped damage from the 
drying winds, and is plump, the yield being far 
above the average. They charge six cents for 
barley, and seven for wheat, and promise good 
work. 
LAKE. 

Crops. — Cor. Santa Rosa Republican: In 
traveling over a large portion of Lake county, 
I find some excellent wheat crops, but the 
larger portion is not an average. The peach, 



nectarine, apricots, and some of the cherries, 
are entirely destroyed for this season, while the 
apple and pear promise a good yield. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Bananas. — Express: It has never been 
claimed that the banana can be successfully 
cultivated on the low, damp lands of this county, 
but that it can be on dry hillsides has been 
demonstrated. We have never had so severe a 
winter as the last since the settlement of the 
State by Americans, but there are localities 
where the banana has survived the frosts and 
continuous cold, and is now flourishing and 
bearing fruit. In Judge Widney's garden, in 
this city, is a plant which has a fine bunch of 
bananas, more than half-grown, and which will 
mature fruit of as fine quality as one can desire. 
There are at least 50 banana shrubs in this city 
which will fruit this season. The banana has 
no particular time for fruitage, the maturity of 
the fruit depending wholly on the growth of the 
plant. Some plants reach the fruitage period 
too late in the fall for the fruit to ripen. Thes« 
are usually killed by the frost, but Judge Wid« 
ney has a plant which bore fruit lastJDecember, 
and, after passing through the rigor of the win- 
ter, the bunch of bananas still remains, and 
probably half of them will mature. But the 
danger of having fruit blasted by the cold can 
be avoided by cutting down all sprouts which 
it is evident will not fruit until it is too late. 
The leaves on this and other plants were mostly 
blasted by the frost, but the body of all the 
plants, excepting those of very young growth, 
remained in good condition, and in March and 
April new leaves put out, and on some of them 
clusters of fruit have made their appearance. 
This success can be looked for only in favorable 
locations. A dry hillside with a southern 
aspect is the best. Farmers living in the open 
valley and on moist land have failed in all their 
attempts to cultivate the banana, but their fail- 
ure is no proof that another cultivator, perhaps 
not a half mile distant, may not succeed. 

Buckwheat. — Herald: Mr. J. F. Nadeau, 
Mr. Blakeslee and others, have some half dozen 
fields of buckwheat now in bloom in the vicin- 
ity of Florence. The snowy flowers are in fine 
contrast with the living green of the leaves. 
Without the slightest irrigation, the foliage, 
from bottom to top leaf, showed not the least 
symptom of thirst, up to noon yesterday. The 
fields of buckwheat are some in the artesian sec- 
tion of Florence precinct, while the rest are in 
the non-artesian or arid section. The buck- 
wheat is growing luxuriantly in the arid section. 
It is suggestive of the capacity of buckwheat to 
flourish with a minimum of moisture. 

NAPA. 

Crops. — Register, July 3: The quality of the 
hay cut this year is far superior to the general 
average, being bright, well-cured and free from 
thistles and other noxious weeds, which of late 
years have been so prevalent among hay cut in 
this valley. Wheat is ripening quite fast. 
Never in the history of the valley has there been 
a more favorable year for the growth of this 
grain. From seeding time to the eve of harvest 
all things have beeu favorable to a large yield. 
The cool weather of the last two weeks has 
caused the grain to till exceedingly well and a 
very fine article will be placed upon the market 
this fall, as it will be not only very plump but 
free from foul seeds. The peach crop this year 
in the valley will be exceedingly light. A 
large majority of trees have been attacked by 
curled leaf and the fruit has been blasted. 
Apricots will not be very abundant. A large 
crop of apples is expected though the hot 
weather in the early part of the month blasted 
much early fruit. A larger crop of grapeB is 
now assured than was ever harvested in Napa 
valley. The vines escaped spring frosts, fruit 
set well, is now in blossom or just past, and 
growing finely. The prospective demand is 
large and high prices are already being of- 
fered. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

Inundated Wheat. — Independent: Geo. 
Emerson, who rents land from M. 0. Fisher, on 
the upper division of Koberts' island, brought 
to this city samples of the growing wheat that 
was recently inundated. Notwithstanding the 
fact th: t it stood for several days in a depth of 
about 16 inches of water, it is strong and in the 
best possible condition. The soil was quite dry 
at the time the break occurred in the|levee, and 
much of the water has been absorbed by the 
earth and has nearly all disappeared, leaving 
the growing grain high and dry. The samples 
of the inundated wheat exhibited at Sonthworth 
& Grattan's store recently attracted consider- 
able notice, and the general conclusion was 
that a better development of head and berry 
could not be found anywhere in the valley. 
Some of the farmers on the upper division, who 
thought they were drowned out, will gather 
large quantities of wheat into their granaries. 

Scarcity op Hands. — Stockton Herald, July 
3: A prominent grain merchant to-day stated 
that it was almost an impossibility to get a suffi- 
cient number of work hands to run on the 
steamers plying between this city and landings 
up the river. Fifty dollars per month and 
board are offered them, and they still refuse. 
When work is so plentiful as it is at tins time 
of the year there can be no need of tramps going 
about the country begging. They should be re- 
fused assistance when they make application. 

The Present Wheat Crop. — We are in- 
formed by those who, from long experience, are 
competent to judge, that the present wheat crop 
is likely to be, on an average, of better quality 
than that of any previous season, although much 



July 10, i$8o.~] 



FIG HUH JLL FEE 



21 



of it may be somewhat shrunken. Samples thus 
far received, with few exceptions, are of a qual- 
ity to be classed as good milling wheat. 
SANTA CRUZ. 

Pleasant Homes. — Editors Press: Let me 
say to your many readers, who are "seeking a 
country" where they can make themselves 
"pleasant homes," that, in all probability, there 
is no county in the State, or in any other State, 
that offers any greater natural advantages for 
such a home than Santa Cruz county. Now let 
me enumerate some of them that exist here in a 
high degree. First — Our climate is the most 
regular, evenly tempered, freest from storms 
and drouth, or other extremes of any country I 
have been in. Second — We have clear, pleasant 
sunshine, with gentle breezes, 19 out of every 
20 days of the year, and the air is pure, coming 
either from the ocean or the mountains back of 
us. Third — The whole county is watered with 
living springs and creeks of pure water, so that 
it might be divided into small farms with living 
water on each farm. Fourth — We have great 
quantities of timber, suitable for making build- 
ing lumber and for fire wood, and vast quanti- 
ties of tanbark oak that furnishes cheap ma- 
terial for tanning leather of the first quality. 
Our mountains of limestone, of superior quality, 
supply us and the whole coast with the best 
of lime and building stone at cheap rates. 
Fifth — Our facilities for getting to market, or 
anywhere else, are as good as any in the State, 
and we can go by rail or water. In conse- 
quence of the great influx of the visiting popula- 
tion every summer, we have a home market for 
most of our agricultural products. Sixth — Be- 
sides our railroads we have splendid wagon 
roads all over the county, affording pleasant 
drives amid grain and picturesque mountain 
scenery. There are pleasant resorts along the 
sea coast, and other summer resorts where peo- 
ple congregate by the thousand for health and 
recreation. Last, but not least, is the fact that 
we have one of the finest fruit-growing regions 
in the world, and our market facilities are first- 
rate. Our soil and climate are peculiarly 
adapted to the growth of a great variety of 
choice fruits and nuts, as well as grain and 
vegetables. We have good society, good 
schools and good neighbors, and no shoddy 
aristocracy. We value one another according 
to manly or womanly worth or character; and 
there is plenty of good land to be had at reason- 
able rates, in quantities to suit, with good titles 
to make pleasant homes.— M. P. Owen, Soquel. 
SOLANO. 

Suisun Notes. — Republican, July 3: Owing 
to the continual cold, damp weather wheat is 
ripening very slowly. We took a little spin into 
the country the other day and we found that 
wheat had scarcely changed from the condition 
it was in a week previous. The wind has been 
blowing furiously all the time, right from the 
bosom of old ocean, and has retarded the ripen- 
ing of grain considerably. The sap seems to re- 
main in the stock, and the kernels seem to re- 
main soft and pulpy. Many headers that have 
started, have found the grain too green, and 
were compelled to stop. 

The Harvest.— Tribune, June 26: The 
threshers of Messrs. Bloom, Cooper and Kline 
began work this week upon barley, but no 
wheat has yet been threshed that we know of. 
There is a cheerful tone among farmers, as most 
of them now believe they were scared too soon. 
The south winds that followed the blow from 
the north were a grand thing for the wheat. 
From Colusa the reports continue favorable. 
Mr. Killebrew shows us some fine samples of 
wheat from his farm there. 
SONOMA. 

Curl-Leaf. — A. Bouton, in Russian River 
Flag, July 1 : The principal cause of curl-leaf on 
peach trees is a superabundance of rain or 
moisture, which puts the tree in a susceptible 
state to be acted upon by the sun. We may say 
that the sun is an auxiliary cause of curl-leaf. 
We knew of a tree, a part of which was shaded, 
and that part retained its leaves in a healthy 
condition, while the remainder and larger part 
lost all its leaves. April, 1860, like 1800, was 
stormy, and bad for the curl, yet few, if any 
trees, died. The curled portions of leaves will 
turn black, crumble and fall, which we think 
is the slow process; the quick process gives no 
time /or curl. The sun without the rain will 
not produce the curl, yet the sun does damage. 
There are many non-curling varieties of peaches 
in non-curling years, but few in curling years, 
We conclude that when we have all dry weather 
we have little curl ; when we have very wet 
weather late in the season, we have much. If 
there is any moisture in the ground, some vari- 
eties will curl. Natural or artificial drainage is 
desirable to run the water off soon; then keep 
the trees in a lively condition by proper prun- 
ing and cultivation. We have seen plum trees 
with curl-leaf, and have heard of some varieties 
of apples with the same. 

Crops. — Petaluma Argus, July 2: Our farmers 
are generally getting everything in readiness to 
commence their grain harvest. In consequence 
of the backwardness of the season, active har- 
vesting will fall at least two weeks later than 
usual. During the week past the weather has 
been of the most favorable character to cause 
the grain to fill. While there has been consid 
erable fog, yet we do not hear of any complaints 
of rust. The grain is now so far advanced that 
it may safely be considered out of all danger of 
any set-back. Taking the county over there is 
certainly a fair average crop. In some locali- 
ties the yield will fall somewhat below expec- 
tations in the earlier part of the season, but in 
the other localities the present outlook in excess 



of first anticipations will counterbalance this. 
Taken as a whole our farmers have great reason 
to congratulate themselves on their certainty 
of paying crops. 

Carp. — Cor. Santa Rosa Democrat: Those in- 
terested in fish culture should look after the 
young carp, as the spawn are about all hatched, 
and the green or garter snakes are very fond of 
them. We were at Mr. Oliver's ponds on Sun- 
day, and he informed us that he had killed 14 
snakes this spring at his ponds. We had the 
pleasure of seeing him feed his fish, and it is a 
sight well worth witnessing. The increase is 
simply immense. 

Wool Sales. — Santa Rosa Republican: All the 
hotels, boarding-houses and livery stables were 
full of customers at the big wool sales at Clover- 
dale. Wagons loaded with wool came from all 
points northwesterly, more than 100 miles distant. 
The town was full of buyers from abroad. The 
980 bales on the ground Tuesday, were offered 
in a lot, but buyers held off, and there were no 
transactions. The next day (23d), each man 
commenced selling his own wool. Though 
many of the city buyers had departed, the trade 
was active, and a good part was disposed of 
when the reporter left in the afternoon. Prices 
ranged from 26c to 30c. E. M. Hiatt, of York- 
ville, and his partner, controlled the largest and 
finest lot of wool on the ground, besides repre- 
senting other parties. The largest purchasers 
were Shaw, Bowman & Co.,*of Cloverdale. and 
Wise, Goldfish & Co., of Santa Rosa. 
STANISLAUS. 

Oakdale. — News, July 2: Oakdale has, dur- 
ing the past year, made a rapid growth. The 
extension of the cultivation of wheat instead of 
stock ranges in the eastern portion of the 
county, has increased the population and given 
a stimulus to trade. As a result, Oakdale be- 
ing eligibly located, has taken a fresh impetus. 
Situated as it is at the terminus of the railroad, 
the bulk of the grain between the two rivers 
and south of that place, must find its way to 
market from its depot. Hence, as a graiD cen- 
ter, it will this year have no superior in our 
county. There are several new buildings in the 
course of erection, the most important of which 
is a brick warehouse, capable of storing 3,000 
tons of wheat. 

The Crop. — A hasty glance over the county 
establishes the fact that, as a whole, the grain 
has not been injured to the extent feared. True 
there are some localities, and not a few fields, 
where the grain was badly damaged. Still, 
even in such localities the yield will be much 
better than hoped for two or three weeks 
since. The eastern or foothill section of the 
county is this year the most favored locality. 
The yield north of the Stanislaus will be full an 
average, while the acreage is much larger. 
South of Oakdale and between the two rivers 
there is also to be seen many splendid fields of 
grain. The west side is most seriously dam- 
aged, yet the yield there is by no means a fail- 
ure. There will be, if properly classified, three 
grades of wheat produced this year in our 
county. As a whole, the quality whilst freer 
from seeds, weeds and other foreign substances 
than usual, will be inferior to wha f it should 
have been. The farming has been better than 
usual, and the only defect in the grain will be 
in size and perfectness of the berry. 

The Banana. — Among the novelties on the 
Dorsey ranch, we found a South American ba- 
nana tree, some five ft. in hight. It is now in 
the second year of its growth, and though cut 
down by the cold of last winter, appears to be 
in flourishing condition. It was planted on the 
south side of the house, and was protected dur- 
ing the winter from the severe frosts, by a cov- 
ering of common sacking. We also noticed 
samples of the Chinese bamboo and cactus from 
the Colorado desert, both apparently in a 
healthy condition. 

SUTTER. 

Good Grain. — Banner, July 2: The farmers 
are busy heading grain, and some have com- 
menced threshing. They feel much elated about 
the good crops, it being now known that there 
was little cause for the fears and complaints re- 
cently indulged in. One Sutter county farmer 
who expected to get 300 sacks from a field filled 
over 400 sacks. Another from West Butte re- 
ports that»the grain has filled out, and is yield- 
ing one-sixth more than was recently calculated 
upon, and that the average yield of that local- 
ity will be between 25 and 30 bushels per acre. 

Machine Morals. — Appeal, July 3 : The 
manager of a threshing machine in Sutter county 
will have printed cards about the machine and 
dining car, notifying the men that no employee 
who, either about the grounds, car, or in town, 
either on week days or Sundays, becomes intox- 
icated, or who smokes in the field, plays cards 
about the car, or makes a loud noise, or engages 
in disputes or quarrels, will be retained in his 
position. If all employers were as strict with 
their men, and in return for these requirements 
would treat them with some consideration and 
look after their interest, it would be better for 
all concerned. 
VENTURA. 

Rust. — Free Press, July 3: So far as we have 
learned as yet, the Odessa seems to be the wheat 
for Ventura county. No rust on this wheat is 
reported in any direction, while all the other 
varieties that we have yet heard from are af- 
fected in places, though the damage is very 
slight. Mr. Chrisman showed us, the other day, 
a bunch of White Russia and a bunch of Odessa, 
grown within a few feet of one another. The 
Odessa is bright, plump and heavy, while the 
other is so rusted as to be worthless. This 
White Russia seed was brought from Oregon, 



and great things were expected of it, but the 
sample shown us would indicate it to be a con- 
spicuous failure. 

YOLO. 

Crops. — Cacheville Cor. Woodland Demo- 
crat, June 29: Harvest, in this vicinity, is 
somewhat retarded on account of the slow pro- 
gress of the ripening of the grain. Many head- 
ers are compelled to lie idle a few days to allow 
the crops to mature. In consequence of this 
fact, harvest will be unusally prolonged this 
season. Farmers, generally, while not alto- 
gether satisfied with the price outlook in the 
grain market, are quite jubilant over the grati- 
fying result of the last few weeks' favorable 
weather. Cool nights, with dew, have com- 
pletely overcome the influence of the north 
winds, and the yield will be very large, while 
the grain is of much better order than in ordi- 
nary years. There is no poor grain in this local- 
ity to speak of. 



Forms of Warehouse Receipts. 

Pro formas for warehouse receipts are given 
to show what is required for negotiable receipts 
such as are in universal use throughout the 
northwestern States. Warehousemen, and 
those giving receipts for goods, etc., on storage, 
should have their receipts handsomely litho- 
graphed or printed upon what is known as bank 
note paper (a strong thin linen paper), bound in 
book form. The receipts to be eight inches long, 
by three and a half inches wide, attached to stubs 
of half their length, from which the receipts 
are cut when issued. The stubs and receipts 
attached to them, should be numbered alike and 
consecutively. The stubs briefly give what is 
recited at length in the receipts detached from 
them, serving as a reference at all times. Sim- 
ilar in many respects to stock certificate books, 
etc. Great care is taken in having receipts 
returned before deliveries are made, as confi- 
dence is all-important in business, every precau- 
tion and safe-guard is taken with these evi- 
dences of value. 

The following are forms of receipts: 



O is! 

1 to o 



W -j ^ 



ass's? g-§? 



to X 



'Z» O-^li 
o » g.g a 

Z.s"« | §| g g 

O (D o 2 £X S" 

Sg.1 31 s 'S"o 

■O O ™ 1 B.O " 
Cl»o <t> 3 Ed 

a> n • 

JOo 
3 oa 

g a I s 

6? tr £» 
*< u 



s. o 



^ OS" n 

- _ 

o S » 

d> P> a 
1 <*} _ 
n o © 



0<; g »<< 

. & 3 O 



S»5. 
„ o a 
o m r jt 



These forms of receipts are applicable to all 
descriptions of property stored in warehouses 
under the new warehouse law. The increasing 



« Si 

8 ? 

1 8 

? 12 DD 

OS 



-W Si 



Q- n -1 EJ* _ £ ; 
< p g to -1 1 

o g _. o. g, 3 5 

2 — sushi's 

3 a cro-iio to 



x to r to 



2.5 a 



6- b B 2. t> v> S 

™ m p B.'S a K>K1 

5 <» B °g* 

! S 2 go to ' 



3 » 

1 s 
> & 



£ O to P B* C" 
-1 ^ -1 (D . 



number of warehouses throughout the State 
demands that a uniform and proper style of 
receipt should be generally used. We give this 
description in answer to several inquiries. 



News in Brief. 

The Fisk University has graduated six negroes 
this year. 

Germany sent England £3,000,000 worth of 
potatoes last year. 

Cloverdale is building a small tannery and 
calls for a woolen mill. 

The Roumanians are setting out forests of 
young trees. In one place 14,000 have been 
placed. 

A native of Surrey, N. H., has given $10,000 
to pay the town debt, and $5,000 to establish a 
free library. 

For the last fiscal year North Carolina spent 
$326,040.85 for public schools and had a balance 
of $147,170.94. 

The subscriptions to the projected railroad 
from Stockton to Bodie have been cancelled and 
the project abandoned. 

South Carolina has six flourishing colleges, 
six female seminaries, three military academies 
and a colored university. 

A cow in Cambria county, Pa., has under- 
taken the care of seven young pigs that were 
neglected by their mother. 

Col. Jas. Dixon, a member of the Stevenson 
regiment, was drowned lately while fishing in 
Gold lake, Sierra Co., Cal. 

New York humane grocers request their pa- 
trons by placards to purchase supplies before 8 
p. m., for the sake of the clerks. 

The El Dorado Republican says that most of 
the cattle and sheep men have passed up into 
the mountains with their stock. 

A Mechanicsville (N. Y.) farmer protects 
his hen roost from hawks and theives by keep- 
ing a flock of a dozen guinea fowls. 

The new breed of whales reported to have 
made their appearance in the Arctic seas are 
larger and tamer than the old whales. 

The Oakwood herd of Short-Horns was sold at 
Dexter Park, Chicago, July 1st. There were 
39 head, which sold for a total of $60,250. 

At New York, July lsf, the exports of wheat, 
corn and oats amounted to 1,250,000 bushels — 
the largest amount ever reached there in one 
day. 

The Wesleyan Chapel, in City road London, 
founded by John Wesley, which was par- 
tially destroyed by fire in December last has 
been restored. 

Over 500 sick women and their little children 
enjoyed the delicious surf bathing and the hos- 
pitality of the Seaside Sanitarium at Rockaway 
beach, June 26th. 

The Agricultural Association, comprising the 
counties of El Dorado, Amador, Placer, Nevada, 
Mono and Alpine, will hold its tenth annual 
fair at Placerville. 

There lately arrived in New York city, from 
Albany, a horse 20 hands and 1 inch high, and 
weighing 2,450 lbs. He is a dark bay, and with- 
out spot or blemish. 

The Santa Cruz papers state that the popula- 
tion of Monterey aggregates 1,400 persons, and 
that a large majority of those are natives of 
Mexico and California. 

At Hamden- Sidney College, in Virginia, the 
Arts degree is to be given hereafter to students 
who substitute both French and German for 
either Greek or Latin. 

Frequent and heavy showers throughout the 
northwest have already greatly delayed the 
harvest of wheat, and impeded the cultivation 
of corn and hay-making. 

The Philadelphia Grand Jury meets with 
encouragement in its proposition to revive the 
pillory and whipping post as a means of punish- 
ment for petty crimes. 

Lately in New York a 16-months-old child 
had her ears pierced for earrings, and was imme- 
diately attacked by facial erysipelas, from the 
effects of which she died. 

The first Merino sheep ever shipped from 
Vermont to Montana were shipped last week 
from Middlebury, and filled two cars, one load 
being all registered stock. 

Subscriptions are to be raised throughout 
England for the widows and orphans of the offi- 
cers and crew of the Alalanla. All hopes of the 
safety of the vessel are abandoned. 

Two-thirds of the American tourists now in 
Europe expect to go to the Ober-Ammergau 
Passion play. Myriads of English will go there, 
too, on the Cook excursion tickets. 

At Memphis within three months and a half, 
20£miles of sewerage pipes and 30 miles of sub- 
soil drain pipes have been put down, and bene- 
ficial results are already discernible. 

The latest reports from the famine districts 
in Ireland show that many parishes have not 
yet received any relief at all and that in the 
month of July there will be a fearful suffering. 

The coinage at the U. S. Mint for the fiscal 
year ending June 30th was valued at $84,370,- 
144, of which $27,934,750 were standard silver 
dollars. This exceeds the coinage of any pre- 
vious year. 

The Spanish government will not permit the 
exiled religious societies of France to establish 
themselves in Spain near the French border, 
and elsewhere only after vigorous examination 
into their character. 

The United States Entomological Commis- 
sioners are making preparations to resume the 
investigation of the Rocky Mountain locust and 
grasshopper and the cotton worm under the new 
appropriation of $25,000. 

The announcement that the Empress of Rus- 
sia died alone, unattended by any member of 
her family, and during even the absence of the 
one servant who was in her room during the 
night, has given rise to much comment in 
England, 



22 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PB1SS 



tJuly 10, 1880. 




A Noble Toast. 

It was a grand day in the chivalric time. 
The wine circled around the board in a noble 
hall, and the sculptured walla rang with the 
sentiment and song. The lady of each knightly 
heart was pledged by name, and many a sylla- 
ble of loveliness had been uttered, until it came 
to St. Leon's, when, lifting the sparkling cup 
on high — 

"I drink to one" lie said, 
"Whose image never may depart, 
Deep graven on a grateful heart, 

Till memory is dead. 
To one whose love for me shall last, 
When lighter paBSionslong have passed, 

So holy 'tis and true; 
To one whose love has longer dwelt, 
More deeply fixed, more keenly felt, 

Than any pledged by you." 

Each guest upstarted at the word, 
A: i- 1 laid a hand upon his sword. 

With fiery, flashing eye: 
And Stanley said: "We crave the name, 
Proud knight, of this most peerless dame, 

Whose love you count so high." 

It. Leon paused, as if he would 

Not breathe the name in careless mood, 

Thus lightly to another; 
Then bent his noble head as though 
To give that word the reverence due, 

Then gently said: "My Mother." 



A Sylvan Sermon. 

[Written for the Riral Prkss by Mrs. C. I. II. Nichols.] 

"Every woman should fill her heart with plansand pur- 
poses of self-sup|)ort; and if a man will marry her, let him 
be strong enough to break down all barriers, check the 
whole flood tide of her life, and sweep it around himself." 
—Mn. E. J. S., Rural Press, May A'tA. 

Rambling once in a beautiful Kansas wood, a 
sight both beautiful and suggestive arrested my 
attention. A grand old oak stood before me, 
its trunk and main branches encircled, and its 
stately head enveloped in a thrifty vine, which 
the tree, in its "glorious magnificence" had 
"swept around itself;" but which, from inher- 
ent limitations, it could not wholly appropriate. 
Here and there, indeed, a withered branch whis- 
pered the danger of ultimate decay from the 
luxuriant fullness of the vine-life whose creative 
ends the fine old tree could neither absorb nor 
fulfill, but might, to a limited extent, assist and 
even arrest. 

When both were starting out in life — the 
earth beneath them and the heaven above them, 
theirs by primal endowment — the vine, mod- 
estly conscious of innate power to glorify by her 
attachment, and obedient to the social law of 
her nature, had gracefully accepted the proffered 
support of the sturdy tree. From that time on- 
ward, in summer's heat and winter's storm, 
they had found succor and refreshment, each in 
the other's embrace; and when in the course of 
their development, there had come revelations 
of natural differences and surplus energies, 
suggesting diverse activities and new departures, 
they had acquiesced without question or appre- 
hension of adverse interests. To repress the in- 
dividuality of either would be to invite the 
nonentity of both. So the grand old tree, fes- 
tooned and crowned to his utmost, and holding 
fast his allegiance, sustained his beautiful vine, 
and day by day watched her, glad in her unfold- 
ing beneficence, swaying in the breeze, soaring 
sunward, or coyly trending to his side. At last 
there came a day when weighed down by accu- 
mulating leaf and flower and branching responsi- 
bilities, her beautiful head trailed in the dust ! 

* * * A mighty rustle, a quick rebound of 
lithe, enfolding arms from loosed tendril, and 
the prone vine lifted by the passing breeze 
caught the extended branch of a neighboring 
tree-top; and here safe in her additional sup- 
ports, she sent out thrifty laterals to lattice the 
intervening space, and made of her extended 
sphere a bower of beauty, where the wearied 
body might rind rest, and the muddled brain 
grow clear, and may-hap, learn from bird and 
bee, that in the divine economy, tree and vine 
owe sweet uses outwardly, and in living for 
themselves or each other only, must decay and 
grovel in the dust. 



"A Woman at the Bottom of It." 

In 1702, Elizabeth Mallet established and 
edited the London Daily Couranl — the first 
daily paper in the world— in London, England. 

"In June, 1877," says the London A nnttal 
Register of that year, "the Chilean Congress 
granted to women the right to vote." 

Mrs. Jas. Brander, an eminent English 
teacher, has been appointed by the British Gov- 
ernment, Inspector of Schools for Madras, India. 
The appointment, says the N. Y. Tribune, was 
wholly unsolicited. 



What Christianity Has Done. 

One method of defining the influence of 
the Christ principle, is to resolve our civiliza- 
tion into its several factors and see to what ex- 
tent, or in what way Christianity has modified 
and influenced these factors that make up the 
sum of our advancement. 

One cause of our high civilization is the ad- 
venturous and aggressive spirit of the Aryan 
race; this peculiarity of temperament has made 
them the developers of human possibilities, and 
the conquerors of the elements. They have 
fought for the right to be, and won it gloriously. 
Now that our position is consolidated, now 
that there is no further need of fighting our 
way through barbarism by the sword, we are 
apt to forget that war was once an actual ne- 
cessity. Life in its first stages is merely a 
struggle for existence; even among the gentle flow- 
ers there is a ceaseless tight for the right to live 
and bloom; and our much prized civilization 
would not exist to-day were it not protected by 
its cannon. These are the fire-breathing drag- 
ons that guard the golden apples of civilization. 

War is a characteristic of race, the advance 
guard of progress. Has Christianity influenced 
this characteristic? Most certainly it has. The 
Sermon on the Mount has been preached 
throughout the ages on the battle-fields, and 
sweet deeds of mercy have humanized blood- 
shed. Chivalry gave war a moral code, not 
perhaps of the highest; but to have a code is a 
great advance upon having none at all. 

Then societies were organized, brotherhoods 
who made it a religious duty to carry succor to 
the wounded, to bear away the dead from the 
battle-field and to give them Christian burial. 
Thus did the seeds of Christ's mercy and char- 
ity germinate and grow until they blossomed in 
the sublime self-sacrifice of a Florence Nightin- 
gale, a Clara Barton, and their many heroine 
companions. 

The second great factor is science, or know- 
ledge, based upon experience. To this element 
we owe all the comforts that make life de- 
lightful, by it all the grandeur of the universe 
is revealed to us. Science enables us to think 
the thoughts of God and to enact his laws; but 
the tree of science could not have waved its 
branches over Asiatic railroads, European tele- 
graphs, and American telephones; it could not 
have written upon its leaves the history of the 
worlds, and fostered neath its genial shade the 
religion of truth, had not its roots been well 
nourished with the blood of its martyrs. 

Closely allied to science is liberty, which 
forms a third factor of our progress. Liberty 
of person and of thought, liberty for man and 
woman were ideals that haunted the dreams of the 
Greeks; ideals for which the Anglo-Saxon has 
ever fought, for which we are still righting. 
Slowly, liberty has been raised above this sordid 
world, raised upon a holocaust of martyred pat- 
riots, until her standard greets the eyes of half 
the world. The spirits of her noble dead hover 
round her, echoing her war cry, "Onward in the 
cause of right, falter not till the cause is won; 
fear not, for out of death comes life." 

Liberty and science owe all to Christianity, 
for it is, by the spirit of martyrdom that truth has 
conquered; no reform is of value to the world 
unless its progenitors are willing to seal its truth 
with their blood, to give it a soul by the sacri- 
fice of their body. As Bayard Taylor says: 
"We won through martyrdom the power to 
aid;" and this spirit of martyrdom is the spirit 
of Christianity. 

Christ breathed a new spirit into the world. 
Inspired by the new life thousands of people, 
tottering old men, venerable matrons, men and 
women in the vigor of life and health, 
youths and maidens to whom life was yet a ro- 
seate dream braved death, yea, chose death for 
a principle, and that principle a spiritual one. 

Others had died before for fame, for friend- 
ship, for their country, but that people should die 
for a belief was unheard of; and what was yet 
more incomprehensible, these people embraced 
death, not with the cold stoic heroism of a Spar- 
tan, but cheerfully as if death was a pleasure. 
Young girls smilingly entered the blood-stained 
arena and welcomed the tiger as it sprang for- 
ward to devour them; men and women sang 
canticles of joy while their flesh was torn to 
pieces, or dropped melted into the fire. Such a 
sight electrified the world, the proud Romans, 
the philosophic Greeks, the voluptuous Orien- 
tals, the barbaric Goths looked on in amaze, till 
thrilled with enthusiasm they bowed before the 
new life. For on Calvary was born a new life, 
a life of sacrifice, of devotion, of universal love, 
a life that gave its last breath for its belief, its 
conscience; and when, the coarse elements of 
Judaism and Paganism, under the name of 
Christianity crystallized into a thick ice crust, 
deep neath its cold, hard surface flowed the 
fresh heaven-born current of the new life, ever 
and again bursting forth to refresh the world in 
a Wickliffe, a Huss, a Savonarola, a Luther, a 
More or a Garrison. This glorious spirit of 
Christianity inspires the patriot lover of liberty, 
the earnest lover of knowledge to brave prison, 
ostracism and death for the aacred principles of 
freedom and scientific truth. 

It has idealized art and literature, deified 
morality and made truth invincible. It has in- 
fused a vital power into all it has breathed 
upon; and when classical lore awoke from its 
long sleep, it awoke endowed with a soul — a 
soul born of Christianity. 

And although this spirit of martyrdom has 
degenerated sometimes into fanaticism, we must 
remember that fanaticism holds the torch for 
progress and throws a plank over the swamp of 



the unknown that the world may see to walk 
while a good road is being made and illumin- 
ated. Let us bow then in gratitude before the 
spirit of Christianity that in spite of tire and 
sword, sneers and ridicule, has given a soul to our 
philosophy, a conscience to our morality and 
vitalized and inspired our civilization. — W., San 
Jose, Cal. 

A Visit to Mt. Vernon. 

We had a holiday; so I took that opportunity 
to go to Mount Vernon, the home of Washing- 
ton. It is 17 miles down the river; has been 
bought by a party of ladies called Regents, and 
is kept in exquisite order. Ticket on the boat, 
admitting you to the grounds, cost "a dollar; 
that takes you there and back. Col. Hollings- 
worth has the place in charge, and meets visi- 
tors every day at the boat and conducts them 
through the houst It is quite a long walk 
up to the house, but a lovely, shady one; the 
grounds are on a high bluff, and the river runs 
around on two sides. Majestic trees grow all 
along the slopes. The house was much finer 
than I expected to see. He must have lived 
like a prince there. It is frame and painted 
white, three stories high; a high veranda to top 
of second story across the front. Servants' 
quarters form two other sides of the square 
and enclose a pretty back yard on which the 
back windows of the house open. From this 
yard their flower garden opens. The box 
planted to mark the beds so many years ago 
has now grown to a beautiful hedge. The ivy 
planted by Martha is there. It has a great many 
rooms; they must have entertained considerably. 
There are mahogany and magnolia trees on the 
place, as well as the native trees. At the Con- 
servatory bouquets and flowers are for sale, 
which add to the revenue. It is now paid for, 
and the Regents are out of debt. You can 
run clear down to the river. An elegant ice- 
house (empty of course) shows the nice work 
done in those days. It is very, very deep, and 
all four sides nicely bricked. It required a 
long ladder to get down to the ice. The old 
milk house — you have seen many like it — the 
spring walled in and the gutter for the crocks — 
it too is not used. It is pretty far from the 
house; but they had slaves in those days. The 
old tomb is still kept fenced in with a wicket 
fence; the new tomb is a Mausoleum. The 
two graves were beautifully decorated. His 
has nothing on it but " Washington." The 
old furniture looked quaint. Much of it did 
really belong to them. The rest is of the 
style used in that day. The bed on which he 
died stands in his room. In accordance with 
the old Virginia custom, his room was shut up 
for two years after his death. His room 
has two little dressing rooms leading off 
from it. His wife, after his death, took 
the room in the third story, with ceiling sloping 
nearly to the floor and one deep window (dor- 
mer style) looking out on his grave. This room 
she never went out of, until carried to her 
grave 18 months afterward. A hole was cut in 
the door for the cat to go in and out. A child 
asked one of the Regents that morning "where 
the cat was." She pointed to one in the yard 
that was purring around a group of merry girls. 
The Regents were there that day holding execu- 
tive session — a handsome looking set of ladies 
past middle life. About 300 people went down 
that day. Only one boat goes every day, and 
none other is allowed to land at the wharf. A 
nice lunch is for sale under a shed. — Cor. 
Pacific States Watchman. 

Marrying for Love. 

The man who marries for love has generally 
the vital temperament — is combative, sagacious 
and independent, and takes a genial view of 
everything. A life of indolence and stagna- 
tion has no charms for one whose blood is 
warm, and whose hopes are high : he likes to be 
in the thickest of the fight, giving blows 
and takiug them; watching for the turn of 
events with coolness and foresight; pleased at 
his own independence and struggle; eager to 
show the world what he can achieve; and the 
contest rouses all the strength and manliness of 
his nature. He wins the respect of his fellows 
by his own worth. He often brings home pleas- 
ant surprises for his wife and children. You 
may recognise him in trains loaded with parcels, 
which he good naturedly carries with perfect 
unconcern of what others think — a new bonnet, 
music, books, a set of furs for his wife; while in an- 
other parcel the wheels of a cart, a jack-in-the- 
box, a doll or skipping-rope intrude through the 
paper and suggest the nursery. He never forgets 
the dear ones at home; the humanizing influence 
of that darling red-cheeked little fellow who calls 
him father brings a glow of rapture of the pur- 
est pleasure earth holds; for the man who has 
never felt a tiny hand clasp his will always lack 
something — he will be less human, less blessed 
than others. This is the noble, the honest, the 
only form of life that imparts real contentment 
and joy, that will make a death-bed glorious, 
and love see peace through its tears. It is so 
purely unselfish, so tenderly true, it satisfies 
the highest instincts, it stimulates men to the 
best deeds they are capable of. By studying 
how to live, we best know how to die; and the 
finest life is that which ministers to others' 
needs, and increaaes the joys of those dependent 
on us, whom we love, and who look to us for 
support, solace and light, even as the earth is 
revivified by the sun; for feeling is life, -the pul- 
sation of delicious sympathy, the spring in a 
desert, the manna from the skies. — Anon. 



California Homes and Women. 

The idea of a home, sacred to the owner, is 
the root of all English law, the soring of Eng- 
lish independence, the chief cause of English 
superiority. Blot out the home, and the race 
has the battle all to fight again. Show me the 
land where there are homes, where the son 
occupies after the father has gone to his reward, 
and I will show you brave men, virtuous wo- 
men, good laws, and a people whom a tyrant 
cannot enslave. If a man has a home and loves 
it, he will love his fellow-man the more, and 
his country will find him a patriot. In the 
Sierras you will find hills stripped to naked- 
ness, and streams choked, by the hands of the: 
giants who have wrenched away the treasures 
hidden there, and the scene is a desolate, sad 
one; but suddenly a curve in the road brings to 
view a little cottage, with trees, a garden, cat- 
tle and — children; a school-house maybe, near, 
and your heart takes courage, for these things 
you know will endure. The pioneers of California 
were a generation of mighty men. History 
furnishes no greater. Strong, brave, almost in- 
finite in resource, driven by the fiercest passion 
that can demonize men — the thirst for gold — 
they furnish us an example of admiration for 
law and order at which we stand and wonder; 
but I submit, that their best monuments are 
the homes, the school-houses and the churches 
that dot the land from the summit to the sea. 
In no commonwealth are the laws more tolerant, 
labor more remunerative; in no commonwealth 
has man more opportunity, woman more right 
and protection. And when we speak of homes 
and firesides, we at once associate the name of 
woman. To me there has always been a deep 
pathos in the picture of the miner in his cabin, 
trying to harmonize the rough with the gentler 
employments of life, trying to do the work of 
two. Oh, the heart-loneliness he must have 
felt! how his bouI went out with every stroke 
of his pick, as he eagerly searched for the gold 
that would satisfy his heart-cravings! As he 
told his comrades hiB story, and heard from 
their lips a similar one, no wonder a spirit of 
fraternity was developed ; no wonder that when 
this same miner descended to the plains to- 
make laws for the infant State, he remembered 
woman with Buch chivalric devotion, and all 
through the Code she stands with more rights 
and exemptions than anywhere in the wide 
Union. — P. M. Fisher. 



A Lecture for Young Women. 

We have devoted considerable space to lec- 
turing young men and husbands, and it would 
bo only fair to read a lecture to the young 
women. A recent author, who calls his book 
"Nuggets of Gold," gives the following para- 
graphs: 

" I know many young women — oh, too many 
of them, and I think they can be found any- 
where — whose mothers are working their lives 
out, or whose fathers are keeping themselves 
impoverished by hiring other women to wait on 
them, but who ought to be doing the work for 
some neighbors who really need help. I have 
seen families consisting of three or four bouncing 
women, and two or three others, all of whom 
would be in the most pitiable distress on any 
occasion of the hired girl's leaving them for a 
few days ; and such a commotion as the house 
would be in if she should leave for good, so that 
another must be hunted up ! Yes, the distress 
is pitiable, and the helplessness, the uselessness 
and the insipidness of a large proportion of Am- 
erican women is the more pitiable. The fathers 
and the husbands of that class of women are to 
be pitied. They should be specially avoided by 
young men who have any aspiration for advance- 
ment. And 1 notice that many prudent young 
men do avoid marrying altogether, because they 
cannot afford the expense of a wife, when it 
ought not to cost a man much more with a wife 
and a baby or two, than it usually costs him 
alone. 

"And this false education of women is the 
cause of all the trouble in the hired girl prob- 
lem, which is everywhere the great difficulty of 
housekeeping. So many girls who ought to be 
trained to the necessary duties of the household 
are indulged in idleness; and when they marry, 
their husbands, respectively, have to marry an- 
other woman or two to take care of them; that 
an inordinate demand for hired girls is created, 
and the supply is to be made up of the poorest 
material; for any young woman really tit to do 
the work and have the care of a house, very 
soon learns that that kind of work is too de- 
grading for her, according to the prevailing pub- 
lic sentiment. Take any town of 5,000 inhab- 
itants, and probably there are not less than from 
100 to 200 families depending on hired girls, 
where they ought to be dispensed with and the 
work done by their wives or the daughters, as 
the case may be; which increases the demand 
and diminishes the supply so that it is becom- 
ing more anil more difficult for those who nec- 
essarily must have help, to obtain anything 
worthy of the name, for love or money." 



The greatest man is he who troubles him- 
self the least about the verdict that may be 
passed upon him by his posterity, but who finds' 
doing good honest work to the best of his abil- 
ity, under existing conditions, "its own ex- 
ceeding great reward." 

"Cherries are high, firm and in demand, 
with scarcely any obtainable," as the small boy 
said when he gazed wistfully at Deacon Close- 
watcher's delicious "Early June's." 



July 10, 1880/j 



ClFlC lUIiL PRESS. 



93 



Chaff. 

In the gallery of the Louvre, before the statue 
of the Venus of Milo. Little boy — "What did 
you cut her arms off for ?" Mother — "Because 
she put her fingers in the sugar-bowl." 

A Judge of much experience says : "I have 
never had a breach of promise case before me in 
which the mother of the girl did not know more 
about it than her daughter. She always sus- 
pects the fellow is a rascal, and accordingly gets 
ready for him." 

It was a bright little miss of six summers liv- 
ing on Mt. Auburn, who astonished her mamma 
the other day with this question, after a care- 
ful study of her baby brother's head : ' 'Mamma, 
did God make teensy-toutsy holes in Rodney's 
head to put each one of his hairs into ?" 

"How came these holes in your elbows?" said 
a widowed mother to her only sun. "Oh 
mother, I hid behind the sofa when Col. Gobler 
was saying to Maria that he'd take her even if 
you had to be thrown in; and he didn't know 
that I was there; and so I held my tongue and 
laughed in my sleeves till I bust 'em. 

The Boers of South Africa have a very useful 
social custom. When a Boer lady has a daugh- 
ter in society, and a young man calls to see her, 
the careful parent sticks a pin in the candle; 
when the candle burns down to the pin the 
young man knows his time is out; he picks him- 
self up -and leaves. Bores of more civilized so- 
ciety might be managed in the same way. 

A Bethel dog was taken suddenly ill, and 
died on Friday. His symptoms were so re- 
markable that the owner had him opened to 
learn if possible the cause of his death. In his 
stomach was found a piece of old blue cloth. It 
is said that a census enumerator in Bethel wore 
blue trowsers until Saturday, when he appeared 
in a pair of another color. 

A little five-year-old friend, who was always 
allowed to choose the prettiest kitten for his pet 
and playmate, before the other nurslings were 
drowned, was taken to his mother's sick-room 
the other morning to see the two tiny new twin 
babies. He looked reflectively from one to the 
other for a minute or two, then poking his 
chubby finger into the cheek of the plumpest 
baby, he said decidedly, "Save this one." 

A recently arrived foreigner lately stopped 
at one of our hotels, and at the supper-table be- 
gan to play fearful havoc with a plate of hard- 
boiled eggs, scooping out the yolk and leaving 
the white untouched. Just as he was devour- 
ing the 10th one, the waiter remonstrated with 
him, calling his attention to his wastefulness. 
"Good gracious, man," he remarked, "you 
vould not have me eat 10 vites, vould you ? 
De yolk is der shicken, and der vites der fed- 
ders. Do you tinks I vants ter make von great 
bolster of mine stomach ?" 



Perfect Work. 



We are told in the Book that whatever our 
hands find to do we should do with all our 
might. Beyond question this is most excellent 
advice, and yet it is not enough for certain sue 
cess in life that our utmost energy be put into 
all we have to do. Work may be energetically 
performed and yet but indifferently. Quality is 
quite as important as quantity. It should be 
the aim of everyone not only to work out with 
his utmost strength what his hands may find to 
do, but to do it in the best possible manner. In 
whatever avocation he chooses, whether that of 
a lawyer, doctor, preacher, mechanic or shoveler 
of sand, his aim should ever be to excel — to do 
his work better and more of it than his fellows, 
Capability and efficiency are sure to command a 
proper recognition for the possessor of these ad 
mirable qualities, They are always in demand. 
"There is plenty of room at the top" in any 
calling, and the greater the energy and skill re- 
quired to reach that position, the g r eater the 
demand therefor, and the more ample and sure 
the recompense. 

Our Boys. — How we shall train them for 
life's work ? Let us first secure health, by fresh 
air, wholesome food, and cleanliness. I would 
emphasize this last. How many mothers bathe 
their children insufficiently ? Don't fail to ac 
complish this health-giving duty less than once 
a week. Bathe the entire body. When the child 
is old enough to go from under your own imme 
diate care to a room of his own, see that he at- 
tends to this duty himself. Prepare for him 
suitable conveniences — a stand, wash-bowl, and 
clean towel. Keep this room in order, so far as 
it is your place to. Many mothers think any 
thing is good enough for the boys — tattered 
quilts, one sheet or none, a pillow made by roll 
ing up some cast-off garments, no carpet, no 
pictures, no comfort of any kind. Nothing ele 
vating or pleasing to a refined taste, the best 
method in the world to raise uncouth boys 
This is not an overdrawn picture, but many 
found in real life in well-to-do families. Make 
their rooms as convenient and attractive as for 
their sisters. Make a place for their clothing 
and other effects, and teach them to be orderly 
with the same and about their person. Teach 
them all the little niceties of refinement, such 
as attention to their hair, wrists, finger-nails, 
and clothes. I can see no reason why they will 
not grow up with as refined tastes and delicate 
a sense of propriety as their sisters. It is one 
great step toward preparing them for the duties 
of manhood. Treat them so they will give you 
their confidence. Don't deal harshly or find 
fault unless you wish them to seek sympathy 
elsewhere than of mother.— if., in Inter-Ocean, 



YoJflQ pQLks* C@LlJ|fiPI. 



Our Puzzle Box. 

Cross-Word Enigma. 

My first is in city, but not in town. 
My second is in garment, but not in gown. 
My third is in stare, but not in look. 
My fourth is in niche, but not in nook. 
My fifth is in hope, but not in trust. 
My sixth is in shall, but not in must. 
My seventh is in dust, but not in dirt. 
My eighth is in smite, but not in hurt. 
My ninth is in night, but not in day. 
My whole is a mountain far away. B. S. 



Jr. 



Letter Changes. 

1. Change the central of a distance and form a color. 

2. Change the central of a time-keeper and form a sharp 
sound. 

3. Change a fissure and form a short, thick block. 

4. Change the central of a garment and form waste 
matter. 

5. Change the central of to omit and form a steeple. 

Eva. 

Charade. 

My first includes the human race, 
Of every age and time and place, 

Down to this moment from the fall. 
My second was a Roman camp, 
And still it wears its ancient stamp, 

The gate, the peristyle and wall. 

My whole is but of modern date, 
Where other unions formed of late, 

Are dreaded rather than admired. 
Bearing a deep and smothered flame, 
I boast but half the Roman-jiame, 

With less than half its virtue fired. 

Anagrams. 
The first column gives the names of four authors; the 
second, their four works. 



1. Tan cry, B. 

2. Somehow, L. 

3. Fill saw Waim. 

4. Troy's W. W. 



5. Try's our all counc. 

6. An apple, A. 

7. He'll tic M. 

8. Saw rong. 

W. H. O. 



Curtailments. 

1. Curtail a succession of loud sounds and leave a vege- 
table. 

2. Curtail a gem and leave a kind of fruit. 

3. Curtail a public conveyance and leave a wild animal. 

4. Curtail to forbear and leave a small beam. 

Mart L. 

Answers to Last Puzzles. 

Enigma.— Universe. 

Hour-Glass Puzzle.— C HILDHOOD 
M A L A C HI 
CLING 
ASP 
Y 

ONE 
CLOAK 
ALLEGED 
POSTPONED 
Geographical Fractions. — Philadelphia. 
Decapitations. — 1. Clover, lover; 2. Glove, love; 3. 
Face, ace; 4. Meat, eat, at, t (tea); 5. Fox; ox; 6. Bride, 
ride. 

Concealed Cities.— 1. Richmond; 2. Washington; 3. 
New Bedford; 4. Taunton; 5. Troy; 6. Wheeling. 

Correct answers received from Mark Keppel, Biggs, 
Butte county. 



Botany— No. 2. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Fba.) 
I wonder if anyone who read the closing 
verses of my last communication, has felt a de- 
sire to become more closely acquainted with 
those loveliest of God's creations, flowers , r 
"day stars" or "earth stars," as the poets have 
justly called them. 

"Spake full well in language quaini and olden, 

One who dwelleth by the castled Rhine, 
When he called the flowers so blue and golden. 
Stars that in earth's firmament do shine." 

If so, let me urge all, whether they be 
dwellers on the wide prairie, in the mossy 
woodland, or the everlasting hills to form 
himself or herself into a Rural Botanical So 
ciety. Who has better opportunity of study 
ing the subject than the farmer's boy or girl ? 
Every roadside is teeming with vegetation; by 
the side of the very path through which you 
drive your cows are dainty flowers looking wist' 
fully into your face, and craving your further 
acquaintance. 

Or, if you are fortunate enough to live in the 
hills, a storehouse of almost inexhaustible ma- 
terial awaits your labors. 

Not only will you find beautiful flowers, but 
soft green mosses, and loveliest of all, the 
graceful ferns. 

But I think I hear the m*rmur of voices — 
"We have no teacher." Let nature be your 
teacher, aided by one or two good book3, and I 
hope, by occasional words of instruction and 
encouragement, through the columns of the 
Rural Press, from those who fully understand 
the subject, and have a desire to develop the 
perceptive faculties of our boys and girls. 

Get a little culture and knowledge first, then 
keep your botanical eyes open and see what you 
can do for yourself. As I began the study my 
self without a teacher, and am pursuing it in an 
amateurish way — going to my more scientific 
friends when I come to a hard point — I may be 
able to help you to make a beginning. There 
are three good books that I have in my posses 
sion that are valuable assistants, Gray's "How 
Plants Grow," Gray's "School and Field Book 
of Botany," and "A Popular California Flora," by 
Volney Rattan — any one of them will do. The 
former is best suited, for young beginners; the 
latter is best adapted for our California flora, 
and if you cannot have them all I would advise 
the latter. Then, when you come to analyze, 
a small pocket lens or microscope will be essen- 
tial; the former can be had for 75 cents, and a 
very good one of the latter, with three lenses, 
for $2. 

Supposing you have studied well the firsi, 
pages of your botany, supplementing the work 
with critical examinations of all the seeds, 



roots, stems and leaves you can find, and have 
become familiar with the essential parts of the 
flower and their various arrangements, through 
studying some of the principal families, as the 
mustard (Crucifercr;), the rose (Rosacea:) and the 
pea (Leyuinrnoscn) family, let us go into the 
fields for specimens for our herbarium, for we 
want to see some results from our labor. Select 
your specimen, dig it up carefully, for we want 
root, stem, leaves and flowers, also the plant in 
seed for a perfect specimen. With some you 
will find both flowers and well-developed seeds 
on the same plant; others will require two 
specimens. Wash carefully the soil from the 
roots and place the plant between the folds of 
thick unglazed paper (several folds of newspaper 
will do), and subject it to a moderate pressure. 
Change to new papers every day, drying the old 
ones for future use. This should be particu- 
larly observed if the plant has thick, juicy 
stems or leaves. 

In selecting specimens be sure to get extras 
for analysis and also to press, as you may de- 
sire to exchange with students in other coun- 
ties or States. In fact, a system of exchange is 
the only means by which a majority of our 
students can obtain varied and extensive her- 
bariums. To make a beginning, I would be 
glad to exchange, with anyone, ferns of this 
county for those of any other county or State. 
Any communication addressed to box 754, San 
Jose, Santa Clara county, Cal. , will be sure to 
reach me and receive attention. 

But to return to our specimen, we must ana- 
lyze it, and write the name on a neat label to be 
attached when it is mounted for the herbarium. 
Do not be discouraged if you can only give it 
the family name at first, after more study and 
practice you will be able to add the generic and 
specific names. 

Now to mount your specimens; have sheets of 
stiff white paper, all of the same size, 9 inches 
by 12 is a good size to begin with. Place the 
specimens in the center of your paper, and fasten 
down in several places with tiny strips of paper, 
gummed at each end. Now fasten on your 
label and you have your work complete. If 
your specimen is too long for the paper, it may 
be cut in two, or a portion may be cut out of 
the middle. 

I hope my remarks may have interested at 
least a few boys and girls in the study of 
botany; if so, I shall feel amply repaid for hav- 
ing snatched a few moments from my house- 
work and studies to write these lines; and I also 
hope some abler and wiser pens than mine will 
re us all a little assistance. 
San Jose, Cal. 



ESJIG Ecq 



Climate in Consumption. 

Apropos of the journey from Cannes to St. 
Petersburg of the invalid Empress of Russia, 
who went home in mid-winter for fear of dying 
away from her family, a distinguished Vienna 
physician publishes a vigorous protest against 
the practice of sending consumptive patients to 
warm climates without regard to the stage of 
their disease or their, circumstances. He has 
taken note of 50 cases of such patients, who 
have been sent by their physicians to spend a 
winter in Italy or Egypt, and among them all 
he found only three who received any benefit 
from the change, while many were positively in 
jured. Much that he says is as applicable to 
this country as to Europe. No doubt many of 
our physicians prescribe a winter sojourn in 
Florida or Nassau, to patients in advanced 
stages of lung complaint, without much consid 
eration of possible effects upon them of an ener 
vating atmosphere, the absence of home faces 
and home comforts, and the weariness and 
loneliness of a listless life among strangers. A 
warm winter climate is no doubt beneficial in 
the early stages of the disease, and in some in 
stances may effect a cure; and in more advanced 
stages its influence may alleviate the sufferings 
of the patient and retard the progress of the 
fatal malady. But the wise physician should 
carefully consider whether the possible benefits 
will not be more than counterbalanced by the 
fatigues of the journey and the discomforts and 
home-sickness attendant upon life in hotels, 
away from family and friends. Every one who 
has visited our Southern winter resorts, has 
been moved at the spectacle of melancholy in 
valids hoping for some magical effect from the 
climate, which they never should have been led 
to expect. Consumed with ennui, and no society 
save that of other patients, these poor people 
watch the thermometer and the progress of their 
ailments, shivering with cold when the mercury 
approaches the freezing point, and bitterly re- 
gretting the snug Northern homes which many 
of them should never have lef t. — Materia 
Medica. 

Sanitary Errors. — It is a popular error to 
think that the more a man eats the fatter and 
stronger he will become. To believe that the 
more hours children study the faster they learn. 
To conclude that if exercise is good, the more 
violent the more good is done. To imagine that 
whatever remedy causes one to feel immediately 
better is good for the system, without regard 
to the ulterior effects. 

Weeping. — The physical, mental and moral 
effects of weeping are dependent entirely upon 
"circumstances," and these "circumstances" 
are very comprehensive, as they relate to the 
organization, temperament, education, associa- 
tion, business, etc., of the individual. 



Sweet Jars. 

Collect the rose leaves on fine sunny days, 
after the dew has dried off and when the flow- 
ers are fully expanded or just ready to fall. 
Strip the leaves from the calyx, pack them in a 
large glass or earthen jar in alternate layers 
with a third the quantity of fine salt, and 
sprinkle each layer with strong vinegar. Col- 
lect the leaves all through the rose season; after 
they are gone gather other sweet-scented blos- 
soms and leaves, such as tuberoses, heliotrope, 
carnations, lemon verbena, violets, rose and 
nutmeg geranium, lavender, rosemary, etc. Use 
only the petals and leaves; always make the 
top layer of salt, and keep the jar tightly closed 
except once a day, when the mass must be tho- 
roughly mixed and turned, and fresh leaves 
added if you have them. 

As soon as the leaves look inoist, which they 
should do in a week after packing, put some 
bruised allspice and stick cinnamon in the jar. 
The quantity will depend on the amount of 
leaves you have. Three-quarters of an ounce of 
allspice, and a quarter of an ounce of cinnamon 
to every quart of fresh petals. The spice may 
be added once in a week or two, as occasion re- 
quires. When the last leaves have been put in 
let them remain for three days, stirring and 
turning twice a day, after which this "stock" 
may be transferred to the jar in which it is to 
be kept, and the balance of the ingredients 
added. Supposing that the stock consists of 
three quarts of fresh rose leaves, and a quart of 
other varieties, three ounces of allspice and one 
of cinnamon, it will require a mixture in the 
following proportions: One ounce each of cloves 
and stick cinnamon, two nutmegs, half an 
ounce of ginger root, half an ounce of anise 
seed, and two ounces of orris root, all coarsely 
powdered or bruised. Sprinkle these ingredi- 
ents over each layer of the stock as it is placed 
in the jar, and also add orange and lemon peel, 
cardamon and fennel seeds (bruised), cedar 
chips, sage, thyme, spearmint, a tiny bit of 
camphor, or in fact any sweetly-scented ma- 
terial that may suggest itself and be convenient. 
An atom of musk, sachet powder, perfumed 
water and fragrant oils are all fine additions. 
Whenever the mixture becomes dry it should 
be moistened with scented water. Keep the 
jar tightly closed for a month after mixing. 
Then open only when the perfume is desired. 
The jar must be frequently shaken and stirred. 
Open it for 15 minutes every day and the house 
will be filled with a delicious perfume, like the 
breath of a thousand flowers. — Clara Francis in 
Prairie Farmer. 



Asparagus Soup. — Select about two dozen of 
good asparagus stalks; boil these thoroughly in 
enough water to cover them; a quarter of an 
onion boiled with the asparagus is an improve- 
ment; when tender take the asparagus out of 
the water, saving the water, and removing the 
onion; cut the asparagus into small pieces (of 
course only the tender part), and put them in a 
mortar, adding a little of the water; must be 
pounded until perfectly smooth; now take some 
sifted flour, a dessert spoonful, a bit of butter as 
big as an egg, and a very little pulverized sugar; 
mix well, and then put on the fire till it melts, 
stirring all the time; add this to the pounded 
asparagus and the rest of the water; when it 
has boiled a few minutes mix the yolk of one 
egg with a tumblerful of cream, and add this; 
if properly made it wants no straining; use salt 
and pepper to taste, and a very little nutmeg; 
one stalk of asparagus may be left, which may 
be cut in thin slices, and added last. 



To Wash Shetland Shawls.— Make up a 
thin lather of boiled soap and water; plunge the 
shawl in this, and gently strip it through the 
hand. It must never be rubbed or wrung. 
When clean rinse through water without any 
soap, hang it up for about a minute, shake it 
gently by each side alternately, pin it out on a 
sheet exactly square, and if the shawl be of a 
fine texture it should be slightly sewed down to 
the sheet by the top of the fringe to prevent its 
running up; then go over the whole fringe, draw- 
ing each thread separate and laying it straight 
out. If these directions are carefully attended 
to the shawls may be washed many times, and 
each time appear as well as when new. They 
should never be put into the hands of any but 
those who are accustomed to wash lace. 



Care of Milk. — A writer in a recent number 
of Nature says that milk is especially liable to 
be affected by the atmosphere about it, when- 
ever it rests in open vessels. In the cleanest 
pantry or larder, it gathers the effluvia of meat, 
cheese, onions, bread, fruit and such matters; 
the result being that it is soured and spoiled. 
In kitchens, nurseries, living and sleeping- 
rooms, closets, etc., the case is worse. Nature 
intended that milk should be drunk at once at 
its source; and it is very likely that exposures 
and delays impair its power of nutriment. Milk 
should be kept as much as possible in close 
vessels. 

Gooseberry Trifle. — Put one quart of goose- 
berries into a jar with sufficient moist sugar to 
sweeten them, then boil them until they are re- 
duced to a pulp. Place the pulp into a trifle 
dish, and pour over it a quart of custard, and 
when quite cold cover with whipped cream, 



24 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[July 10, 1880. 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 
A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Office, 202 Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 

Annual Subscriptions, $4; six months, $2; three 
months, $1.25. When paid fully one year in advance, 
one dollar will be deducted. No new names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. 0. orders at our risk. 
Advertising Rates. 1 week. 1 month. 3 mos. 12 mos. 

Per line 26 .80 $2.00 $ 5.00 

Half inch (1 square).. $1.00 $3.00 7.60 24.00 

One inch. ...7. 2.00 6.00 14.00 40.00 



The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



W. B. BWBR. 



S. H. STRONG 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 10, 1880. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS— Improvement of Merino Sheep in 
Germany; Viticultural Meeting in Sonoma District; 
Ambitious Australia; The University Grain Kxperi- 
ments, 1 /. The Week; Wheat, 24. Signal Service 
Weather Case; A General Business Revival; National 
Forecast of Crops; The Forestry Investigators, 25- 
Notices of Recent Patents, 28. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— Timer's Electro Escorial Ram of 
1845. Kanneuberg's Rambouillett-Ncgreth Ram of 1873, 
17. Corn Cockle, 24. Weather Case or Fanner's 
Weather indicator, 25. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES— Corn Cockle in 
Odessa Wheat; The Olive in Tulare County; Experi- 
ence with Defiance Wheat; Windmills, 24. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— Are Ants Friends or Foea, 
24. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— El Dorado County Notes; 
Lassen County Notes, 18. 

HORTICULTURE.— California Lemons; Guarding 
Strawberries from Dry Winds, 18. 

FLORICULTURE. -Old-Fashioned Flowers, 19. 

SHEEP AND WOOL— The Half- Year's Wool 
Trade, 19-26. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Union Meeting 
at Alhambra Grange; Carry on the Work, 20. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 20-21. 

NEWS IN BRIEF, on page 21 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE.— A Noble Toast (poetry); A Sylvan 
Sermon; "A Woman at the Bottum of It"; What Christi- 
anity Has Done; A Visit to Mt. Vernon; Marrying for 
Love; California Homes and Women; A Lecture for 
Young Women, 22. Chaff; Perfect Work; Our Boys, 
23. 

YuUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. — Our Puzzle Box; 
Botany— No. 2, 23. 

GOOD HEALTH —Climate in Consumption; Sani- 
tarv Errors; Weeping, 23 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Sweet Jars; Asparagus 
Soup; To Wash Shetland Shawls; Care of Milk; Goose- 
berry Trifle, 23. 

POULTRY YARD —Value of Poultry Manure; Rid- 
ding Poultry of Vermin, 26. 

Business Announcements. 

Irrigated Land Triumphant— M. Theo. Kearney, S. F. 
Badges — Eureka Trick and Novelty Co., New York city. 
Gopher Trap— G. W. Jolly, Paraiso Springs, Cal. 
Washing Machines— Bissell Manfg Co., New York city. 
Veterinary Surgeon— Dr. A de Labrousse, S. F. 
Hooper's Grain Warehouses — John Jennings, S. F. 
Washington College— S. S. Harmon, Principal. 
Dividend Notice— The German Savings and Loan Socioty. 
Berkeley Gymnasium, John F. Burris, Superintendent. 
To Seedsmen — Jos. Hale, Stockton, Cal. 

The Week. 

The noisy holiday has come and gone, and the 
city is slowly returning to its usual business 
activity. Many of our business men took ad- 
vantage of the three off days to run into the 
country, and their city offices are rather dismal 
places after the taste which they have had of 
sea side scenes, and rock-ribbed canyons, and 
bubbling springs, and leafy nooks besi&e mur- 
muring brooks. It will take several days to 
get these cent-per-cent. and profit-and-loss chaps 
down again into the hard lines of their business. 
There is enough poetry in most of them to keep 
them yearning for the God-made country rather 
than the man-made town, and we cannot 
blame them. And there is a lesson in this 
bounding of man's nature toward the in- 
vigorating and entrancing influences of ru- 
ral scenes. Let it convince those who have 
the country always around them that they 
enjoy a boon which most city people envy. 
Certainly all those who once have known coun- 
try life long for a return to it. Those who have 
what others long for should be happy. Build 
up the country. Surround yourself with all the 
comforts which industry can secure. Make 
your country home the abode of taste and cul- 
ture, and gratify the human longing for the ex- 
cellent by improving everything about you from 
a race of calves to a neighborhood. Then you 
will have a home and accomplish a work which 
will yield more true joy and satisfaction than 
the coining of a million in exhausting city 
strife. 

The flight of the Fourth reminds us that the 
Fair season is at hand. First will come the 
Mechanics' fair in this city, which will open the 
doors of the grand pavilion on Aug. 10th. There 
seems to be an unusually wide interest taken in 
this year's fair, and rightly so, for general pros- 
perity attends our legitimate industries. We 
expect to see an exhibition which will be worth 
a long journey to visit. Those who intend to 

{jreparo meritorious articles for display should 
ose no time. Let everything be just as good as 
art or nature can make it. 



Wheat 

Harvesting is now in full swing in most parts 
of the State, although there is considerable 
grain not yet ready for the knives. In most 
parts there is reported a scarcity of really good 
harvest hands, and the cool weather which has 
been so long continued, is most favorable by 
holding back fields until the force of men can 
catch up with the ripening, as well as by giving 
the grain a chance to fill out finely after the 
pinch of the May northers. This latter service 
the wheat plant has been discharging splendidly 
during the last two or three weeks, and a most 
pleasant reaction has taken place in farmers' 
feelings, as they have seen fields which they 
despaired of, coming forward and finishing up 
a good article of wheat. The result will be the 
ingathering of a much better crop than was ex- 
pected, and a proportionate return of money to 
meet growers' wants. The season has been a 
most peculiar one throughout, and it is well 
that its closing will atone for much of the anx- 
iety and apprehension which its progress excited. 

This week the market abroad for California 
wheat is reported firmer, and there is also a bet- 
ter local feeling. It is reasonable to believe 
that a moderate advance in value now will be of 
good effect, but a sharp increase would not be 
desirable. As the stock of old wheat abroad is 
becoming reduced, the price for immediate use 
naturally rises, and if a price is now offered 
which will call out the grain eradually, it will 
be of benefit to the whole year's trade. Any 
influence, however, which would lead producers 
to hold back too generally would result in final 
loss. For there are good harvests this year in 
most wheat-supplying regions. The English home 
crop will be larger than for three years. Aus- 
tralia has experienced an unusually good har- 
vest. France is having a good season, and, con- 
sequently, will not need so much foreign wheat. 
The .Russian and adjoining wheat regions are en- 
joying a fair harvest. This would indicate a 
generally abundant year, and a fairly remuner- 
ative rather than a high price. Hence, it would 
be better for the trade to proceed quietly and 
steadily rather than feel the ups and downs of 
speculation. 

It is likely that the shrunken wheat, of which 
there will be considerable harvested this year, 
will come first into the market, and will thus be 
got out of the way. It ripens soonest, is 
threshed first, and it is good property to get rid 
of if a fair price is offered. The fine lots will be 
the safer to hold if growers do not secure favor- 
able figures from buyers. 

There will be much uneven wheat sacked this 
year. In the same fields there will be patches, 
subject to peculiar influences, which will be 
pinched, and other parts will yield plump grain. 
All will, of necessity, be harvested together, 
and sacked as it comes from the machine. This 
being the case, it will be especially desirable for 
all who store their grain in warehouses to draw 
samples as the grain goes into the piles, taking 
a sample from each fifth sack, and throwing 
them all together in a sack or box. When grain 
is piled up in the warehouse the buyer can only 
get access to the outer row of sacks, and sam- 
pling these may misrepresent the true average 
quality of the whole lot. Hence sampling as the 
sacks go into the pile gives a true average of 
the whole, and the grower will not lose either 
by having too good or too poor a sample taken. 
We are informed that some warehouse keepers 
will urge this method of sampling upon their 
patrons this year. 

Another important matter at this time is the 
issuing of legal warehouse receipts. Hitherto 
there has not been proper style or uniformity 
in these receipts to conform with the law or to 
facilitate business under the new warehouse 
law. In order that our readers may know what 
is the proper form and wording of the receipts, 
we have printed and described them on page 
21 of this issue. These receipts should be 
issued with all the care and safeguard of a bank 
bill. They represent large values; they are 
negotiable, and there should not be the slightest 
flaw in the quality or character. Some of the 
owners of the new warehouses in the interior 
are now arranging to issue such receipts in good 
style and their example should be followed by 
all. 

California Meat Products. — All meat pro- 
ducers will be glad to hear of steps of progress 
in the introduction of our meat products into 
new channels of consumption. The Commercial 
Herald has the following item of trade news: 
The Russian government has just concluded a 
contract with Merry, Faull & Co. , of this city, 
for a round lot of beef, say, 2,250 bbls. or 450,- 

000 lbs. of mess beef, which is the largest con- 
tract of the kind ever made on this coast. The 
meat, barrels and salt used in filling the contract 
are all of California production. A sale is also 
reported by the same parties, for U. S. Army 
supplies, of 50 bbls. mess pork at §20.25 per 
bbl., and 15,000 lbs. extra clear bacon, in cases 
of 200 lbs. each, at $11. GO per cwt. This is cer- 
tainly a pleasant feature. For years we have 
maintained that we could supply the Govern- 
ment with beef and pork of better quality and 
upon more advantageous terms than it could be 
purchased for at the East, and sent to this coast 
via Cape Horn. The percentage of loss by sea 
through the tropics is always large, and now by 
experience it is found that our own Government, 
as well as that of Russia, find it for their inter- 

1 est to purchase their meats in California. 




Corn Cockle in Odessa Wheat 

Editors Press: — The farmers, and others, 
who are showing laudable zeal in increasing 
profitable grain raising in California, by import- 
ing and propagating new varieties of cereals, 
should take special care not to import and 
spread weeds. In response to the demand for 
rust-proof wheats, one of our enterprising mer- 
chants imported during the past winter a quan- 
tity of the "Ghirka" variety direct from Odessa, 
in southern Russia. When it arrived it was 
found to be very foul with weed seeds, particu- 
larly those of the corn cockle. 

Some of the wheat in question was bought for 
experiments in broadcast and drill culture by 
the College of Agriculture. The importance of 
keeping the cockle out of our grounds being 
recognized, there arose serious difficulties as to 
separating the seed from the wheat. The cockle 
seed having about the same diameter as the 
wheat, it could not be screened out, and it was 
too heavy to blow out in the fanning mill ; 
neither could it be floated off in brine, as it sank 
with the wheat. Possibly it might be separated 
by floating, if care were taken to find some liquid 
of just the right density, as described in a sim- 
ilar case in your paper some years ago. 

As the quantity to be used was small, hand- 
picking was resorted to, and a note made that 
no cockle plant should be allowed to ripen seed. 
But few have appeared, and we anticipate no 
serious trouble. There may be some, among 
the many purchasers of wheat from this ship- 
ment, who did not separate the cockle seed 
before sowing, and who are not familiar with 
the growing plant. If so, a brief description 
and illustration may be welcome, as enabling 
them to recognize a pest that should be de- 
stroyed at all hazards. 

Although a native of Europe or the west of 
Asia, the weed has been carried to almost every 
part of the globe. This is the first year that 
we have known of it in California. The corn 
cockle or rose-campion is known to botanists as 
Agrostemma Oithayo, and belongs to the pink 




CORN COCKLE — Agrostemma Githago. 

family. It has a straight, white root, and grows 
to a hight of from two to four feet, with many 
branches above. The leaves are from three to 
five inches long, narrow, and like the stems, 
covered with long, fine hairs. The numerous 
flowers average about one and three-fourths 
inches across, and have five petals of a reddish 
or pale violet-purple color. There are ten 
stamens and five styles. The numerous seeds 
are what particularly concern the farmer. They 
are of a purplish-black color, and covered with 
ribs armed with projecting points. At maturity 
the seed pod opens at the top by five points. 
The cut on this page is after Darlington. A 
branch of the cockle i3 shown, much reduced in 
size; the section of a seed pod is of natural 
dimensions, but the single seed is considerably 
enlarged. If cockle seeds are very numerous 
in wheat that is ground, the flour produced has 
a dark tint. A glance at the wheat in question 
will show why Odessa rules lower in the Liver- 
pool market than our best grades. It is not so 
much the quality of the berry, as the foul seeds 
in it that keep it down. All who have sown 
wheat from a foreign country should immedi- 
ately examine their crop, and if corn cockle is 
found no pains should be spared to destroy it. 
If any of the pods have opened, they should be 
gathered in such a way as to avoid scattering 
the seed. When land has cockle seed in it, 
their germination should be secured by harrow- 
ing before the fall rains, and the young plants 
killed by thorough cultivation. — C. H. Dwin- 
elle, University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

The Olive in Tulare County. 

Editors PRES8:-Will olives grow in Tulare county?— 
Old Subscriber, Hanford, Cal. 

Editors Press: — Humboldt found that the 
most favorable climate for the successful and 
profitable growth of the olive was that in which 
the mean temperature for the year was as warm 
as 57. 17° F., and the mean of the coldest month 
not lower than 40.05°. This tree, however, 
bears great changes of temperature without 
injury. It withstands the almost tropical heats 
of northern Africa, and is not killed in the 
south of France until the thermometer falls 
below 15" or 17° below the point at which water 
freezes. It will grow in various climates where 
it cannot be profitably cultivated. The more 



nearly the climate approximates that found by 
Humboldt to be best adapted to it, the more 
certain will be its profitable cnltivation. 

All of the favorable conditions of climate are 
found in Tulare county in the foothills from an 
elevation of 400 ft. up to 3,000 ft. above the sea. 
About Tulare lake and in the vicinity of Yisalia 
and the town of Tulare, the mean of the coldest 
month is, I think, slightly below 40*. Experi- 
ment may show, however, that this tree will 
produce abundantly in these situations. Leav- 
ing out those portions of the mountains above 
3,000 ft., and the cold region of the shores of 
the lake, and there would remain more than one- 
half of the area of the county, with more favor- 
able conditions of climate and soil for the suc- 
cessful and profitable growth of the olive, than 
can be found in any one space of equal area in 
Spain and Italy. — B. B. R., San Francisco. 

Experience with Defiance Wheat. 

Editors Press:— In answer to your call for information 
I send you a few heads of Defiance wheat. I procured one 
pound of B. K. BliBS is Sons on the 12th of March, 1878, 
and sowed it on the 14th. On the 15th of July I har- 
vested 146 pounds of clean wheat, after its being visited 
twice by seven horses for over an hour at a time. Last 
year I got 20 sacks from the 146 pounds, with which I 
sowed about 25 acres, of which those heads are fair sam- 
ples. It appears to have stood the blasting winds better 
than the White Chile sown beside it, and remained green 
after the other became quite yellow. Another good prop- 
erty which it possesses is that it does not rust. The 
pound sown in 1878 was free from rust, while other wheats 
sown beside it were quite rusty. — T. A Pirley, Wood- 
bridge. San Joaquin Co , Cal. • 

In consonance with the report of our corre- 
spondent is the testimony of A. M. Southworth, 
in the last issue of the Los Angeles Herald. 
From one pound of seed sown grain by grain in 
drills, in 1879, he raised 508 lbs of wheat. He 
reports the Defiance this year free from rust. 
The same is true of the Champlain wheat, 
which, it will be remembered, was sent out at 
the same time by Bliss &. Sons, of N. Y. Mr. 
Southworth sowed some of the original Cham- 
plain from the East, and some of the California 
Champlain, grown by A. J. Scroggins, of Tulare 
Co., who, it will be remembered, took one of 
the Bliss prizes. The California Champlain was 
nearly twice as good in all respects as the other. 
Mr. Southworth pronounces both the Defiance 
and Champlain adapted to the rich bottom lands 
of Los Angeles county. What have other 
growers to say of these wheats ? 

Windmills. 

Editors Press:— I want to make two acres of garden, 
and I shall have to get the water out of a well. What kind 
of windmill must I get, and what will it cost ? There are 
so many kinds of windmills that I do not know what kind 
to get or what it will cost.— Old Subscriber, Hanford, Tu- 
lare Co. Cal. 

We cannot decide between rival windmills. 
The best we can do is to advise our correspond- 
ent to write to all those advertising windmills 
in the Press, asking for prices and what evi- 
dence they can give of the quality of their 
mills. It would also be worth while to visit 
the men who own windmills in the neighbor- 
hood, and see what each one says of the one 
he has used. By employing both these methods 
one can get some data for a decision. 



Are Ants Friends or Foes. 

Editors Press:— At one of the earlier meetings of the 
State Horticultural Society, a very valuable and interest- 
ing paper was read before the society, by Dr. Behr, on 
the "Insects Injurious to Vegetation." I wish to draw 
the attention of those who were present then, or those 
who may have seen a published synopsis of the paper, to 
that very interesting portion of his essay referring to the 
habits of the ant in capturing and colonizing the aphis. 
There were two sides as to the motive of the ants, but 
one thing was conclusive: that they captured the Aphidet 
for the purpose of living on their excretions. It was sug- 
gested in this connection that perhaps the ants may 
sometimes pay their attention to some other "insects in- 
jurious to vegetation." At that meeting the coddling' 
moth was also a subject under discussion. My present re- 
marks are in connection with the matter under discussion 
at that meeting. 

I am vigorously engaged in a warfare against the cod- 
ling moth, and successfully at that, by keeping the trees 
clean by scraping off the rough bark (their hiding places;, 
and placing paper bands upon every apple and pear tree 
in fruit bearing, and carefully examining each paper 
every Bix or eight days. We noticed upon cutting open 
many of the affected young fruit that it contained no 
worm, but the work Bhowed that the worm had not fin- 
ished its work of complete destruction. This led to further 
investigation, and finally discovering in an apple a couple 
of ants and a half-destroyed worm Mark this down for 
the learned doctor, and call on your readers for their 
observations in thiB direction.— J. B. Sai l, Davisville, 
Cal. 

The point is an interesting one. That the 
ants cherish the aphides as the source of a sweet- 
ish excretion, which they enjoy, is well estab- 
lished by observation. That they are vigorous 
fighters when such disposition serves them well 
is also established. How far they may go in at- 
tacking insects which are injurious to vegetation 
is a point upon which facts should be collected. 
In connection with the apparent destruction of 
coddling moth larva; which our correspondent 
describes, we may mention that a correspondent 
of the Ohio Farmer finds the common black ant 
an efficient protection against the plague of cur- 
rant worms. He has several colonies of ants 
close to his currant bushes, and enjoys an abun- 
dance of currants, while his neighbors' bushes 
are overrun with worms. Formerly he took 
pains to destroy the ant colonies, but on wit- 
nessing their attacks upon the worms he has 
taken great pains to protect and encourage 
them. These currant worms are leaf-eating 
caterpillars about half an inch in length and of 
greenish color. We remember well their evil 
work in central New York. We have never 
heard of the insect in this State. What do our 
readers know of the behavior of ants toward 
other inseots? 



July io, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



Signal Service Weather Case. 

The extension of the U. S. Signal Service has 
proved of great value to all our outdoor indus- 
tries. The great trouble in bringing its results 
to bear upon agriculture has been the difficulty 
of making known forecasts, etc., to those re- 
mote from the cities or large towns. Gen- 
Myer, Chief of the Service, now has it in mind 
to issue a compact arrangement of meteorologi- 
cal devices so that those distant from centers of 
information may have some means for arriving 
at better judgments of coming weather than 
they now have. Of course it is not pretended 
that any device will give infallible forecasts, 
but the design is to bring the best modern means 
of judging within the reach of all, that the 
benefits of the government service may be wide- 
ly disseminated. 

Our engraving on this page represents the 
"weather case or farmers' weather indicator," 
which will be set up ere long in rural postoffices 
throughout the country. The case is 31 inches 
high, 13J inches wide and inches thick. The 
front is covered with a glass door, which is 
kept closed except when making observations 
and adjusting the different instruments. The 
engraving, which of course presents the weather 
case in miniature, is worthy of careful study 
and a leisure hour will be required to arrive at 
a full understanding of its plan and details. We 
shall give as full a description of the different 
parts and their uses as we have space for at this 
time, as we deem the subject one of general im- 
portance. We understand that the cases are 
not for sale, but are to be erected here and there 
at government expense for the public benefit. 

The pointer or index at the top of the case 
(No. 1) slides on the brass arc; it is known as 
the "sunset barometer index," and indicates, 
when set, by the figures to which it points on 
the "main barometer scale," which is just below 
it, the reading of the barometer at the time of 
the sunset yesterday. The "main barometer 
scale" (No. 2) exhibits all the barometric read- 
ings likely to be used with this instrument. 
The pointer (No. 3) just below the "main ba- 
rometer scale" is called the "reference index," 
and indicates by the figures to which it points 
on the main barometer scale, when the instru- 
ment is set, the mean or average reading of the 
barometer at the place at which the instrument 
is set and for each separate month. When the 
barometer reads above or below this reading at 
any place, such reading is said to be "above the 
mean" or "below the mean" for that place in 
that month. This reference index is established 
in the exact central line of the face of the case. 
The long brass hand over the glass face of the 
barometer is known as the "long pointer," and 
indicates, by the figures of the "main barometer 
scale" to which it points when set, the reading 
of the barometer when last set. The black 
pointer on the face of the barometer under the 
glass face is known as the "short pointer," and 
indicates the existing pressure of the atmosphere 
at any time the instrument may be examined. 

There are for each place and each month two 
kinds of winds: First — Winds which, blowing 
from certain directions, are at that place and in 
that month more likely than other winds to be 
followed by rain. These are called "rain 
winds." Second — Winds which, blowing from 
certain directions, are at that place and in that 
month less likely than other winds to be fol- 
lowed by rain. These are called "dry winds." 
The wind direction for any day or time must be 
seen and taken at each place or station by a 
vane as well located as practicable. The "wind 
disk" (No. 8) consists of a brass circle, on which 
slide freely two arcs — a red arc, called the "dry 
wind arc" (No. 9), and a blue arc, called the 
"rain wind arc" (No. 11). In the center of the 
disk is a pointer turning with a turning-screw, 
and called the "wind disk pointer" (No. 10). 
Around the disk are letters to show directions, 
as N. for north, E. for east, NE, for northeast, 
etc. 

The pointer and scale (No. 5) on the right of 
and below the barometer are culled the dry- 
wind time record, and the pointer (No. 7) is 
called the "record pointer," and indicates, when 
set, the length of time the wind has been blow- 
ing continuously from a "dry" direction, by the 
figures showing the number of hours on the 
scale to which it points. 

The pointer and scale (No. 4) on the left of 
and below the barometer are called the rain- 
wind time record, and the record pointer (No. 
6) indicates, when set, the length of time the 
wind has been blowing continuously from a 
"rain" direction, by the figures showing the 
number of hours on the scale to which it points. 

The record pointer on the rain-wind time 
record (No. 6) is always turned by the thumb- 
screw, and set pointing at the figure on the 
scale when the wind is not blowing in the rain- 
wind direction. In the same way the "record 
pointer" on the dry-wind time record (No. 7) is 
always set pointing at the figure when the 
wind is not blowing in the dry direction. 

The sunset disk (No. 12) consists of a circular 
disk one-half of which is colored red and one- 
half of which is colored blue. " The disk turns 
upon a central turning screw in such a manner 
that half of the disk shows through a semi-cir- 
cular opening in the face of the weather case. 
The sunset disk is set as follows: At the exact 
time of every sunset the western sky and the 
character of the sunset is carefully observed. 
The examination ought to be minute and care- 
ful, lasting for about fifteen minutes. If the 
sunset sky is clear or red, or markedly what is 
known as a "fair weather sunset" — a sunset 



such as is generally held to indicate a clear or 
fair day to follow on the next day — a day on 
which it will not rain — the sunset disk is turned 
by the turning screw until the semi-circular 
opening shows all red. The sunset disk, thus 
turned, is described as set for a " fair weather 
sunset." 

If the sunset sky (the western) is cloudy or 
foul, or markedly what is known as a "foul 
weather sunset," a sunset such as is generally 
held to indicate foul weather to follow on the 
next day — a day on which it will rain — the sun- 
set disk is turned by the turning screw until 
the semi-circular opening shows all blue. The 
sunset disk thus turned is described as set for a 
" foul weather sunset." If the appearance of 
the western sky and the character of the sunset 
are neither markedly those of a " fair weather 
sunset" or of a " foul weather sunset," but such 
as to leave the observer in doubt how to style 
it, the sunset disk is turned to show half red 
and half blue, or " doubtful." The sunset disk, 



slides on the brass slide (No. 16). In the center 
of the case is the "dry and wet bulb scale, 
marked on the paper on which is the central 
brass slide bar (No. 19), and on this slide move 
the dry bulb keeper (No. 17) and the wet bulb 
keeper (No. 18). To set the thermometers ex- 
amine first the dry bulb thermometer and move 
the "dry bulb pointer" (No. 15) on the slide 
until the outside point is exactly level with the 
top of the mercury in the thermometers — as 
near to it as practicable. Examine next the 
wetjbulb thermometer, and move the wet bulb 
pointer (No. 16) on the slide until the outside 
pointer is exactly level with the top of the 
mercury in the wet bulb thermometer, or as 
near to it as practicable, then turn to the dry 
and wet bulb scale, and on the "central brass 
slide bar " (No. 19) move one of the keepers 
until it touches as nearly as possible — is on an 
exact level with the inside pointer of the " dry 
bulb pointer," then move the other keeper until 
it touches, as nearly as practicable — is on an 





Indications 
°f 

Hair Weather 

Sunset fear 

l/Vind-itidrydireetjOih 
^ermornetm-scprmrtintj 
fiiy and wetbnlb markers 
Wmi adjusted viovmg 
farther mid farther apart 
Barometer — rising, 
Jbmter moving toward thc\ 
Might orHigh Baromeren 

°f 

Said Weaflier 

Sunset foul. 

Wind-in rain direction] 
Tiiermametersappromhmg\ 
ijhy and vietbiub markers 
when adjusted moving 
towards each oilier 
Bormnerer — Falling 
Milder moves towards die 
feftorlo w Barometer 

JUbte-Mrrain direction 
afdjydiredioribf winds 
seelbxmerkBulktia 



DryBulb ■ Stlyesteriley : • Vft'BnlB 
-Set today-'" ' 



14 



JMicailona 
"f 

Dmibtful orWisetilecL 
weather 
Sunset — donZtful 
Neithcrfairnorfbul. 
Wtnd—vurinbte. 
Not steady in either 
rain or dry direction 
Tliermometers oscittatimf 
Marltersqipwimhiseptirai 
Bammeter-abaut mean. 

In the season of , 
frost arColi Weather ■ 

Slcy Clear 

m/idin dry direction 
Thermometersfaravart 
Baromrrer — rising 

indicate 
Frost err Cold Night' 



NICHOLS. EfJC. WASH"- 




Plant 
WithfallinqBuromcier* 
and wind in rain direction 

Harvest 
With (isintj Barometer 
enidmndin drydirection. 



WEATHER CASE OB FARMER'S WEATHER INDICATOR. 



thus set, is described as set for a "doubtful 
weather sunset. " 

In the lower part of the weather case there 
are two thermometers, a dry bulb thermometer 
(No. 13) on the left hand side of the case, and a 
wet bulb thermometer (No. 14) on the right 
hand side. The dry bulb thermometer is like 
any other thermometer, and shows by its read- 
ings the temperature of the air. The wet bulb 
thermometer is one, the bulb of which is kept 
constantly moist by the water passing up from 
the glass reservoir, through the wicking which 
covers the thermometer bulb. The readings of 
the dry bulb thermometer and those of the wet 
bulb thermometer are more and more unlike, or 
father and farther "apart," as it is called, in 
proportion as the air contains less and less 
moisture, that is, is becoming drier. The read- 
ings of the dry bulb thermometer and those of 
the wet bulb thermometer become more and 
more alike — are nearer and nearer together — in 
proportion as the air contains more and more 
moisture. That is, is becoming saturated or 
wet. 

By the side of the dry bulb thermometer (No. 
13) is the dry bulb pointer which slides on the 
brass slide (No. 15). By the side of the wut 
bulb thermometer is the wet bulb pointer which 



exaot level with the inside pointer of the "wet 
bulb pointer. " The thermometers are now set 
and the difference between their readings can he 
known by counting on the "dry and wet bulb 
scale " the number of degrees between the 
keepers. 

When the thermometers are examined and 
set again, following the same plan, it will be 
easily seen whether the "keepers" are, when 
set, farther apart than they were at the previ- 
ous setting, or whether they are, when set, 
nearer together than at the previous setting. 

If they are further apart, the thermometers 
are said to be "separating"; if they are nearer 
together, the thermometers are said to be "ap- 
proaching." Other things being equal, the 
thermometers show, when they are "separat- 
ing," that the air is becoming more dry, one 
sign of approaching fair weather. The ther- 
mometers show, when they are "approaching," 
that the air is becoming more moist or damp, 
one sign of approaching rain. 

The weather case is not intended to be used 
independently of the official weather reports. 
It is to be used always in connection with them. 
The weather case is Cm the purpose of supple- 
menting the official reports by showing the 
local instrumental indications and giving other 



information, It is intended especially for 
at farmers' po3toffices and places reached 
difficulty by the printed reports. It will sup- 
plement often whatever knowledge there be of 
local signs, with the indications of the instru- 
ment. Its careful use, taken either with the fur- 
nished reports or even without them (if they 
chance to fail) will often enable the character of 
the coming weather on the coming day to be so 
judged as to determine what kind of work or 
undertaking it is wise to plan for or to omit. 
The case gives the local instrumental indica- 
tions, and will frequently aid in making fair 
forecasts for the next day. 

A General Business Revival. 

There are cheering signs all around of a gen- 
eral revival of business. The depression which 
prevailed in this city and State and throughout 
the coast for the last two years has very gener- 
ally abated. Two years of comparative stagna- 
tion in business is a severe ordeal for a phe- 
nomenally-active people; but it is a short time 
compared to the periodical crises which con- 
vulse the commercial and manufacturing com. 
munities of the Atlantic seaboard. There the 
depression is all-pervading and prolonged, and 
causes widespread misery. Fortunately, Cali 
fornia is not subject to the major evils which 
follow over-production and financial derange- 
ment. It is true the stupendous speculative 
wave which rolled over the country at the close 
of the civil war, and stimulated inflation and 
over-production, reached California at last and 
caused a gradual but severe check to industry 
and enterprise. 

It will be conceded, we believe, that in the 
relation of things, an industrial depression in 
California can only be temporary. For the re- 
sources of the great young State are as varied 
as they are vast. Gold, wheat, wine — her pres- 
ent great products — alone yield annually about 
$100,000,000, to make no mention of various 
lesser but growing industries which contribute 
greatly to swell the annual product. Her pro- 
ducts are, too, equal to coined gold, and are in 
demand in the markets of the world. In ad- 
dition to these home industries, the contiguous 
States and Territories are largely tributary to 
this city, and literally pour their treasures into 
her lap. In all of them, mining for gold and 
silver is the chief industry. They get a large 
percentage of the required capital here, and 
here also they buy their machinery, tools, and 
supplies, and as soon as their mills produce bul- 
lion it is shipped to this city. These large 
sums enter into the general circulation and their 
distribution quickens every branch of business. 

While the revival of business is general, the 
reaction in this city has been perhaps a little 
slower than in the considerable towns of the in- 
terior. But it is apparent here in almost every 
department; for the demand alone for goods 
for countless mining camps has stimulated the 
business pulse, and enterprise is once more afoot. 

National Forecast of Crops. — A dispatch 
from Washington gives the following notes de- 
rived from the returns to the Department of 
Agriculture for June: The acreage of oats 
shows an increase over 1879 of 2%. The condi- 
tion of crops is much better than last year as 79 
against 51 in June, 1879. For several years 
there has been a general reduction area devoted 
to the rice crop. Its condition June 1st aver- 
aged 95 against 91 last year. The present 
promise of the crops is about equal in the aggre- 
gate production to that of last year, notwith- 
standing the reduced acreage. The area in bar- 
ley decreased about 10% compared with last 
year. Average condition June 1st was 92 
against 91 1879 and 12 in 1878. The acreage of 
clover shows no very material change from last 
year, the only change being a noticeable increase 
in the cotton-growing States and the Pacific 
slope. The condition is low for all the country, 
except in the New England and the Gulf States 
and the Pacific slope. The prospect for a good 
fruit season is very good. 

The Forestry Investigators.— We have had 
the pleasure of meeting Prof. C. S. Sargent, of 
Harvard University, and Drs. Engelmann and 
Parry, his associates, who are now on our coast 
in pursuit of knowledge concerning our forest 
resources and lumbering interest, for use in the 
census reports of 1880. We have made several 
allusions to the special work in which these 
able botanists are engaged. They will betake 
themselves at once to the forests of the north 
coast, and on their return will make special 
studies of California and Arizona forests and 
influences affecting them. We trust they may 
be speeded in their work by all our people with 
whom they may come in contact. Great inter- 
est will await the reports of their investigations, 
which will come ere long, and form one of the 
most valuable features of what promises to be 
the best census ever taken in this country. 

Apricots. — We have received from Isaac H. 
Thomas, of Visalia, a good sample of Moor- 
park apricots, which are just ripe in that re- 
gion. This fact, as shown by the specimens re- 
ceived, demonstrates the early ripening of the 
Eureka, which we received from Mr. Thomas 
two weeks ago. The apricots submitted show 
clearly the excellence of the fruit grown in Tu- 
lare county. 



26 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRES 



[July id, 1880. 



The Half-Year's Wool Trade. 

[Continued from pauk 19.] 
ports, owing to the continued dullness in the 
consuming markets. 

Wool Production. 

Receipts at San Francisco : 

January 243 bags. 

February 211 1 

March 1,838 " 

April 10,400 " 

May 24,828 *' 

June 18,081 " 



weighing 19,404,315 tbs. 
645,000 " 



Total 61,001 

Shipped exclusive of above. 

Total 20,049,915 j 

On hand, January 1st, about 300,000 J 

Total 20,349,915 " 

Oregon, 7,913 bags 2,373,900 " 

Foreign, 3S9 _151,710 « 

Grand Total 22,875,525 " 

Comparison of Exports. 

January 1st to June 30th, 1877 29,855,198 lbs. 

January 1st to June 30th, 1S7S 19,120,310 " 

January 1st to June 30th, 1879 23,291,472 " 

January 1st to June 30th, 1380 12,234,332 " 

On hand July 1st, 8,000 bags, partially sold. 

The weights of receipts and exports are gross. 
The usual tare of bags received is about three 
lbs. each ; on pressed bales shipped, 14 to 16 
lbs., each. 

Comparison With Former Years. 

1830, California Fleece 20,049,915 lbs. 

1879 " " 20,651,039 " 

187s' " " 18,842 920 " 

1877, «• " 28,289,640 " 

1876, - " 27,895,314 " 

1875, " " 23,642,880 

1874 " •' 19,355,682 " 

1873, " " 14,658,497 " 

1872, " " 12,607,280 " 

1871, " « 13,381,390 " 



A Siiekp- Worrying Dog Burying ns Prey 
Alive. — Many sheep and lambs have recently 
been worried on sheep farms in the neighbor- 
hood of Dundee, Scotland. An unusual method 
of sheep worrying was recently perpetrated on 
the farm of Pickstone, tenanted by Mr. Camp- 
bell. One morning a lamb was heard bleating 
in one of the fields on the farm, and, as no lamb 
could be seen on a casual inspection, a more 
careful search was made, when it was found 
that the bleating proceeded from a lamb that was 
buried in the land, the only part left exposed 
being the head. It was at once evident that 
this had been the work of a dog. The lamb 
was taken out, and was, strange to say, little 
the worse of its burial. A diligent watch was 
instituted, with the result that the depredator 
— a collie dog — was captured in the act of bury- 
ing another lamb, which was also alive. 



Value of Poultry Manure. 

The following report to Mr. L. Wright by Or. 
A. Voelcker, F. K. S. , appears in the London 
Live Slock Journal; Enclosed you will find 
analyses of the two samples of chicken manure 
which Mr. O. E. Cresawell, of Hereford, sent 
me on March 10, 1S80: 

Partially 
Frc9h dried 
Manure. Manure. 

Moisture 61.63 41.06 

"Organic matter and saltsof ammonia.. 20.19 38.19 
Tribasic phosphate of lime (bone phos- 
phate) 2.97 5.13 

Magnesia, alkaline salts, etc 2.63 3.13 

Insoluble silicious matter (sand) 12.58 12.49 

100.00 100.00 

"Containing nitrogen 1.71 8.78 

Equal to ammonia 2.09 4.59 

You will notice that in a fresh condition the 
sample of chicken manure analyzed by me con- 
tained i of water in round numbers, and 
12J% of sand, while the sample of partially 
dried manure contained 41% of water, and about 
the same proportion of sand as the fresh dung. 
Judging from the appearance of the manure, the 
greater proportion of the sand, it appears to me, 
arises from earthy matter which the fowls picked 
up with their food, and is not due to sand merely 
adhering to the excrements externally. 

I need hardly say that the large proportion of 
moisture and the considerable amount of useless 
silicious matter in fresh chickens' dung, detract 
much from its value as a manure. However, 
chicken dung, although greatly inferior to Peru- 
vian guano, is a much more concentrated fer- 
tilizer than the best description of ordinary 
farmyard manure, which seldom yields more 
thau three-fourths percent, of ammonia, whereas 
the sample of fresh chicken manure analyzed by 
me contained an amount of nitrogenous organic 
matter and salts of ammonia, capable of yield- 
ing, on final decomposition, 2% of ammonia. 
The agricultural and commercial value of the 
dung of horses, cows, sheep, pigs, pigeons, fowls, 
and of concentrated artificial manures, such as 
Peruvian and other varieties of ammoniacal 
guanos, depend mainly upon the percentage of 
phosphate of lime and of nitrogen, or its equiv- 
alent of ammonia, which these various fertilizers 
contain. 

In former years, when Peruvian guano was 
exclusively imported into England from the 
Chiucha islands, in the north of the Peruvian 
coast, the guano deposited on these islands in a 
rainless country and rapidly dried by a boiling 
sun heat, generally yielded from 16% to 18% of 
ammonia. The southern Peruvian guano de- 
posits, from which our supplies have been drawn 



for the last few years, vary much in composition. 
The best cargoes of Peruvian guano at present 
seldom contain more than 10% or 11% of am- 
monia ; those of a medium quality from 6% to 
8%, and cargoes selling at about i'S per ton, 
from 3% to 4%. The latter, however, are much 
richer in phosphate of lime than high ammo- 
niacal Peruvian guanos, and not unfrequently 
contain over 40% of phosphate of lime. 

Compared with Peruvian guano, and adopting 
the same rates by which the official price of dif- 
ferent cargoes of Peruvian guano is regulated, 
I find fresh chicken manure of the quality of 
the sample analyzed by me is worth, in round 
numbers, about £2 a ton, and the sample of 
partially dried manure about £4 4s. per ton. 
Pigeon dung, I find, is rather more valuable 
than fowls' dung. 

With regard to the application of chicken 
manure, 1 would observe that the least expen- 
sive, and probably the best way of using it is to 
make it with dry earth, burnt clay, wood ashes, 
and such like matters, into a compost. Mixed 
with about twice its weight of dry earthy mat- 
tors of this kind, it will soon be reduced into a 
fairly dry and powdery state, in which it may 
be readily spread broadcast on the land, or be 
sown by the manure drill, and be found a useful 
general manure for every kind of garden pro- 
duce. 

For root crops — turnips, carrots, kohl rabi, 
mangels — chicken manure, reduced into a dry 
and powdery state, should be mixed with an 
equal weight of superphosphate of lime, and the 
mixture be drilled in with the seed at the rate 
of o cwt. per acre. In making the earth com- 
post, quicklime, in my judgment, should not be 
mixed with the chicken dung, for the effect of 
quicklime upon fowls' excrement is to liberate 
ammonia, which would escape and be lost in a 
great measure. On the other hand, there is no 
harm, but every advantage, in mixing good soot 
with chicken dung, for unadulterated soot gen- 
erally contains from 3J% to 4% of ammonia, or 
nearly twice as much as I found in the sample 
of fresh chicken dung which Mr. CressweU sent 
me. 

Soot, when it can be procured, is a good drier 
for chicken manure, and at the same time adds 
ammonia to it. In the absence of soot, I would 
recommend to mix the fresh chicken manure 
with some burnt gypsum, to which a small 
quantity of superphosphate of lime may be 
added, the free acid of which will effectually 
prevent the escape of ammonia from the chicken 
dung. A mixture of two parts of burnt gypsum 
and one part of mineral superphosphate may be 
kept ready for the purpose of absorbing the ex- 
cess of moisture in fresh chicken dung, and facil- 
itating its reduction into a fairly dry and friable 
manure. Three parts of fresh chicken manure 
and one part of the preceding mixture of burnt 
eypsum and superphosphate, when kept for a 
short time under cover, and turned over once 
or twice, and finally passed through a screen or 
sieve, I believe will be found a useful and good 
mauure for most crops, when used at the rate 
of 8 or 10 cwt. per acre. 

Preparation of the Manure. 

We find in the A merican Cultivator the fol- 
lowing account of experience: 

1 took my shovel and spread a thin layer of 
the manure on the barn floor and thoroughly 
wet it; then another in the same way on top of 
that, until I had the whole in a compact pile, 
and, as I thought, perfectly wet. The next 
morning I began to turn it over to see the re- 
sult. 1 found a great part of it dry, but I liked 
the way it was working, so put on more water. 
After working it over three or four times, and 
applying water as needed, I had a pile of as 
nice looking fertilizer as you would wish to see, 
almost as fine as powder. In 48 hours it was 
very hot, requiring to be turned over every 12 
hours until used. I dropped a large handful in 
each hill for corn, covering it with a hoe as I 
would.com, then planted the corn in the hill thus 
made. Not one hill on the piece failed to come 
up, and it is growing the best of any corn I ever 
had. 

You may ask the use of the water. Why 
not put the manure in the hill dry and cover 
the same ? The reason is, it won't accomplish 
its object. I have tried it and know. The corn 
will come up all right, but after a little time it 
ceases to grow. Dig to the root and you will 
find it completely eaten up by the manure. The 
reason everyone can understand by a few mo- 
ments of thought. I used some mixed with 
meadow mud, about three parts mud to one 
manure, using a little more to each hill, and 
dropping the corn upon it without covering it 
(the manure). The result was that nearly one- 
half of the seed never came up. 



Ridding Poultry of Vermin. 

Editors Press: — I send you a very simple, 
very cheap, long-tried and perfectly successful 
remedy for mites, fleas or any kind of vermin on 
sitting hens: Put plenty of tobacco in the nest 
under and next to the eggs. Stems from the 
cigar factory are as good as anything. Fifty 
cents will get a barley sack full. 

I grow the tobacco in my garden and use the 
dry leaves. One application is sufficient usually, 
though a renewal where the insects are bad, say 
in 10 or 12 days, may be necessary. Chickens 
thus hatched will usually grow up healthy and 
free from vermin. 

A supply of tobacco stems under the chicks 
where they roost will surely keep them free 



from vermin. If already infested, a little kero- 
sene rubbed on the outside of the feathers of 
the mother hen will kill the mites. 

Scald roosts infested with mites just before 
night, and wet the roosts, before quite dry, 
with kerosene, so the fowls will go onto the 
roosts before the kerosene is dry, and it is a 
sure clearance of all vermin that may be on the 
fowls. I have used these remedies for many 
years and know them to be unfailing. Sulphur 
does very well when rightly used, but the above 
treatment is far better. Farmer. 

Saticoy, Ventura Co. 



purchasers of stock will fi5d in this directory thb 
Names of home of tub Most Reliable Brbbdbrs. 

Our Rates. — Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a lino per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F. Importers 
and breeders of all varieties of Thoroughbred Cattle, 
Sheep, Horses, and Berkshire Swine. All animals fully 

pedigreed. 



M. B. STURGES, Centcrville, Alameda County, Cal. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle. Young 
Bulls and Heifers for sale. Correspondence solicited. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



E. W. WOOLSEY, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Importer and breeder of choice thoroughbred Spanish 

Merino Sheep. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, CaL Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



POULTRY. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importer 
and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Berkshire 
and Magie Poland-China Swine. 



MRS. L. J. WAT KINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Kocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 



A. O RIX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



MRS. L. E. McMAHAN, Dixon, Solano Co.. Cal. 
Importer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs 
for Hatching. Send for price list. 



SWINE. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bcllota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



T. C. STARR, San Bernardino, Cal. Poland-China 
Swine and Black Cochin Chickens for sale. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



BEES. 



JOS. D. ENAS, Suunyside, Napa, Cal. Breeds pure 
Italian Queen Bees. Imported Queens furnished. 



What is it I Everybody knows it is as 

essential to life as food itself. Yet when people are ill 
for the very want of rovitaliiation through rospiration, 
they dose themselves with drugs and bitters to the effect 
of demoralization! All Invalids should read ,Drs. 
STARKEY & l'ALEN'S(Phda.) Treatise on Oxygen, 
which is sent free to all who may ask for it. The subject 
is worthy of investigation. References to physicians in 
San Francisco, who use and prescribe Compound Oxygen 
in practice. As prepared for home use (conveniently sent 
to any address) it may bo obtained of H. E. MATHEWS, 
006 Montgomery street, S. F., upon the same terms as 
furnishod by Drs. Starkcy & Palen, Philadelphia, Penn. 
Complete instructions with each package. 



MONEY TO LOAN ! 
$5007000 

To loan, in one sum or in amounts to suit on Wheat Lands, 
Wheat in Warehouses, and other good collaterals at cur- 
rent rates of interest. 

Savings Bank Books. 

The highest price paid for balances in The Savings and 
Loan (Clay St.,) Odd Fellows', Masonic, French, Farmers 
and Mechanics', by 

JOHN T. LITTLE, 

302 Montgomery St., rooms 1 and 2, San Francisco. 



Rent paid two and a quarter years buys one . 

BEST CABINET OR PARLOR ORGANS 
IN THE WORLD; winners of highest 
distinction at bvkry world's fair for 13 
years. Prices, $51, $57, 800, $84,8108, to 
18500 and upward. Also for easy pay- 
ments, 85 a month or 80.38 a quarter 
and upward. Catalogues free. MASON 
it HAMLIN ORGAN CO., 154 Tremont 
St., Boston; 46 East 14th St. (Union 
Square),N. Y. ; 149 Wabash Av. , Chicago. 



MASON 

AND 

HAMLIN 
ORGANS 



A. AlTKKX. 



F. N. Fis a 



AITKEN & FISH, 

Premium Pioneer Marble Works, 

617 K St.. Bet. Sixth & Seventh, - SACRAMENTO. CAL. 



AGENTS WANTED SSS"^ r « 

tins Marhine ever Invented. Will knit a pair of 
Stocking*, with heel and toe complete. In 3£0 mln- 
atea. YVU1 also knit a great variety of fancy articles, 
for which there Is always a ready market. Send for cir- 
cular and terms to The Twombly Knitting Jttu- 
chinc Co.. 409 Washington St,, BosWn, Mass. 



CHOICE 

Irrigated Vineyard Lands. 

PLEASANT HOMES, 

Good Society and Good Schools ! 

THE WASHINGTON IRRIGATED COLONY, 

In Fresno Co., Cal., presents 

GREAT INDUCEMENTS 

To those seeking HOMES and PROFITABLE INVEST- 
MENTS. This Colony, situated within five miles of the 
Railraad and County Seat, contains over 

7,000 Acres 

Of Rich Irrigable Lands, subdivided into lots with 
Streets and Avenues with ABUNDANT WATER RIGHTS 
and IRRIGATING CANALS CONSTRUCTED, and with 

Perfect Title to both Land and Water. 

Fresno County is already recognized as the best in the 
State for Vineyards; and the abundant facilities for Irri- 
gation affords 

Complete Protection from Phylloxera, 
Which is already so destructive to the dry vineyards of 
the State. These lands are being sold at 

Low Prices and on Liberal Terms. 
Nearly 3,000 Acres are alroady purchased, and are being 
improved by excellent families, whose numerous Alfalfa 
fields, fine cows, and FLOURISHING CHEESE FACTORY 
attest the industry and sagacity with which they provide 
a support, while they cultivate their Fruits and ample 
Vineyards. For full information apply for Circulars at 
the office of the 

WASHINGTON IRRIGATED COLONY. 

22 Montgomery St., S. F. or at the Colony. 

Wendell Eabton, Treas. J. W. North, Genl Agt. 

GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $400,000. 

OFFICERS: 

G. W. COLBV President 

JOHN LEWKI.LING Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPKLLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS : 

Q. W. COLBY President Butte Co 

JOHN LEWELLING. Vice-President Napa Co 

J. V. WEBSTER AlamedaCo 

URIAH WOOD San Benito Co 

J. C. MERYFIELD Solano Co 

THOMAS MiCONNELL Sacramento Co 

I. 0. STEELE San Mateo Co 

SOLOMON JEWETT Kern Co 

O. J. CRES8EY Stanislaus Co 

SENECA EWER Napa Co 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874. for the 
transaction of general Banking business. 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted In the 
usual way. 

GOLD and SILVER deposits received. 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued for Gold and Silver. 

TERM DEPOSITS are received and interest allowed as 
follows: 6% per annum if left for 3 months; 7% per annum if 
left for & months; 8% per annum if left for 12 months. 

EXCHANGE on the Atlantic States bought and sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER. 

Cashier and Manager 

San Francisco. Oct. 15th. 1879. 



Fwhen dull, sharp tee 
rwhich only cost a trifle, 
can be inserted in a few m i n 
I utes, without taking the saw off 1 
I the mandrel, and no skill is re- 
| quired in doing it. 

Send lor Catalogue showing | 
M their vast superiority. Moi 
|| ofthem are being sold than < 
^any other kind, and we ai 
altering all other kinds to 
the Chivel Tooth- 



Stearn's M'fg* Co. 'a Unequaled Pacific 

SAW MILL MACHINERY. 

Automatic Blide Valve, Universal Automatic Corliss and 
Cheap Hoisting ENGINES and BOILERS. 

TATTJM «fc BOWEN, 

329 Market Street. 3 Fremont Street 

PACIFIC WATER CURE 

— AND — 

Electric Health Institute- 

Specially adapted to the cure of chronic cases such as 
Rheumatism, Neuralgia, Paralysis, Consumption, Asthma, 
Lead or Mercury Poison, etc. 

Our mode of treatment is mostly new and peculiar, and 
relieves the patient in a short time, mostly without th« 
use of drugs. 

Good rooms and board, with competent and careful 
nurses furnished in the house. 

M. F. CLAYTON, M. D., 

Proprietor. 

Northwest corner Seventh and L Sts. , Sacramento, Ca 



Giles H. Gray. Jambs M. Haves. 

GRAY & HAVEN, 

Attorneys and Counsellers-at-Law, 

630 California St.. - SAN FRANCISCO 



July id, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



27 



M. W. DUNHAM 

Just Imported 36 Head 

FOR HIS OAKLAWN STUD OF 

Percheron-Norman Horses. 

ANOTHER IMPORTATION 
Arrived April. 1, 1880. 




Largest and Most Complete Establishment 
of the Kind in the World. 

More than 200 Stallions and Mares 

Imported from Best Stud Stables of France. 

Winners of First Prizes in Europe and America, awarded 
First Prizes and Gold Medals at the Universal Exposition 
at Paris, 1878, over all. First Prizes and Grand Medals at 
Centennial Exhibition, 1876. 

The public appreciation of its merits is indicated by the 
great demand for stock from every part of the country. 
During the past twelve months, the provinces of New 
Brunswick, Canada, and the States of New York, Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, 
Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Texas, Louisiana, 
Colorado, Nevada, California and Oregon, and Utah, 
Washington and Idaho Territories have drawn supplies 
from its Stables. 

100-page Catalogue — flneBt thingof the kind ever Issued; 
25 pictures of Stallions and Mares,sent k free on application. 

M. W. DUNHAM, 

Wayne, DuPage County, Illinois. 

£2TN. B — All Imported and Pure Native 
Bred Animals Recorded in Percheron-Nor- 
I man Stud Book. 

ST. DAVID'S, 

A FIRST-CLASS LODGING HOUSE, 

CONTAINS 113 ROOMS. 
715 Howard St., near Third, San Francisco. 

This HouBe Ib especially designed as a comfortable home for 
gentlemen and ladies visiting the city from the interior. No 
darkrooms. Gas and running water in each room. The floors 
are covered with body Brussels carpet, and all of the furniture 
is made of solid black walnut. Each bed has a spring mat- 
tress, with an additional hair top mattress, making them the 
most luxurious and healthy beds in the world. Ladies wish- 
ing to cook for themselves or families, are allowed the free 
UBe of a large public kitchen and dining room, with dishes. 
Servants wash the dishes and keep up a constant fire from 
6 A. M. to 7 P. M. Hot and cold baths, a large parlor and read- 
ing room, containing a Grand Piano — ah free to guests. Price 
Bingle rooms per night, 50 cts.; per week, from $2.50 upwards. 

R- HUGHES, Proprietor. 

At Market Street Ferry, take Omnibus line of street cars 
to corner Third and Howard. 



DIVIDE ND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending this date, the Board of Di- 
rectors of THE GERMAN SAVINGS AND LOAN SO- 
CIETY has declared a dividend on Term Deposits at the 
rate of six (b) per cent, per annum; and on Ordinary De- 
posits at the rate of five (5) per cent, per annum, free 
from Federal Taxes, and payable on and after the 15th 
day of July, 1880. By order. 

GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 
San Francisco, June 30, 1880. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE 

San Francisco Savings Union, 633 California street, cor- 
ner Webb. For the half year ending with June 30, 1880. 
a dividend has beon declared at the rate of six (6) per 
cent, per annum on Term Deposits, and (5) per cent, per 
annum on Ordinary Deposits, free of Federal Tax, pay. 
able on and after Wednesday, July 14, 1880. 

LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



FRUIT AND GRAIN FARM FOR SALE, 

Near Sacramento, Cal. 

Eighty acres of choice land, two miles from city limits; 
half mile east upper Stockton road; 800 Fruit trees, one acre 
Grapevines, two acres Blackberries. Sixty-rive acres in Grain 
will be sold with or without crop. Good House and Out 
Buildings. Farm well fenced; fire Windmills and Horse 
Power; Fish Pond; three-quarters of a mile from good 
School. This property will be sold cheap. Terms cash. 
Apply at the ranch. J. K. HOUSTON. 



LAND 

convenient. U. 
trated circular 
Reading Ranch, 



Good land that will raise a crop every 
year. Over 14,000 acres for sale ill lots te 
Buit. Climate healthy. No drouths, bad 
floods, nor malaria. Wood and water 
S. Title, perfect. Send stamp for illus- 
to EDWARD FRISBIE, Proprietor of 
Anderson, Shasta County, Cal. 



FRUIT DRYER&BAKER 



I OVER 11,000 IN USB 
< THE BEST IN THE MARKET 

MADE EX TIE EL T of GALVANIZED IROS 

AGENTS WANTED 

ZIMMERMAN FRUIT DRYER CO. 

. Stnd/or Circular. Cincinnati, O. 

AND NOT 
I WEAK OUT. 



A KEY 

vY.iLL WIND 



"""HAT 



C/^l 1^ by Watchmakers. By mail, 30 cts. Circulars 
OULU FREE. J. S. BIRCH & CO., 3tJ Dey St.,N.Y. 



Poultry. 



THOROUGHBRED POULTRY. 




UNLIMITED 
RANGE. 

Healthy Stock 

116 ACRES 
Devoted to the 
Business. 



LANGSHANS. I now breed this justly celebrated 
Fowl. Send 3c. Btamp for price list and circular describ- 
ng the different breeds I keep. Incubators. 

M. BYRE, Napa, Cal. 

iSTPamphlet on Breeding, Hatching, Diseases, etc., 
adapted especially to Pacific Coast, sent for 16c. 

BROWN LEGHORN EGGS FOR SALE. 

From selected birds. Also a few choice Fowls— Brown 
Leghorns, Spangled Hamburgs and Partridge Cochins. 
All yearlings or under. 

HENRY PETERSON, 
Near the University, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal 



SUNNY SIDE APIARY. 

Pure Italian Queens and Bees, tested and untested. 
Young Queens ready April 1st. Also, Wintered-over 
Queens. Purity and safety guaranteed. Comb founda- 
tion, smokers, knives, bee-books, etc. Sample Premium 
Hive. Address with stamp, 

JOS. D. ENAS, 

Sunny Side, Napa Co., Cal. 



Elastk 



A sample File- | 
gi; holder sent post H 
|| paid, from this jg 
fb office on receipt 
:•; of 50 cents. 



Five sizes are made to suit the dimensions of different 
papers, viz. : 18, 22, 26, 30 and 34 inches, inside measure. 

For Sale by DEWEY & CO., 

No. 202 Sansome St., S. F. 



COPP'S 

AMERICAN SETTLERS' GUIDE. 

Public Land System Explained; How to tell Township 
and Section Corners; How to Homestead and Pre empt 
land; How to Enter land under Timber Culture, Desert, 
Townsite and other Laws. Sent by mail postpaid for 50 
cents. DEWEY Si CO., 

202 Sansome St. , S. F. 



Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
40,000 tons capacity. Storage at lowest rates. 
CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt. 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. - - Proprietors. 
Office— 318 California Street, Room 3. 



SEND FOR THE 

$1.50 

Homoeopathic Medicine Case. 

Containing 12 principal remedies, with directions for 
use. Also Veterinary cases and books. Send for cata- 
logue. Address BOERICKE & TAFEL, 
Homoeopathic Pharmacy, San Francisco. 



DO 



NOT FAIL to •«□« 

for our Prle* List for 
1880. Fmxi u> any 
address apon ap- 
plication. Contain* 
ascriptions of »T«ry- 



thlng required 
person*! or family ui«, 
with over 1*09 Illustrations. We ion all 

Roods at wholaialo price* In quantities to suit 
)• porchuor. Tb* only Institution Ib America 
who make this their special business. Address, 
MONTGOMERY WARD A CO., 

BBT * Bat Wabueh At*., Obloago, IB. 



REMOVAL. 

John F. Geary. M. D. 

For the last 18 years at 632 Howard street, San Francisco, 
has 

REMOVED TO OAKLAND. 

Consulting rooms, Erie House, 1113 Broadway. 
Office hours, 1 to 5 p. m. Mornings and evenings at 
Marathon Park, Telegraph Avenue. 
Diseases of women and children a specialty for 26 years. 



The New Beekeepers' Text Book. 

By A. J. Kino. The latest work on the Apiary, 
embodying accounts of all the newest methods 
and appliances. Fully illustrated. Sent by mail, post- 
oaid. forfl. DEWEY & CO.. 202 Sansome Street, S. F 

Cf| Elegant Perfumed Cards, Chromo, Motto, Lily, Etc 
UU 15c Gift with each pack. H. M. Smith, Olintonrule. Ct. 



Stock Notices. 



E. W. WOOLSEY & SON, 

Importers and Breeders of THOROUGHBRED 




Mat 

SPANISH MERINO SHEEP. 

We are breeding from FIRST PREMIUM stock of Ver- 
mont aud California. Unsurpassed in quality and condi- 
tion. Purchasers are invited to examine. We are cultivating 
the style of wool pre-eminently required o^n this coast. 

Berkeley, Alameda County, Cal. 

HALF-BREED lERSEY 

HEIFERS FOR SALE. 

From First-Class 

AMERICAN DAIRY COWS. 

Deliverable at 837 Howard Street, San Francisco, or at 
San Bruno Station S. P. R. R. 

PRICES : 

One Week Old $ 6.00 

One Month Old 10.00 

Two Months Old 15.00 

Three Months Old 20.00 

Or at 60 cents less at JERSEY FARM, San Bruno. 

R. G. SNEATH. 

BERKSHIRES A SPECIALTY. 




My Berkshires are Thoroughbred, and selected with 
great care from the best herds of imported stock in the 
United States and Canada, and for individual merit can- 
not be excelled. My breeding stock are recorded in the 
"American Berkshire Record," where none but pure bred 
Hogs are admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rates. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 

JOHN RIDER, 

18th and A Streets, Sacramento City, Cal. 



RAMS FOR SALE. 

300 THOROUGHBRED 

And Graded 

SPANISH MERINO 

Rams For Sale. 

Bred from the first impor- 
tation of Spanish Merino 
Sheep to California, in 1854. 
Prices to suit the times. Residence, one mile north of 
McConnel's Station, Western Pacific Division C. P. R. R. 
P. O. address, MRS. E. McCONNELLWILSON, 
Elk Grove, Sacramento Co., Cal. 




ANGORA GOATS. 

FIVE HUNDRED HEAD of GRADED ANGORAS 
from 3 to 1510, for sale for cash or exchange for cattle. 

Apply to D. P. NEWSON, 
Arroyo Grande, Cal. 



Seedsmen. 



BUY DIRECT! SEEDS, TREES,Etc. 

5 Cents per lb. — Egyptian Corn (white and brown); 
Broom Corn; Extra Early Vermont, Snowflake and Bres- 
see's Prolific Potatoes; Pop-Corn. lO Cts. per lb— Pearl 
Millet in heads; Sorghum; Evergreen Imphee (for feed); 
Evergreen or Golden and Dwarf Broom-Corn; Golden 
Millet 20 Cts. per lb — Liberian, Kenny's, Amber, 
Oomseana and Neeazana Sugar Canes; Best Spanish Chufas; 
Pearl Millet in hulls. 40 Cts. per lb — Chinese Im- 
phee, largest and richest in sugar, (See page 250 Report 
of Commissioner of Agriculture for 1877). 

TREES at 5 to 10 Cts. each -Chestnut, Walnut, 
Maples (sugar, red and silver); Catalpas, Ailanthus, Fir, 
Pine, etc. 25 Cts. per 100— Strawberry Plants, Poplar, 
Osier and Hop Root Cuttings. At 1 Ct each — Arbor 
Vitae trees (1 foot high); Prickley Comfrey and Panicum 
Spcctabile Root-cuttings; Pomegranate, Fig and Black 
Mulberry Cuttings. 

Semi-tropical and other Fruit Trees, CHEA P. 

£3TTrees, Seeds, etc., packed and delivered on cars 
without extra charge, or sent by mail for 16 cts, per lb. 
additional. Send for illustrated catalogue free. Address 

W. A. Sanders, SANDERS P.O., Fresno Co., Cal. 




50 



I l"erlumea, Snowflake, Chromo, MotioCards, name in 
'gold and jet 10c. G. A. Spring, E. Wallingford.Ct. 



Lands for Sale and to L 



Hare Opportunity 

- FOR A - 

COLOITY 

— OR — 

Farming Enterprise ! 



A tract of land, comprising 20,000 acres, lying in Town 
ship 16, south, range 19 and 20 east, in 

FRESNO COUNTY, 

Is offered in whole or in part, as a very desirable location 
for a Colony or extensive fanning enterprise. 

This land is in the immediate vicinity of several Colo- 
nies, which are already in successful progress. 

Work for bringing water upon the land has already 
been commenced, and the land is so situated that it can 
be irrigated at very little outlay. It is also convenient for 
Railroad transportation. 

Terms Reasonable. 

For further particulars inquire of FRANKLIN D. 
COTTLE, No. 932 Howard Street, San Francisco, or> 
COTTLE & LUCE on the premises, or at Fresno 
City, Cal. 



FEUIT FARM 

FOR SALE 
Near Sa n Jo se, Cal. 

That fine place known as the 

" CHENEY FARM," 

Adjoining Lick's Mill, is offered for sale. 

Was purchased a Short time ago for 
$25,000. Is offered for $20,000 and 
will pay a Good Interest on the in- 
vestment. 



There are 118 acres of choice land — 40 acres in Straw- 
berries, 7 acres in Blackberries, 700 young Pear Trees, 
and an Old Orchard. Has several flowing wells, a large 
house of 10 rooms, marble mantels, etc. The house is 
completely finished, Brussels carpets on most of the floors; 
parlor, sitting-room and bed-room furniture all nearly 
new. 

With Stock consisting of Horses, Cattle, Hogs, Farming 
Implements, etc., sufficient for the place, all for the price 
above named. 

Satisfactory reasons given for selling. 



Apply to 



TERMS EASY. 
J. A. Clayton, 

REAL ESTATE AGENT. 

San Jose, Cal. 



Dairy Farm^For Sale. 

Four miles west of Watsonville, In Santa Cruz county, 
Cal. One Thousand Acres of flrst-class Dairy Land, 
which will be sold in whole, or in part to suit purchaser, 
very cheap. The place can be divided into 10 or more 
small Farms, with 

Lasting 1 Springs of Pure Water, 

On each 60 acres. All under fence, and 400 acres under 
cultivation. Living water, enough to irrigate nearly al 
the place. 

Plenty of Firewood. 

For particulars enquire of 

FRANK LARKIN, on the place. 



Pajaro Valley Nursery 

FOR SALE. 

Situated In the Town of Watsonville. 

WAS ESTABLISHED IN 18G7. 

Contains 27 acres of land. There is about 60,000 trees 
under cultivation, embracing all the leading varieties of 
Fruits, with Shade and Ornamental Trees, 7 acres of the 
best varieties of Strawberries, Raspberries and Blackber- 
ries, together with all the necessary Tools, Buildings, 
etc. , for conducting a first-class business. An abundance 
of water for Irrigation. 

The proprietor being compelled to sell for the reason 
that he is about to leave the State, offers to any one wish- 
ing to engage in a profitable and well-established business 
a very great bargain. For further particulars apply to 
JAMES WATERS, Prop., 

Watsonville, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 

Sheep Range For Sale. 

HMffB About 3.169 acres of deeded land, four cabins 
flg&M and corrals; plenty of good water. Has a frout- 
W H *n age of four miles on Elder < Ireek, and in situated 
i„ Tehama county. In T 25 and 26 N, K 6 W, M 
D M; will keep 6,000 Sheep. I have a good summer range 
which I will let go with it. For further particulars apply at 

therauch - G. M. LOWREY. 

P. O. address, Red Bluff, Tehama County. California. 
March 2utu. 1880. 




For Sale in large or small tractB, on easy terms, in 
the best parts of the State. 

McAfee brothers. 

202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




Catents and inventions. 



List of U. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 
Inventors. 

From Official Report9 for the "Mining and Sciontiflc 
Press," Dewey & Co., Publishers and U. 
S. and Foreign Patent Agents. 1 

For the Week Endino Jam 29th, 1SS0. 

229,383.— Gdn-Lock—W N. Crabtree, Porterville, Cal. 

229,38".— Ore Crusher— J. T. Davis, S. F. 

229,468. — Air Compressor — H Richinan, S. F. 

229,509.— Desulphurizing Ores— II. F. Williams, S. F. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dkwby & Co., in the Bbortest time possible (by tele- 
graph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent busi- 
ness for Pacific coast inventors transacted with perfect 
security and in the shortest possible time. 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of special mention : 

Velocipede. — F.Langmaak and Peter Streiff, 
S. F. Patented June 15, 1880. No. 228,908. 
This invention consists in placing within the 
open hub of a single wheel, a carriage provided 
with driving and guide wheels moving in an 
annular groove inside the hub, this carriage be- 
ing provided with a saddle upon which the rider 
sits astride, combined with operating foot- 
levers, which, by means of cords, rotate alter- 
nately clutches on the shaft of the central 
driving-wheel of the carriage. These clutches 
are so arranged that they engage with the 
driving-shaft on the forward motion, but release 
it when the foot is drawn back for the return 
stroke. By having a pair of the levers an alter- 
nate motion is kept up and a continuous revolu- 
tion of the driving-wheel maintained. A veloci- 
pede of this form will not be as difficult to ride 
as those where the rider has to sit in a saddle 
over the wheel, owing to the weight being be- 
low instead of above the center of gravity. 

Goding-Header. — -Walter H. Keen, Wood- 
bridge, San Joaquin Co., Cal. Patented June 
1, 1880. No. 228,260. This invention con- 
templates forming a peculiar jack-staff, carry- 
ing the caster guide-wheel below, and arranged 
above as a guide for the cutter-bar level, the 
whole being in front of the driver, so that a seat 
may be provided at the rear end of the beam, 
upon which the driver may sit during his work. 
The tiller for steering the header is swiveled on 
the rear end of the cutter-bar level, and so com- 
bined with it as to serve also as a means of rais- 
ing or lowering said lever. It further consists 
in forming in a peculiar manner an automati- 
cally movable fulcrum for the cutter-bar lever, 
to keep the header on an equal balance, so that 
the cutter-bar is raised with little friction, and 
the strain relieved from the links connecting 
the cutter-bar frame with the pole carrying the 
guide-wheel and driver. 

Hams Ring. — A. J. Larsen, 420 Jackson St., 
S. F. Patented May 25, 1880. No. 227,982. 
This invention relates to improvements in what 
are known as the "hame-rings" upon working 
harness; and it consists in a rein-leading ring 
for hames, consisting of the slotted, swiveled rod 
provided with the semi-circular extension, the 
slidjng-ring section provided with the hook or 
loop, and a coiled spring, all attached to the 
hames. In driving horses to or from their work 
without the vehicle it is customary to double 
the reins up and push them through the hame- 
ring upon the near side, or to hang them upon 
the end of the hame itself, and when the bridle 
is removed for the purpose of feeding it is hung 
upon the hame. In either case the reins or 
bridle are liable to become displaced and fall 
to the ground, aud this invention prevents such 
accidents, besides making it very easy to intro- 
duce or remove the reins. 

Plowshare Fastener.— Jacob P. Patery, 
Dunnigan, Yolo Co., Cal. Patented May 25, 
1880. No. 227,991. The mold-board and land- 
side are fastened to the share by levers provided 
with cams or catches. The mold-board is se- 
cured to the curved beam and the land-side by 
means of braces, the lower edge of said mold- 
board resting on a flange on the upper edge of 
the land-side. On the end of the brace is a 
fulcrum of a compound lever, the smaller arm 
of said lever being pivoted on a swinging arm. 
On the end of this smaller arm is found a hook 
which grasps a stud on the under side of the 
share. A slot is found in the end of the brace 
and another in the end of the land-side, into 
which fit the studs found on the share, thus 
stead ying the share. 

Animal Trap.— W. J. Webber, Hollister, 
San Benito Co., Cal. Patented May 25, 1880. 
No. 227,935. This trap is intended for the 
capture of animals, birds, etc., and it consists 
in the employment of one or more needles or 
sharpened spears, moving in guides and pro- 
vided with an elastic spring by which the 
needle is forced forward when released by the 
action of a trigger. This trigger is operated 
by the attempt of the animal to pass its free 
end, and this end is concealed by a stalk, weed, 
or any natural object. In combination with 
these devices a guard or protector is employed 
to be used while the trap is being set or carried 
about. 



Overalls. — Samuel R. Krouse, S. F. Pat- 
ented May 25, 1880. No.227,981. This inven- 
tion relates to certain improvements in the 
manufacture of overalls and that class of gar- 
ments intended for outside wear; and it consists 
in an improved construction and application of 
strengthening-strips, stays, and re-enforce pieces 
by which the body of the fabric, pocket corners 
and seams are strengthened, the parts are uni- 
ted to form a more complete mutual band or 
support, while from their form a considerable 
economy of material is effected in the cutting of 
these parts. 

Belt-tightening Attachment for Sewino 
Machines. — Joseph H. Allen, Sacramento, Cal. 
Patented, June 15, 1880. No. 22S.850. This 
invention consists in providing a swiveled ad- 
justable arm carrying an adjustable extension 
with a friction-roller, by means of which the 
pressure on the belt, and the angle of said pres- 
sure may be regulated at will. The device is so 
simple that ifis readily changed, so as to be ad- 
justed for light or heavy work. 

Preparation of Lime-Juice. — John and 
Thomas D. Douglas, S. F. This invention re- 
lates to a compound which is intended for mak- 
ing lemonade, seasoning etc., to take the place 
of limes. The compound is useful for making 
lemonade, being designed to take the place of 
limes or lemons. It is agreeable to the taste, 
will not decompose with age, and is always 
ready for use. It is put up in bottles of con- 
venient size, and has the appearance of ordinary 
lime-juice. 

What can You Show? — The announcement 
of the coming exhibition in charge of the Horti- 
cultural Society of the Mechanics' fair next 
month should suggest to all the question, What 
can you show ? For the credit of our horti- 
culture, and for the information of the thou- 
sands interested in fruit and plant growth who 
will visit the fair, there should be a full exhibit 
of the best that every section of our State can 
produce. Everything good that is in condition 
for show during the fair should be forwarded. 
Among other things, our raisin progress should 
be made apparent; and, although it will be too 
early for this year's crop, most growers have no 
doubt choice specimens of last year's curing. 
Let these be entered, and let the competition be 
so general that it may be truly representative of 
our new interest. As with raisins so with all 
fresh fruits. Each premium should be awarded 
after viewing a full display in its class. The 
premium may be a small object, but the other 
results of a fine display will be great for the 
State and for the producers. What can you 
show ? 

Seedling Fruits.— We enjoyed a call from 
Prof. W. A. Sanders, of Fresno county, on 
Tuesday. He brought us some interesting sam- 
ples of what Fresno county has done in the line 
of seedling fruits. The most notable, perhaps, 
was a seedling apricot originated by Andrew 
Jackson, of Kingsburg, and known as the 
"Jackson Seedling." It is a large and hand- 
some fruit, probably a seedling from one of our 
best varieties. Aside from the excellence of 
the fruit the tree has good points, being a very 
regular and heavy bearer. The tree from which 
the specimens were brought was eight years 
old, and it has yielded about $20 worth of fruit 
per year for several years. Prof. Sanders 
brought us also a seedling peach of his own 
growing, medium sized, handsome in form and 
color and with a sprightly flavor. He had also 
a seedling plum of the Chickasaw persuasion, 
in which he takes great pride. 

Washington College. — The attention of 
parents desiring a thoroughly good institution 
fortheeducationof their children, is invited to the 
advertisement of Washington College in another 
column. Youth of both sexes are received, 
separate buildings having been erected for each. 
Mr. and Mrs. Harmon are well known as edu- 
cators throughout this coast, as their 20 years of 
good work have spread their fame abroad. 
Students attend Washington College from nearly 
all the rural districts of the coast, north, south, 
and beyond the Sierras, and find a home-school 
which wins their love and esteem. The teachers 
of the college are selected with care, and its 
general reputation is thoroughly good. 

California Tree in Australia. — An article 
in the Melbourne Times gives notes of the 
growth of a California tree in the Melbourne 
botanic garden. We read that a tine specimen 
of our redwood may be seen towering up far 
above the roof of the brush sheds in the propa- 
gating department. This specimen is about 55 
ft. in hight, the circumference of stem at the 
base being 7 ft. 5 in. It has made rapid growth 
during the past four or five years, and is sup- 
posed to have been planted by Mr. John Dal- 
lachy when curator of the gardens, some 25 
years ago. 

At the Geysers. — From a party that visited 
the Geysers from Anderson Springs we learn 
that 160 persons were there on the Fourth, the 
largest collection of visitors ever known there. 
A large number of bathers and spectators were 
at the warm swimming baths in the forenoon. 
The road from Anderson Springs to the Gey- 
sers, some nine miles, is a wild and picturesque 
route. 



PRESS. 



The Filbert in Southern California. — 
The theory that the filbert will not do well in 
southern California seems likely to be exploded, 
that is if we may judge from the appearance of 
nearly 100 three-year-old bushes on the ranch 
of William Niles on Washington street, Los 
Angeles. These bushes are about nine ft. in 
bight, have a dense foliage of a beautiful light 
green, and give promise of a good and profit- 
able crop. We would be glad to learn the suc- 
cess of any others who have been experiment- 
ing with the filbert in this section. — Semi-Tropic 
California. 

Sales of Fine Stock. — Messrs. Peter Saxe 
& Son inform us of several sales since our last 
notice: To C. K. Lawton, Esq., of Santa Bar- 
bara, five "Jerseys," viz.: "Olema," "Yellow 
Rose," "Verity," "Surprise," and the bull 
"Mariposa;" this is an exceptionally fine herd of 
thoroughbreds. Also the Short Horn bull 
"Oliver," to Sidney Cushing, of Marin county. 
Also the Jersey bull "Invincible," to Sylvester 
Goold, of San Benito county. Also Berkshire 
pisg, one pair each, to L. H. Phillips, of Shasta 
county; and • 'has. H. Allen, of Santa Clara 
connty. 

Cherries. — Our full force has been regaled 
with a liberal shipment of cherries from the 
well-known orchard of W. H. Jessup, of Hay- 
wards. Mr. Jessup's trees have outdone them- 
selves this year, and show the results of the in- 
telligent attention which he has given them. 
His remembrance of our force of workers shows 
his heart as well as his fruit, and both are ap- 
preciated by us. 

Every new subscriber who does not receive 
the paper, and every old subscriber not credited 
on the label, within two weeks after paying for 
this paper, should write personally to the pub- 
lishers without delay, to secure proper credit. 
This is necessary to protect ourselves and sub- 
cribers against the acts and mistakes of others. 



The Prescott House, 

Corner of Kearny St. and Montgomery Avenue, is cer- 
tainly one of the best for the price in S. F. A good table 
s set, and the accommodations for lodgers are comforta- 
ble and commendable. The waiters are attentive, and 
their courtesy is exceeded only by that of the hospitable 
proprietor, Mr. Becker, who is obliging and attentive to 
all his patrons. The hotel is well situated, both for the 
convenience of business men in the city and visitors from 
the country. The latter will find it especially so, as the 
hotel is situated near the business center of the city, but 
yet in rather a quiet locality. Horse cars pass by the 
door every few minutes, which transfer to all parts of the 
city. A free coach to the hotel. Give th» house a call, 
and without doubt you will get your money's worth and 
continue your patronage. 



Quinine and Arsenic 

Form the basis of many of the Ague Remedies in the mar- 
ket, and are the last resort of physicians and people who 
know no better medicine to employ for this distressing 
complaint. The effects of either of these drugs are de- 
structive to the system, producing headache, intestinal 
disorders, vertigo, dizziness, ringing in the ears, and de- 
pression of the constitutional health. Ater's Ague Cure 
is a vegetable discovery, containing neither quinine, ar- 
senic, nor any deleterious ingredient, and is an infallible 
and rapid cure for evory form of Fever and Ague. Its 
effects are permanent and certain, and no injury can re- 
sult from its use. Besides being a positive cure for Fever 
and Ague In all its forms, it is also a superior remedy for 
Liver Complaints. Itisan excellent tonicand preventive, 
as well as cure, of all complaints peculiar to malarious, 
marshy and miasmatic districts. By direct action on the 
liver and biliary apparatus, it stimulates the system to a 
vigorous, healthy condition. 

For Sale dt all Dealers. 

Anderson Springs.— These celebrated hot and cold sul- 
phur, iron and soda springs are situated in the midst of a 
pine and spruce forest, in Lake county (a distance of 19 
miles from Calistoga, and 10 miles — by an excellent road — 
from thc'Oreat Geysers; the nearest and most accessible 
pine grove, to San Francisco and Sacramento), beside a 
living trout stream and surrounded by splendid mountain 
scenery; in the most invigorating and health-giving cli- 
mate in the State. Good attention is given to the health 
ana enjoyment of all visitor* Prices are very reasonable. 
Address Anderson Springs, Lake Co., Cal. 

Citizens op San Josh and vicinity, who wish thoroughly 
good dress making, at reasonable prices, are recom- 
mended to call at the establishment of Mrs. N. A. San- 
ders, just west of the Farmers' Union. 

Frbsh attractions are constantly added to Wood- 
ward's Gardens, among which is Prof. Gruber's great 
educator, the Zoographicon. Each department increases 
daily, and the Pavilion performances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder- 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 



Sample Copies —Occasionally we send copies of this 
paper to persons who we believe would be benefited by 
subscribing for it, or willing to assist us in extending its 
circulation. We call the attention of such to our pros- 
pectus and terms of subscription, and request that they 
circulate the copy sent. 



It will be a special favor to us if sub- 
scribers will forward their subscriptions at 
this time. Remember our terms are $3 a 
year if paid in advance. 



Extra Copies can usually be had of each issue of the 
paper, if ordered early. Price, 10 cents, postpaid. 



Forward your subscriptions, and pay for 
the "Rural" a year In advance at $3. 

The Tobemite is strictly first class and the leading hotel 

in Stockton. Prices moderate. Jas. Catkn, Propr. 



[July to, 1880. 



Note. — Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not Intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, Wednesday, July 7, 18S0. 

There is more direct interest manifested in the 
Wheat market, and a little more is being done. As shown 
by the Liverpool quotations below, there came a slight 
advance on Tuesday, and another point upward to-day. 
This makes a firmer feeling all around. General trade 
has hardly recovered from the Fourth of July holidays 
which really began on Saturday and continued until 
Tuesday. There was a general exit of business men to 
the various country resorts. 

Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been as 
recorded in the following table : 





Cal. Average. 


Club. 


Thursday 


8s 4d@9s 


id 


9s 


Sd@ 9s 


9d 


Friday 


Ss 3d@9s 


Id 


9s 


•-••U 98 


8d 


Saturday. . . . 


8s 4d@9s 


Id 


9b 


3d@ 9s 


9d 




8s 4d@9s 


Id 


9b 


Sd<a 9s 


9d 


Tuesday 


8s 6d(j»9s 


2d 


9s 


3d@ 9s 


9d 


Wednesday . 


8s 5d@9s 


2d 


9s 


4d@ 9s 


lOd 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare with same date in former years as follows: 

Average. Club. 
1878 9s lld@10s 3d 10s 3d@10s 9d 

1879 8s 6d@ 9s 3d 9s 2d@ 9a fid 

1880 8s 5d@ 9s 2d 9s 4d@ 9b lOd 

The Foreign Review. 

London, July 6 — The Mark Lane Express, reviewing 
the British Grain trade for the past week, says: The 
weather has been fairly seasonable and crops have made 
further steady progress, though advices relative to Oats 
are somewhat variable. The supply of English Wheat is 
very small, but difficult to sell, though holders willingly 
offered a concession of Is, and sometimes 2s, $ quarter. 
Imports of foreign Wheat were fair, not excessive, though 
granary stocks are reduced to almost an unprecedented 
point; yet as long as the arrivals suffice to meet the im- 
mediate wants of buyers they can afford to disregard the 
present moderate extent of arrivals, in confident anticipa- 
tion of future abundance, to which everything seems to 
point. The large continental demand has hitherto been 
the chief influence in favor of sellers, but as the French 
harvest is now almost due, continental needs must Bhortly 
cease to affect the situation. In short, the weather, de- 
spite some rain, has been too fine for trade. Wheat has 
declined Is to 2s on the week. Even Russian Wheat has 
fallen, despite the extreme scarcity. Business of all de- 
scriptions is very limited. Maize remains 23s fid ex ship. 
Arrivals at ports of call were moderate, and business was 
quiet, with a declining tendency until Friday, when 448 
wasaccepted for Red Winter cargoes. Since then, in conse- 
quence of broken weather, prices have decidedly improved 
in tone. A fair amount of business was done in Red Win- 
ters at 49s fid for cortinent, and 49s@49s 4d for United 
Kingdom. With more cargoes of Maize off the coast, 
prices declined to Is 6d@2s $ quarter. Very' little busi- 
ness was done in Wheat for shipment until the end of the 
week, when low prices brought buyers. Trade closes at 
an improvement of fid from lowest point. There is a 
moderate inquiry for Maize at a decline of about fid V 
quarter. 

Freights and Charters. 

There is little being openly done in ships. As nearly as 
can be ascertained the Cork rates for wooden ships ranges 
from £2 15s to £2 17b fid, and the price for iron ships is 

£3. 

Eastern Grain and Provision Markets. 

New York, July 4. — While there has been no unusual 
fluctuations in value, the general markets are somewhat 
irregular with an advantage in favor of buyers. Bread- 
stuffs, especially Wheat, is unsettled and higher/on con- 
tinued unfavorable crop reports which are received from 
the northwest and on the line of St. Paul and its connec- 
tions, where winter Wheat which was sown more this than 
in former years is suffering as much as spring Wheat did 
two years ago from blight and rust. The market closed 
less firm. Exports of Grain from this port still continue 
to increase, the shipment on Thursday being the heaviest 
on record, amounting in all to 1,264,477 bushels, cf which 
298,454 were Wheat. Provisions continue to advance 
under a speculative movement. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, July 4. — Wool remains very quiet — sales 
include 140,000 bales California Fall 21}@35c. 

Receipts of Domestic Produce. 
Tho following table Bhows the San Francisco receipts 
of Domestic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day. 
as compared with the receipts of previous weeks : 



Articles. 


Week. 


Week. 


Week. 


Wm. 


June 18. 


June 23. 


June 30. 


July 7. 


Flour, quarter sacks . . 


80,174 


85,104 


38,834 


26,316 




66,321 


41,354 


40,451 


26,737 




25.029 


9,007 


16,036 


4,642 




3,002 


10,006 


1,474 


101 




14,235 


6,624 


9,266 


836 




10,367 


4,166 


2,873 


1,327 




7,950 


8,802 


9,865 


1,441 




1,860 


1,658 


1,700 


7,227 




5,858 


4,938 


7,012 


3,113 " 


4 


18 


18 






760 


946 


962 


936 



BAGS — Grain Bags are a fraction lower, as shown in our 
list. There is but little life in the trade this week. 

BARLEY— Our Feed Barley pricea are raised 2Jc V ctl. 
We note sales: 700 sks good Brewing, 85c; 847 sks do, 
83Jc; 600 and 460 sks Bay Feed, 72Jc; 500 sks Coast, 70c; 
and 250 sks dark do at 68}c. 

BEANS— There is no chango in rates. 

CORN— White Corn is a shade higher, the beet lots har- 
ing sold as high as $1.42). There is however but very lit- 
tle doing. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— Considerable Butter arriving du- 
ring the holidays rather overstocked the market, and the 
tone is rather weak to-day, although there is no change in 
rates. Probably a day or two will clear up the surplus. 
Cheese is unchanged. 

EGGS — Eggs are quiet and unchanged. 

FRESH MEAT — Supplies are quite large, and the tone 
of the market is weak. A Blight reduction will be noticed 
in Beef and Yeal. 

HOPS— There is nothing new. Reports from the yard' 
on this coast continue favorable. In New York the trade 
is dull, and brewers well stocked for the present. 



uly 10, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



FRUIT— Our Fruit list shows a general cheapening of 
common Fruits, except where prices are sustained by the 
better qualities which are now arriving. California 
Lemons have advanced to $3@4 $ box. 
OATS— Oats are 5c lower, and they continue dull. 
ONIONS— All good Onions are now 60c $ ctl— a reduc- 
tion of 6c since last week. 

POTATOES— There are but few old Potatoes, and prices 
are nominal. New Potatoes are in good supply, and prices 
unchanged from last week. 

POULTRY AND GAME— There is no change in Fowls. 
A little Venison has come in, but no price is fixed yet. 
Rabbits and Hares are higher, but the market could soon 
be overstocked if the weather should turn warm. 

PROVISIONS — Cured Meats are quite firm, and in some 
brands of Eastern Hams there has been a slight advance. 

VEGETABLES — Our list shows a general change this 
week, mainly in the line of cheapening through abundance 
of the new things. Asparagus, Rhubarb and Green Peas 
have, however, arisen from their low estate. 

WHEAT— Our prices in the table represent old Wheat, 
as it is still too early to change. New Wheat is, however 
quoted by dealers as follows: No. 1, $1.50@1.55; No. 2, 
$1.40@1.46. Shippers are, however, slow to buy, and 
their bids of $1.40@1.42J-, do not secure much Grain. 
There have been sales of 200 ctls old Sonora for Cracked 
Wheat, 1,300 sks and 40 tons choice Milling at $1.55, and 
1,700 sks fair Milling at 81.47J $ ctl. 

WOOL — The trade in the city has proceeded upon the 
basis established last week, and there has been no change 
in rates. An account of the Wool sales at Cloverdale 
may be found in our "Agricultural Notes" under Sonoma 
county. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

[WHOLBSALH. 1 

Wbdnebday m., July 7. 1880. 



BEANS A PEAS. 

Mayo, otl 9o @1 05 

Butter 1 10 @1 15 

Castor 3 25 @3 50 

£*» 1 25 @1 35 

Red 95 @1 05 

Pink 95 @1 05 

Sm'l White 1 05 Ml 16 

Lima 6 50 (9)7 00 

Field Peas, b'lkeyel 25 @1 50 
do, green.. 1 10 @1 25 
BROOM CORN. 

Southern li@ 2 

Northern 2j<a 34 

CHICCORY, 

OaUforal* 4 @ 4 

German 64@ 7 

DAIRY PRODUCE, ETC 

BUTTER. 

Oal. Fresh Roll, lb 20 & 22 

Fancy Brands — <g 23 

Pickle RoU — § — 

Firkin, new - @ 224 

Western 

New York 

OHEE8K. 

Oheese. Oal, B>. . . . 
N. Y. State 

EGOS. 

Oal. fresh, doz.... 



8 i 


10 


20 & 


22 


17 @ 


18 


16 @ 


17 




18 


- @ 





Eastern, by erpr'ss. 

Pickled here 

Utah — @ — 

FEED. 

Bran, ton 12 50 @13 00 

Corn Meal (826 00 

Hay 6 00 @12 00 

Middlings <S16 00 

Oil Cake Meal. ..30 00 <§ 

Straw, bale 40 @ 474 

H OI It. 
Extra, City Mills.. 5 25 ®5 60 
do, Co'ntry Mllls.4 50 ^5 00 

do, Oregon 4 50 (34 75 

do, Walla Walla.4 60 @4 874 

Superfine 3 50 @4 00 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qual'y, tt> 6 @ 6 

Second 6 & 6 

Third 4 <§ i 

Mutton 3 & 3 

Spring Lamb 4 <k 5 

Pork, undressed... — (3 5 

Dressed 7i@ 7j 

Veal 6 @ 7i 

Milk Calves 6fg 6i 

do choice... 7 @ 71 
GRAIN. ETC. 
Barley, feed, otl... 67J@ 72j 
do, Brewing... 75 @ 87! 

Chevalier 1 20 @1 35' 

do, Coast.. 1 00 @l 15 

Buokwheat 2 25 @2 50 

Corn, White 1 30 @1 42) 

Yellow 1 10 @1 12l 

Small Round.... — @1 15' 

Oats 1 30 @1 45 

Milling — m 55 

Rye 65 @1 00 

Wheat, No. 1 1 574@1 62! 

do, No 2. 1 40 (§1 45' 

do. No. 3 — O - 

Choice Milling. . — ( 
HIDES. 

Hides, dry 17i< 

Wet saited 10 ( 

HONEY. ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 224l 

Honey in comb.... Ill 

do, No 2 — ( 

Dark — 

Extracted 

HOPS. 

Oregon 25 @ 30 

California, new ... 35 ® 40 

Wash. Ter 25 & 30 

Old Hops 6 @ 10 

fit IS -Jobbing. 

Walnuts, Oal 12 O 15 

do Chile 8 <fb 10 

Almonds, hd shl lb 8 (<* 10 

Soft sh'l 18 (8 20 

15 
17 
10 



@ 18 



@ — 



50 tg 



|1 62} 



Brazil 

Pecans. 

Peanuts 



54® 



14 @ 

16 @ 



Filberts 17 

ONIONS. 

Alviso — (ffl 

Union City ctl.... — <§ 

San Leandro — @ 

Stockton, new — @ 

Sacramento River. — @ 
POTATOES. 

Petaluma. otl — & 

Tomales — @ 

Humboldt 

" Kidney 

" Peachblow. 

Cuffey Cove: 

Early Rose, new., _ 
Half M n Bay .new 25 @ 

Alvarado, red — <c? - 

Sweet — @ — 

POULTRY A CAME. 

Hens doz 6 C0@ 7 00 

Roosters 5 00@ 8 00 

Broilers 2 50@ 4 00 

Ducks, tame, doz.. 3 00® 4 50 

Mallard — — 

Sprig — @ — 

Teal — @ — 

Widgeon - @ — 

e&se, pair 1 25@ 1 50 

Wild Gray, doz.. — § — 

White do — (g — 

Turkeys 14 @— 16 

do, Dressed 16 @— 18 

Snipe Eng — (&> 

do, Common. .. . — @— - 

Quail, doz — @ 

Rabbits 1 00 @ 1 25 

Hare 1 50 @ 2 00 

Venison — @ — — 

PROVISIONS. 

Cal. Bacon, extra 

clear, lb 11 @ 

Medium 11 

Light 12 

Lard 10i 

Cal. Smoked Beef 12 

Shoulders — 

Hams, Cal 11 

Dupee's 13 

None Such 13 _ 

WbittaKer 124@ 

Royal 14 <g 

Palmetto — @ 

H. Ames & Co... 131® 

Armour 13J@ 14 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 10 @ 12 

do, Chile 4 @ 6 

Canary 6 (d 6 

Clover, Red 14 & 15 

White 60 @ 55 

Cotton -■ @ 20 

Flaxseed 24@ 3 

Hemp - @ 10 

Italian Rye Grass 30 @ — 

Perennial 30 w — 

Millet, German... 10 @ 12 

do, Common . . 7 O 10 

Mustard. White... 3 @ 5 

Brown 1J@ 2 

Rape 3 <a 8 

Ky Blue Grass 20 @ 25 

2d quality 16 @ 18 

Sweet V Grass. ... — @ 75 

Orchard 20 @ 25 

Red Top — @ 15 

Hungarian 8 @ 10 

Lawn 30 @ 50 

Mesquit 10 <g 12 

Timothy — @ 10 

TALLOW. 

Crude, lb 58 <g 5i 

Refined 74 @ 7: 

Vf OOL. ETC. 

SPRING. 

Southern and San Joaquin. 

Long, free 23 @ 24 

Short, free 21 @ 23 

Seedy 18 (d> 20 

Slightly burry ... 21 @ 23 

Burry 19 @ 20 

Northern. 

Choice, free 28 @ 32 

Burry 25 @ 27 

Oregon. Eastern .. 23 (a 25 

do Valley 28 @ 30 



BAGS AND BAGGING. 

[JOBBING prices.] 

Wednesday m., July 7, 
Eng Standard Wheat. lOj-glOJ 
California Manufacture. 

Hand Sewed, 22x36.. 10J@10* 

22x40 12 @124 

23x40 — @13 I 

24x40 13J@14 

Machine Swd, 22x36. 10j(»10i 
Flour Sacks, halves.... 9 @10i 

Quarters 6 (S 1 

Eighths 4 @ 44 

Hessian. 60 inch — @14 



45 Inch 94(810 

40 inch 9 @ 9{ 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand Sewed, 34 tt>..— @50 

4 lb do 52J@55 

Machine Sewed — @50 

Standard Gunnies.... — @14 

Bean Bags 7 @ 74 

Twine, Detrick's A....— @35 
AA..-<a>37 
" Lonesdale, Ex...— @40J 
" Stand- @36 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sdtro & Co.] 

San Franoisoo, July 7. 3 P. M. 

Silver. }. 

Gold Bars, 89(Kg910. Silver Barb, 10@18 V oent. Is 
aount. 

Exchange on New York, 15, on London bankers, 49}@ 
494. Commercial, 60; Paris, five francs $ dollar: Mexican 
dollars, 92@93J. 

London Consols, 98 7 16; Bonds (4%), 110J. 

Quioksilyir Ic S. F.. br the flu k. $ lb, 424@45o. 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



FRVI MARKET. 

Apples, basket..— 40 @— 60 

do, box- — 75 &— 90 

do, Ast'can.bx 1 00 @ 1 25 

Apricots, bx 1 00 @ 1 124 

do Royal. 1 15 @ 1 25 
Bananas, bnoh.. 2 50 @ 4 00 
Blackber's, chst. 7 00 (§13 00 
Cherries — 5 @— 6 

" B. Tartar'n— 7 (<*— 8 
Cherry Plums, bx - 50 (<«— 75 

Citrons, Cal., 100 <tt 

Cocoanuts. 100. . 7 00 & 8 00 
Currants, chest.. 6 00 @ 6 50 

Figs, black — 10 @— 124 

Gooseberries....— 5® — 8 
Limes, Mex 7 00 m 8 no 

do, Cal, box. . . 1 75 @ 2 25 

do, large, box. 5 00 (3 7 00 
Lemons, Cal bx. 3 50 @ 4 00 

Sicily, box 8 00 @ 9 00 

Australian.... @ 

Oranges, Cal M.25 00 @35 00 
do, Tahiti... 30 00 @35 00 

do, Mexican — — @ 

Peaches, box.... 1 00 @ 1 75 
Pears, basket...— 50 @— 60 

do, box 1 00 <S 1 1 50 

Pineapples, doz. 7 00 (5) 8 00 
Raspberries, ch't 4 50 @ 6 00 
Strawber's.ch'st. 8 00 ®10 00 

Sugar Cane, bdle @ 2 50 

DRIED FRUIT. 
Apples, sliced, lb 10 <» 11 

do, quartered. 8 @ 9 

Apricots 15 ®— 18 

Blackberries.... — (35 15 

Citron 23 @ 24 

Dates 9 ® 10 

Figs, pressed 7 @ 8 

do, loose 4 @ 6 

Peaches...; 12 @ 13 



[WHOLESALE.! 

Wednesday m.. July 7, 1880 



do pared ... 18 20 

Pears, sliced 9 W> 10 

do, peeled... 9 @ 11 

Plums 4 @ 5 

Pitted 15 @— 17 

Prunes 12J@ 13 

Raisins, Cal, bx — @ 1 50 
do. Halves... 1 75 @ 2 00 
do, Quarters.. 2 00 <» 2 25 

Eighths 2 25 @ 2 50 

Lond'n Lay'rs bx — @ 2 00 
do. Halves.. 2 25 @ 2 50 
do, Quarters 2 50 (» 2 75 
do, Eighths. 2 75 @ 3 00 
Zante Currants.. 8 ® 10 

VEGETABLES.' 
Asparagus, bx...— 75 Q> 1 00 

Beets, ctl @ 1 00 

Beans, String...— 3 @— 34 
Fountain.— 4 @— 5 

Wax — 5 @— 6 

Cabbage, 100 lbs ®— 75 

Carrots, sk — 40 @— 50 

Cauliflower, doz— 50 
Chile Peppers, lb.— 15 
Cucumbers, doz 
Egg Plants, lb. . . 
Garlic, New, tt>..— 3 <§— 4 
Green Corn, doz.— 124®— 20 
Green Peas, lb . .— 2|<g 

Lettuce, doz 10 ~ 

Mushrooms, ft>.. 

Parsnips, lb 

Horseradish 6 „ 

Rhubarb, bx 50 ®— 75 

Squash, Marrow 

fat, tn — — @ 

Summer box.. 1 25 @ 1 50 

Vacaville — 75 @— 85 

Tomato, lb — 8 ®— 10 

Turnips, otl — 50 @— 60 

White — 50 ®— 60 



i- 60 
- J- 20 
20 @— 30 
.— 10 ®— 124 



The Mechanics' fair baity. 

By authority of the Board of Managers of 
the Mechanics' Institute Fair the publishers 
of the Mining and Scientific Press will issue 
a large edition of the ELEVENTH VOLUME 
of the Mechanics' Fair Daily during the Fif- 
teenth Industrial Exhibition, which opens 
in San Francisco, Tuesday, August 10th, 1880. 

It will be of large size, printed and circulated 
free in the Pavilion, and contain the day and 
evening programme, a list of exhibits, and offi- 
cial bulletin of the Institute. 

Its columns will embrace a large variety of 
important industrial and scientific information, 
illustrations and well written descriptions of 
the general features and most deserving and 
novel exhibits in the Fair, a record of the Fair 
and incidents of its daily progress — gay, serious 
and comic — as they occur. 

The best of editorial, reportorial and corres- 
ponding talent will be employed, with a view to 
make the paper of live interest in all its depart- 
ments and of standard value as a full record of 
the great exhibition, the wonderful inventions, 
rich resources and rapid progress of our great 
Western Community. 

More than One Hundred Thousand differ- 
ent individuals will read copies of our paper 
during the Fair. The novel character of the 
journal — the specially attractive features of its 
free issue in the Pavilion, and its absorbing in- 
terest to visitors at the Fair, the attention its 
columns command when brought into the shop 
and family circle by those who receive it freely 
at the Fair, make the paper a powerful adver- 
tising medium. 

The Managers have granted us the exclusive 
advertising and printing ■privileges, and will re- 
ceive no advertising in (lie official catalogue and 
reports. 

Our ten previous volumes have met with un- 
rivaled success and gratifying results to adver- 
tisers, nearly all of whom were leading and 
first-class business firms. 

Many thousands of marked copies were sent 
by mail and otherwise to friends near and dis- 
tant, giving the Fair Daily a mere broadcast 
and universal circulation than^any other news- 
paper published. 

Its columns are more closely examined 
throughout than those of any ordinary publica- 
tion. 

By past experience, ample facilities, and a 
fair reputation of doing business in our line, we 
expect, with the reasonable support of all natu. 
rally interested in the success of our enterprise, 
to make the coming volume superior to its pre- 
decessors, and eminently satisfactory to the 
Institute, to our patrons and to the general 
public, who are more or less benefited by such 
an advocate of the substantial advancement of 
the grand and worthy industries of our coast. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

Office, Mining and Scientific Press, No. 
202 Sansome street, N. E. corner Pine, San 
Francisco. 



Commission Merchants. 



DALTON & GRAY, 

Commission Merchants 

And Wholesale Dealers in all kinds of 

Country Produce, Traits, Etc. 

404 and 406 Davis St., 
Bet. Washington and Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. 



CHAS. RYHNER, 

fMember of the S. F. Produce Exchange. 

GENERAL COMMISSION MERCHANT. 

— Dealer in — 

FLOUR. GRAIN, FEED AND PRODUCE. 

216 Davis Street, 
Between Clay and Commercial, - - SAN FRANCISCO. 
Consi nments of all kinds of Produce solicited. 



PAGE, MOORE & CO., 

WOOL and GRAIN 

Commission Merchants. 

NOS. 211 AND 213 CLAY STREET, 

San Francisco. 




Liberal advancea on consignments. 
Wool Sacks, Twine, Shears, and Ranch Supplies furnished 



Beautiful Cam- 
paigii Badeesof too 
Democratic and 
Republican Prcsi 
dential Candidates 
nominated at Cin- 
cinnati and Chica- 
go. These 



BADGES! 

mental Badpea contain life-like photographs of the candidates 
encased in pretty miniaturo gilt frames, with pin lor attaching to 
the vest or lappel of coat. Everybody should wear one during tho 
eniulng campaign. Active agents can make $10 per day selling 
them, as hundreds can bo Bold in every town and village in tha 
country. Price, 6 cts. each (or two :j ct. stamps). 2 for 10 eta. 12 for 
40cts. 100, $3. 5dO t $1>-'. 60. 1,000 for $20. Sent by mail post- 
paid. Photographs of either candidates, mounted on fine cards, full 
album size, at earn© prices as the badges : full cabinet size, 6>£x4>£ 
Inches, beautifully burnished, ] 5 cts. each, 2 for 25 cts., $1 per doz. 
$7 per hundred, mailed poBt-paid. Make your own selections, and 
send db clean postage stamps of any denomination^ ad wo prufee 
them to silver. Address al 1 orders to 

Eureka Trick and Novelty Co., 
P. O. Box 4614. 39 Ann St., New York. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

Rbfbrrn on. — Tradesmen's National Bans, N. T.; Ell 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
mento, Cal.; A. Lusk & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 



SIMON SWEET & CO., 
Wholesale Commission Merchants, 

GItAIN, POTATOES, FRUIT, BUTTER, EGGS, POUL- 
TRY, GAME, WOOL, WOOL BAGS, HIDES, 
PELTS, BEANS, TWINE, TALLOW, etc., 
and CALIFORNIA and OREGON 
PRODUCE of ALL KINDS. 
227 & 229 Washington St., San Francisco. 
Consignments Solicited. 



JAMES B. SHEAT, 

(Member ol the S. F. Produce Exchange. 

Commission Merchant and General 
Purchasing Agent. 

416 & 418 Davis Street, S. P. 

Consignments of Grain, Wool and all Country Produce so- 
licited. Also orders for purchasing Merchandise, Sacks, Im- 
plements, etc., promptly attended to. itdfT'Iteferences— Wm. 
T Coleman & Co., The Grangers' Bank, J. W. Grace & Co., 
Lynde & Hough. 



$1,000 REWARD 

FOR ANY WASHING MACHINE that will wash 
cleaner, quicker, with less labor and wear and tear of 
clothes, than the ROBBINS FAMILY WASHER AND 
BLEACHER, patented October 3, 1871. No rubbing re- 
quired. It is the best in the world, and cannot get out 
of order. GOOD AGENTS WANTED, BOTH 
MALE AND FEMALE . Send for descriptive cir- 
culars and testimonials. Price, SI 00. delivered at SAN 
FRANCISCO, SACRAMENTO, MARYSVILLE or SAN 
JOSE. 

BISSELL MANUFACTURING CO., 

50 Barclay St ., New York . 

The Excelsior Animal Trap 

Is Guaranteed to be the Best 

GOPHER TRAP 




Ever invented. The Gopher 
raises the light trigger with 
his head or dirt without the 
least alarm. Ask your dealer 
for it. Agents wanted. Sent 
by mail for 81, By exDresf, 
C. O. D., for SO per doz " Ad- 
dress, G. W. JOLLY, Tataiso 
Springs, Cal. Pat. apld for 



M. VULICEVICH, 
Importer and Commission Merchant 

IN 

FOREIGN and DOMESTIC FRUIT. 

Removed from B20 & 522 Sansome St. , to 
504 Front St., S. F. 



Pav Cash in advance— $3 a year for the 
Rural Press. Credit rates, $4. 

General Purchasing Agent, James B. Sheat, 416 and 
418 Davis St., S. F. 



JOHN JENNINGS. 
Hooper's South End Grain Warehouses, 

Cor. Japan and Townsend Sts., S. F. 
First-class Fire-proof Brick Building. Capacity, 10,000 
tons. Goods taken from the Dock and the Cars of the C. P. 
R R. and S. P. R. R. free of charge. Storage at Current 
Rates. Advances and Insurance effected. 

TO SEEDSMEN. 
Yellow Danvers Onion Seed 

From selected stock, crop 1S80. Raised and for sale in 
Quantities to suit by JOS. HALE, 

Stockton, Cal. 



Bound Volumes of the Press.— We have a few sets of 
the back files of the Pacific Rural Press, which wo will 
sell for $3 per (half-yearly) volume. In cloth and leather 
binding, $5. These volumes, complete, are scarce, aifB 
valuable for future reference and library use. 

Engraving done ni this office. 



E. DETRICK. 



J. H. NICHOLSON 



E. DETRICK <& CO., 

SOLE PROPRIETORS AND MANUFACTURERS OF THE CELEBRATED 

DETRICK "E W" 22x36 GRAIN BAG. 

CALCUTTA, DUNDEE and PACIFIC JUTE HAND-SEWED BAGS always on hand. 
OUR No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 SECOND-HAND GRAIN BAGS selected aud graded with care. 



H l W TTTkTTCf 3, 4 and 5-ply for Grain Bags, 6 and 8-ply for Potato Gunnies, 3-ply extra fine for Flour 
X V¥ jLJ^j X*td* Bags, made expressly for our trade and QUALITY GUARANTEED. 

FLOUR BAGS printed to order without extra charge. POTATO GUNNIES, Woo), Bean, Ore and 
Salt and Seamless Cotton Bags. 

Sole agents west of the Rocky Mountains for Russell Manufacturing Company's 

Patent Solid Cotton Belting, 

iST CHEAPER THAN LEATHER OR RUBBER, AND BETTER THAN EITHER, "m 

119, 121 and 124 Clay St., and 118 and 120 Commercial St, San Francisco 



RECORD OF SUPERIORITY. 

1878— AWARDED ^sasm^ 18,0 AWARDED 

J. H. STROBRIDGE, fflPlllb*^ " STROBRIDGE, 

Pen 5— Breeding Ew". "■ .$22.50 ^ Braffl WHBHBlBHItt^ Pen 5— Breeding Ewes $22.50 

Pen 5— Yearling Ewes 22.50 TgFY Pun 5- Yearling Ewes 22.50 

Fen 5— Fw3 Is.n-.bs. £>.jj0 t^wW^ j ' ' ' ' ''" ^ 

KniuaiMlliv'I.f ^^H|H|^Bj^H 22.50 

For best Ram ol anj age or breed, |ia)|(||Tffl| l'» jKB For best Ram and five of his 

and fivo of his Lambs 75.00 «(J!Bi*(!6^BalW*^^»awte Lambs, of any age or breod 75.00 

THOROUGHBRED SPANISH MERINO SHEEP. 

We offer for sale this season 100 head Superior Rams. Yearlings and two-year-olds. Also 100 head Yearling Ewes and 
50 head aged Ewes. These shaep are all free from disease. Are LONG STAPLED, WHITE WOOLBD and HEAVY 
SHEARERS. Have a faultless constitution. Are larger and In better condition tnan any llock of Thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Sheep in the State. Prices the same as last year. Orders by mail promptly filled. Our Ranch is only 14 miles from 
Oakland by rail. Trains running each way every few hours. J. II. STROBRIDGE. Haywards, Alameda. Co., Cal. 
E. W. Feet, Agent. 



30 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[July 10, 1880. 



Educational. 



THE 

BERKELEY GYMNASIUM. 

A BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL. 

Classical, Literary and Scientific. 

This institution has the patronage of the 

BEST FAMILIES OF THE COAST. 

The Fourth School Year Begins on 

MONDAY, JULY 12th. 

For list of References and full discussion of Depart- 
ments of Education 

APPLY FOR CATALOGUE TO 
JOHN F. BURRIS, Superintendent. 

BERKELEY, CAL 



CALIFORNIA 

MILITARY ACADEMY 

AT OAKLAND. 

The Next Session Will Begin 
July 19th, 1880. 

Rev. DAVID McCLURE, Ph. D., Principal. 

Oakland, Cal. 



Presoott House, 



THE DECEIT 

Classical & English School, 

1265 Franklin St., Oakland Cal. 
The Sixth Year Begins July 14th. 

This School prepares hoys for the State University or 
Eastern Colleges. X one of our students has erer failed 
to pass the entrance examinations. There are no board- 
ers, hut board will be found in select private families, 
for those who may desire it. Manj* of our best students 
have bi en from the country. 

For Catalogues address the Principal, 

GEORGE FREDERIC DEGEN, A. M.. 

Oakland, Cal. 



SACKETT 

BOARDING SCHOOL FOR BOYS. 

Fits Boys thoroughly for the 

University of California, for College or for 
Business. 

The best instruction is provided by Teachers of Expc 
rience and ability. 

Location most healthful and home equipment un- 
equalled by any Boys' School in the State. 

For Catalogue, address the 

Principal, D. P. SACKETT. A. M. 

No. 529 Ilobart St.. Oakland, Cal. 



W E Chamberlain, Jr. 



Thos. A. Robinson 




Life Scholarships, i&7 O. 

*^-SEND FOR CIRCULAR. -Si* 



HOME SCHOOL 

YOUNG LADIES, 

1825 Telegraph Avenue, Oakland, California. 
The next Year will begin on Wednesday, July 21, 1S80. 
MISS H. N. FIELD, Principal. 

MISS COCHRANE'S SCHOOL 

FOR YOUNG LADIES AND CHILDREN. 

No. 1036 Valencia St., S. F. 

The next session will open August 4, 1880. Boarding 
Pupils limited to Ten. For terms apply to 

M. B. COCHRANE, Principal. 



MRS. POSTON'S SEMINARY, 

Oak St., bet. Tenth & Eleventh, Oakland. 
THE NEXT SCHOOL YEAR BEGINS 

Wednesday, Jnly 28th, 1880 

E. C. POSTON, Principal. 



Agricultural Books. 

Orders for Agricultural and Scientific Books in general 
will be suppli. d through this office, at published rates. 

Dewey & Co. {sJ5£s^ IPatent Ag'ts 




S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Ave., San Francisco. 

O. F. BECKER, Proprietor. 

El 4S"Free Coach to the House 



Nathaniel Chirr y <fc Bro., 

113 Sansome Street. San Francisco, 





Sole Agents for the 

Sharps Rifle Co., of Bridgeport, Conn. 

FOR CALIFORNIA, OREGON, ARIZONA, NEVADA, WASHINGTON TEKR1TORY AND IDAHO. 

Also Agents for W. W. GREENER'S Celebrated Wedgefast, Chokebore, Breech-loading DOUBLE GUNS; an. 
all kinds of GUNS, RIFLES and PISTOLS made by the Leading Manufacturers of England and America. 
AMMUNITION of all kinds In quantities to suit. 



BAYLEY'S IMPROVED SPREADER. 



MANUFACTURED AT 



Jackson's Agricultural Works, 



Sixth and Bluxome Streets, 



San Francisco, Cal. 




This improvement was invented by T. R. Bayley a practical Thresher, and used hy him and several of his neighbors 
during theueason of 1879, in Colusa and adjacent counties, giving entire satisf action to both the Threehernicn and Farmers 
in all kinds of Grain. 

I have conducted a Berien of experiments durinir the past winter, to determine the proper proportions, size and strength 
required, and to provide some means of adjustment within the immediate control of the operators, with most nattering 
results. 

The above cut is a good illustration of the Distributer, showing how it can ho raised and lowered instantly while in mo- 
tion by a simple lever within reach of the separator man or the haudowns. 

It will spread any kind of grain, save the labor of one man. and do more and better work than three men. because it 
never tircB or gets dizzy looking at the grain pass it. Will make ten motions to a man's one. and always just deep, and 
never too deep, in short, it will do just what is required. 

Sold at $60. Guaranteed to satisfy, the purchaser, if not it can be returned after ten days' trial, provided it is packed In a 
snug package and delivered at the nearest freight depot properly addressed. 

BYRON JACKSON, 

Sixth and Bluxome Streets, San Francisco, Cal. 




Importing to and breeding 
PETER SAXE, ) 
H. POLK SAXE, )T 



PETER SAXE <&, SON, 

IMPORTERS AND BREEDERS OF 

Thoroughbred Live Stock, 

Horses, Cattle, Berkshire Hogs and Pigs, and Sheep. 

We can fill ordersat any 
time for the best families 
of PURE BERKSHIRES, 
"Short Horns," and "Jer- 
sey or "Alderney" Cattle, 
Jacks and Mules, Spanish 
and French Merino, Cots- 
wold and SHROPSHIRE 
SHEEP. 

jtJTAII at moderate pricts 
and perfectly pedigreed, 
on this coast has been a specialty with us for the past 10 years. 45rSatisfactlon guaranteed. 

Address Lick Bouse, San Francisco, 





ALBERT DICKINSON, 

Dealer in Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Red Top, 
Blue Grass, Lawn Grass, Orchard Grass, Bird Seeds,Etc. 
POP CORN. 

115. 117 and 119 Klnzie Street. CHICAGO. ILLINOIS. 



CO Gold, Crystal, Lace, Perfumed ft Chromo Cards.n'ame I TTOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
\J& in gold and jet, 10c. Clinton Bros., Clintonrille, Ct I XTen Cents. STEVENS BROS., Northford, Conn. 



THE 

BEST NEW MUSIC BOOKS. 

For High Schools. 

The Welcome Chorus. «-oo 

By W. S. Tildes. Just out. 
For Seashore or Mountains. 

Gems of English Song; 
Cluster of Gems, %«\2XZ°' 1 » 

strumental Bound Volumes of Sheet Music. All th« 
same price. 

For Sunday School Conventinni. 

White Robes. po*i 

By Abbey and Munoer. Very popular. 
For Choirs, Conrcntions, Singing Classes 

Yoke of Wors iip. iwuo.&w«. 
The Temple, bj-w . . m«». 

Examine for your Fall Classes. 

For Amateur Per/ormeri. 
Sorcerer, ($1 00). Bells of Cornevllle, ($1.60> 
Pinafore. (50c), and many other Operas and Cantatas. 

Anv book sent, post-free, for the retail price. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., BOSTON. 

C. H. Dit8on & Co.. 843 Broadway. N. Y. 



MAST,FOOS&CO. 

SPRINGFIELD, 0. 




MAM'KAi Tl'MKLS OF THE 



IRON TDRBINE 

EnIineS 



Strong and Durable 

WILL. NOT 
SHRINK, SWELL, 

WARP, or 
BATTLE in the Wind 

ALSO, TBS 

* t ^& BUCKEYE 
mm force 

PUMP 

Never Frees., in 
. Winter Tint,, 
gj » •»; Send for our 
Circular* and 
Price List. 

To D. B. GOLDSMITH, 
General Agent for the Pacific Coast. 

419 Sansome Street. - SAN FRANCISCO. 



OIL PORTRAITS. 

— The Best — 

At Lussier & Hill's New Studio, 

No. 6 Eddy Street, rooms 90 and 100, 
Opposite Baldwin Hotel. 

Portraits in Oil at all prices from $15 to $1,000, to suit 
the customer. Satisfaction guaranteed in all cases. 

P. 8.— Special attention is called to our Portraits from 
Photographs of deceased persons. 

Come in and see our work, everybody. 

San Francisco, Cal. 



Books on Agriculture, Etc. 

The following among other books will be sent post-paid on 
receipt of publishers' prices, annexed:— Tobacco, its culture, 
manufacture and use, 500 pages. $3.50;— The Patrons of Hus- 
bandry, 500 pases, $3.75;— The Women of the Bible. 77 en- 
gravings, $4;— Wells' Every Man His Own Lawyer, 612 pages, 
$2.75;— American Husbandry, 2 vol., $1.50;- Gray's Agricul- 
tural Essays, $1;— Langstroth's Honey lice, $1.50;— Randall's 
Sheep Husbandry. $1.50;— Agricultural Engineering, $1.50; 
New Bee-Keepers' Text Book, $1;- Pacific Kural Hand- 
book, $1;— Roup's Easy Calculator. $1;— U. S. Land Law. 
50 Cts. ;— Woodward's Graperies, Etc., $1;— Sugar from 
Melons, 25 CtB.;— Strawbrrry Culture, 50 CtB.;— Layrea 
Belles Lettres, $1;— Holt's Map of California and Ne- 
vada, to subscribers, $1;— Back Volumes Pacific Rural 
Press (bound) $5; unbound, $3;— Picturesque Arizona, $2 
Address DEWEY A CO.. Publishers. 202 Sansome St.. 8. F 



Traveling Agents. 

We want several canvassing agents who will 
make it their business to solicit subscriptions 
and advertising for our first-class progressive 
newspapers. Men of ability and experience can 
secure good pay and permanent employment. 
Send references and state your past occupation, 
etc., to the publishers of this paper. 



California Inventors 



Should con- 
sult DEWEY 
CO., Amer- 
ican AMD Foreign Patent Solicitors, for obtaining 
Patents and Caveats. Established in 1860. Their long 
experience as journalists and large practice as patent 
attorneys enables them to offer Pacific Coast inventors 
far better service than they can obtain elsewhere. SeDd 
for free circulars of information. Office of the Mining 
and Scientific Press and Pacific Rural Prsss, No. 202 
Sansome St. , San Francisco. 



Inventors, and others interested, will receive Dkwbt 
ft Co. 's Mini.no and Scientific Press Patent Aosnct 
Circular free on application at this office. It contains 42 
pages of hints and information about Patents, Patent 
Laws, Patent Office Regulations, and how to obtain valid 
patents. 



july 10, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



31 



Agricultural Articles. 



W. H. Carbon. 



John D. Winters 



WOODLAND 

Agricultural Implement Manufactory, 

Woodland, Yolo County, Cal. 




The undersigned manufactures the WINTER'S DER- 
RICK, the reputation of which is now established, having 
been in constant use for the last four years. 

Also WINTER'S HAY PRESS, the most economical 
Press now in use. Ten tons of hay from this Press can be 
put into a car. Price, .f200. 

Also TOP DRAPER for Header Spout. This Draper pre- 
vents the wind from blowing the straw away and wasting 
wheat. No reaching down the Spout to assist elevation. It 
will elevate down grain as well as standing grain. Price, $30. 

WINTERS & CARSON. 



The Famous "Enterprise," 

PERKINS* PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixtures. 

These Mills and Pumps 
reliable and always give sat- 
isfaction. Simple, strong and 
durable in all parts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double hearings for the crank 
to work in, all turned an 
run in babbitted boxes. . 

Positively self regulating 
with no coil spring or springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
Joints, levers or balls to get 
out of order, as such things 
do. Mills in use six to nine years in good order now, tbat 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands In 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infor- 
mation, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LIVERMORE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINPORTH, RICE 
& CO., 401 Market Street. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 





Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match in 
Stockton, In 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who have 
been long in the business and know what ia required in the 
construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. Suf- 
ficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over cradle 
knolls without changing the working position of the shares. 
It is so constructed that the wheels themselves govern the 
action of the Plow correctly. It has various points of supe- 
riority, and can be relied upon as the best and most desira- 
ble Gang Plow in the world. 

Iron Founders, Machinists and Manufacturers of Improved 
Agricultural Implements. General Jobbing and repairing 
done in the best manner at moBt reasonable rates. Send for 
circular to MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton. Cal. 



HAY PRESSES. 

GOVE'S PATENT 
Centennial and Eagle Improved Presses, 

For Farmer's use. Capacity, 10 to 15 tons per day. 
Combining strength and durability. Easily moved. Will 
be sold low for the cash 

Price, $175. 

For Circulars or Orders address JOHN H. GOVE, 
Eureka Warehouse, Box 1,122, or of DAVID N.. HAW- 
LEY, 201 and 203 Market St., cor Main, S. F. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to $1.60 per gallon. For directions and tes- 
timonials apply to FALKNER, BELL & CO., 
Sole Agents, 430 California Street, S. F. 



Eft Per/umtd gilt edge & chromo Cards, inelegant case, name 
H\l la gold, lOo. Atlantio Card Co., E. Wauingford, Ot 



The American Exchange Hotel. 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 

eet. next adjoining Bank of Californi; 
of the great city. 

Sansome Street is one of the finest and principal business streets in S. F. 



Is situated on Sansome street, next adjoining Bank of California, and is in the very center 

of the great city. 



Iffllfiftfitifw 

AMERICAN EVCHANCE fc^ZS i 

kllilfURttlw 



The Hotel is situated within two blocks of the U. S. Land Office and U. S. Surveyor General's Office; also within 
two blocks of the City Hall, Supreme Court and all the District Courts; within two blocks of the Postoffice and 
Custom House. All places of amusement are convenient to the Hotel. Street cars for all parts of the city pass the 
Hotel every minute. 

THE AMERICAN EXCHANGE HOTEL 

Having been recently renovated and refurnished throughout is in everv respect the BEST FAMILY HOTEL in San 
Francisco. It has Two Hundred Rooms, well \ entilated and neatly furnished, and being easy of access, fire-proof 
and sunny, is decidedly the Hotel for comfort and convenience for the traveling public. 



THOS. POWELL'S ELECTRIC ELEVATOR. 




The greatest labor-saving' Ma- 
chine now in use. Scatters no 
Grain out while unloading. 
Large stacks can be made. Men 
work cheap with this Machine, 
and a boy can do a man's labor. 
The time is one and a half min- 
utes to unload. A header will 
cut five acreB more in a day by 
not waiting for a wagon. There 
are fewer stack bottoms in a 
field. The ground ' for stacks is 
not cut up by tbe wagon, and no 
Grain is lost. Several Hundred 
are now in use. Send for Cir- 
cular and Price List. Address 

1 BIOS. POWELL, Patentee, 



H. CtSHAW£PLOW WORKS, 
Stockton, Cal. 



AT WORK 




Fairbanks' Scales. 

[PORTABLE PLATFORM SCALES, 

SUITABLE FOR 

Weighing Hay, CS-rain, Dairy Produce, Etc. 




All Sizes. 240 to 3,000 lbs. Capacity. 

FAIRBANKS & HUTCHINSON, 

417 Market street, San Francisco. 



In consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrins. 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature 

thus. 



which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which 7ione is genuine. 

Ask for LEA & PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester ; Crosse and B/ackwell, London, 
cr*c, &"c. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen throughout the World. 

To be obtained of GROSS & CO.. San Francisco. 



Save Money by Using THE CALIFORNIA SPRING TOOTH HARROW. 



Read the Following 
Testimonials: 

Sacramento, Jan. 29, 1880. 
Messrs. Batchelor, Van Gelder 
<Ss Co.: 

Gents:— This is to certify that 
I have tried the Spring Tooth 
Harrow on summer-fallow vol- 
unteer and winter plowed land, 
and am pleased to say that it 
does better work than any 
Harrow that I have used, es- 
pecially on land that has been 
plowed for a length of time 
and has become compact. 
Respectfully yours, 

H. M. LA KUE. 

Pres. State Ag'l Society. 

San Josh, Dec. 30, 1879. 
Batchelor, Van Gelder <fc Co: 

Gents:— This certifies that I 
have this day purchased a 
Spring Tooth Harrow, after 
having tested it to my entire 
satisfaction; and cheerfully say 




tbat 1 consider it superior to 
any implement I have ever 
seen for thorough cultivation 
of the earth, and that they are 
just what every man with an 
orchard, vineyard or wheat field 
needs. Yours trulv, 

JOSEPH ARAM. 



I fully concur with the above. 
MARK FARNEY. 

Bend for Circulars and Testi- 
monials or come to our office, 
and we will occupy your time 
for a day with similar matter. 

Batchelor, 

" 'Van Gelder & Co., 

Manufacturers. 
902 K Street SACRAMENTO. 



STILL AHEAD! 




Three sizes - warranted to clean from 60 to 150 bushels per 
hour perfectly. 

Has tak'-'u the First Premium at California State Fairs 
from 1870 to 1880. 

THE NASH & CUTTS 
Improved Grain Cleaner 

Will not only separate mustard seed, cheat, barley, oats 
cracked wheat, etc., in a satisfactory manner, but is alike 
successful in cleaning alfalfa and flaxseed, ft teat performed 
by no similar machine. Will also clean FASTER and BET- 
TER, with less TROUBLE and WORK than any other 
Cleaner now in use. 

Reasons Why Farmers Prefer Our 
Cleaner to any Other. 

1st. THE IMPROVED NASH & CUTTS GRAIN 
CLEANER is built solely for cleaning California-raised 
Grain or Seed. 

2d. Being located here, we know what is wanted much 
better than Eastern manufacturers. 

3d. As the Factory is in Sacramento, extras can be or- 
dered without delay, requiring only the Number and Date 
of the Cleaner. 

Farmers and Dealers are particularly cautioned against 
spurious imitations. Be sur« that the one you buy bears this 
Trade Mark: "THE IMPROVED NASH & CUTTS GRAIN 
CLEANER." All others are frauds. See that it is manu- 
factured by "H. D. NASH & CO., Sacramento, Cal. 

We mention the abnve for the protection of our customers 
who want the GENUINE. Every Cleaner fully warranted. 

Prices at Factory— No. 1, §33; No. 2, $40; No. 3, $55. For 
further particulars address 

H. D. NASH & CO., 

906 K Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

Sole manufacturers of " The Improved Nash & Cutts Grain 
Cleaner" on the Pacific coast. 

£3T We also make a Cleaner to attach to Threshing Ma- 
chines that will clean ALL any Machine can thresh. 

Baker & Hamilton, General Agents, San Francisco and 
Sacramento, Cal. 



A Valuable Invention* 

TYLER'S PATENT 

Hay and Grain Unloader, Stacker, Barn 
Tiller and Distributer. 

THE HAYMAKER'S FRIEND. 




JERRY TYLER. Sole Prop., Milford, Lassen Co., Cal. 



SI COOKE. R. J. COOKE 

PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 
ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

1ST Communications Promptly Attended to. 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cook* & Greqoby 

Jackson's Agricultural Machine Works 

AND FOUNDRY, 

6th and Bluxome Sts.. near S. 

Manufacturer of Feeders and 
Elevators, with recently invented 
Spreader. Horse Forks for Head- 
ings or Hay. Folding Derricks. 
Hoadley Straw-Burner and Auto- 
matic Cut-off Governor for Por- 
table Engine. Separator Shoes 
and Repairs. WINDMILLS for 
Stockmen and Gardeners. Buy 
and sell second-hand Thresheis 
and Engines. Machine Castings 
a specialty. Address 

BYRON JACKSON, Prop'r. 




IMPROVED MACHINES 



FOR LAYING 



Asbestine Sub-Irrigation Pipe 

For sale at Davisville, Yolo County, Cal. 
Apply to L. A. GOULD. 

pn Chromo, perfumed. Snowflake& Lace cards, name on all 
OU 10c Game Authors. 15c. Lyman it Co., Clintonvllle, Ct 



32 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July 10, 1880. 



IRRIGATED LA ND TRIUMPHANT! 

From all parts of the Stato where wheat has been irrigated, reports como that bountiful crops of plump ^'rain have been secured by irrigation, in spit") of the north winds, which have reduced the crop of wheat on lands not 

irrigated, and in the same localities, from •ne-quarter to only a crop of hay. 

WITH IRRIGATION A LARGE CROP OF PLUMP WHEAT AND A MORE VALUABLE ONE OF EGYPTIAN CORN CAN BE GROWN IN ONE SEASON. NO FAILURE OF CROPS. 

The Best Vineyard Land, in California. 



FLOODING THE ONLY REMEDY AND SURE DEATH TO THE PHYLLOXERA! 

A few choice farms of rich bottom land of 320, 160, 80, 40 and 20 acres each, all irrigated, in the 

EASTERBY RANCHO, FRESNO COUNTY, 

For gale at $40 to 850 per acre, including water rights, payable in 1, 2, 3 and 4 years. Interest, 9 per cent, per annum. This is without doubt the richest land in Fresno county. It has produced 50 bushels wheat per acre; two crops 

of grain a year; five crops of alfalfa in one season, and will produce 10 TONS OF GRAPES PER ACRE, as at the Eisen Vineyard adjoining. DONT FAIL TO EXAMINE IT. 

Send for Maps and Circulars (Free) to office of M. THEO. KEARNEY, Manager, 12 Montgomery St. (up stairs), S. F. 



Scientific Press 




PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats Died expeditiously 
Patent re-issues taken out; Assignments made and re- 
cordcd.in legal form; Copies of Patents and Assignments 
procured; Examinations of Patents made here and at 
Washington; Examinations made of Assignments re- 
corded in Washington; Examinations ordered and re- 
ported by Tclegrapli ; Rejected cases taken up and Pat- 
ents obtained; Interferences Prosecuted; Opinions ren- 
dered regarding the validity of Patents and Assign- 
ments; Every legitimate branch of Patent Soliciting 
Business promptly and thoroughly conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various inventions of this 
coast, and long practice in patent business, enable us to 
abundantly satisfy our patrons, and our success and 
business are constantly increasing. 

The ablest and most experienced Inventors are found 
among our most steadfast friends and patrons, who fully 
appreciate our advantages in bringing valuable inven- 
tions to the notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals— thereby facil- 
itating their introduction, sale and popularity. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents. 
Office— 202 Sansome St., N. E. Cor. Pine, S. F 



This Cut Illustrates th.o 

Giant Riding Saw Machine 



GO 



=0 




THE GREAT SUCCESS of this WOSDERFFl IMPROVED LABOR-SAVING 
GIAXT KIIH ><; SAW MACHINE is fully demonstrated by the number in use and tha 

present demand for them. It saws Logs of any size. W One man can saw more logs or 
cord wood in one day, and easier, than two men can the old way. It will saw a two-foot 
log in three minutes. Every Farmer needs one. Township agents wanted. Send for 
Illustrated Circular and Terms. 



C/5 

Su 

o 
s 
9» 
3 

CO 



IMPORTANT. 



Beware of all imitators and infringers. We; are an old reliable bouse, and own and control'flve 
perfect patents on these Giant Riding^Saw Machines. WtS" We warrant every Machine. 



THE NEW ALTHOUSE VANELESS MILL 

RAYMOND PATENT. 

More Being Sold than of any other Kind. 



RECENTLY IMPROVED, 

And Manufactured 

Expressly for the Pacific Coast Trade. 



a. t. mnmT. 



W. B. BWKR. 



0. II. KTR0X0. 



FIRST PREMIUM 

JERSEY BULL FOR SALE. 

Having bred to my Jersey bulJ, "Iilythe," for the past 
three yearB, I now offer him for sale at a moderate price. 
He is out of "Fautail," 4168, she from "Frankie 3d," 781, by 
imported "Quaker," 887. The 6ire of "Blythe" is "Prince of 
Htaatsb irgh," 23D8, imported from the Island of Jersey by 
W. B. Diusmorc. "Blythe" was dropped April, 1877. He is 
a solid, light silver gray; black switch and tongue; very yel- 
low skin and hams, and shows very high breeding In 1878, 
as a yearling, ho was awarded the first premium at the State 
fair, and at two District fairs. Also in 1879 as a two-year- 
old, at the State Fair and at three District fairs, making in 
all seven times that he has been exhibited, taking the FIRST 
PREMIUM every time. He is a tine breeder, and his calves 
which are largely heifers, take after him in color and points 

I will sell him for THREE HUNDRED DOLLARS ($.1001 
on cars, in Dowuey. Not one-quarter the c »st of importing 
his sire. Aud he wtU no doubt nearly pay for himself if ex- 
hibited at the coming fairs. 

F. J. BARRETTO, Downey, Cal. 




Windmills ! 
HORSE ROWERS! 
TANKS AND PUMPS 

built and repaired at 
No. 51 Beale Street, S. P. 

Send for circulars. 
F. W. Kit: M.I I & CO 

(Successors to W. L T'jstin.) 




TBRESU1XG MACHINERY FOR SALE. 

Rice Engine. Ames Engine 8x10 Straw Burners, 40-inch 
Separator, Jackson Feeder, Derrick SpoolB and Derrick 
complete, all 2d hand. Wanted, to buy a 9-inch Hoadley 
Wood-Burning Engine, or will exchange. Address J. W 
KILEY, 400 Sixth St., S. F. 



The Bearings are Wood and Babbitt. 
PERFECT, MOST DURABLE and the 



It is the BEST MADE, the MOST 



Cheapest First-Class Windmill in Use. 

Our new Vancless Mill will last a life-time with reasonable care. Mills 
set up in any part of the State. Contracts taken for the erection of Water 
Works. Buy the 

NEW ALTHOUSE, 

The Cheapest and least liable to get out of Order. 

Orders for Windmills, Pumps, Brass Cylinders, TankB and Frames, promptly filled at Cheapest Rates. For further 

particulars call on or address 

L. H WO ODIN, 

Office with Baker & Hamilton, 17 Front St., San Francisco 




INSURANCE AGENCY. 



Hntcliinson cfc Mann, 

N. E. Corner Sansome and California Sts., San Francisco. 



WIRE 



Baling 
Fencing 
Telegraph 
Telephone 
Galvanized — 

Barbed Fence Wire. 

All kinds of Wire — iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 

A. S. HALLIDIE 

Wire Mills. 
Office, No. 6 California St. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

WIRE ROPE and CORDAGE 

Of every kind on hand or Made to Order 




WASHINGTON COLLEGE. 



LiA CAISSE GENERATE (Of Paris.) 

Assets. January 1st, 1878 .*4,636,302 

Mi rplus. as to policy holders ¥2.127,983 

GIRARD INSURANCE CO. (of Philadelphia). 

Assets, January 1st. U79 $1,131,838 

Surplus, as to policy holders #829,340 

ST. PAUL INSURANCE CO. (of St. Paul.) 

Assets, January 1st, 1879 1641,900 

Surplus, as to policy holders $561,172 

WATKRTOWN FIRE INS. CO. (of New York). 

Assets, January 1st. 1879 $764,816 

Surplus, as to policy holders $526,166 

HOME INST" K LNCE C O. (of C olumbus, O). 

Assets. January 1st, 1879 $271,271 

surplus, as to policy holders $239,681 

NEW OKI. FANS INS. ASS'N (of New Orleans). 

Assets, January 1st. 1879 $504,192 

surplus, as to policy holders $365,997 

PEOPLE'S INSURANCE CO. (of Newark). 

Assets, January 1st. 1879 $503,040 

Surplus, ae to policy holders $358,207 



REVERE INSURANCE CO. (of Boston). 

Assets, January 1st, 1879 $274,573 

Surplus, as to policy holders $206,655 

TEUTONIA INSURANCE CO. (New Orleans). 

Assets. January 1st, 1879 $358,893 

Surplus, as to policy holders $295,463 

DWELLING HOUSE UNDERWRITERS (N Y). 

Assets. January 1st, 1879 81.948.925 

Surplus, as to policy holders $1,852,772 

LA CONFIANCE INSURANCE CO. (of Paris). 

Capital and Assets 85.329,321 

surplus, as to policy holders $2,265,112 

BERLIN-COLOGNE INS. CO. (of Berlin). 
Capital and Assets $2,064,966 

MARINE. 
Paris Underwriting Ass'n (of Paris). 

Assets $1,355,528 

London Provincial Marine Ins. Co. (London). 

Capital and Assets $5,727,975 



Cash Assets Represented, $25,715,540. 

HUTCHINSON & MANN, Gen'l Agents for the Pacific Coast. 

W. L. CHALMER, Z P. CLARK and J, C, STAPLES, Special Agents and Adjuste rs. 



The next Term of this well-known Institution, than 
which there is none better in the State or on this coast, 
will commence on 

Thursday, July 29th, 1880. 

Catalogues can be had at Bancroft's Publishing House, 
721 Market St., San Francisco, or at Hardy's Bookstore, 
DM Broadway, Oakland. For other particulars addrsss 

S. S. HARMON, Principal, 

Washington Corners, Alameda Co. 

Dr. A. de Labrousse, 

VETERINARY SURGEON. 

(Graduate of Alfort's College, Paris ) 

ja> Blisters, Ointments, Blood Purifying and Re- 

storative Powders and Medicines for Horses, 
^^^1^ Cattle, Hogs and Sheep, sent on application. 
M i\ Cure guaranteed. Address. givingfull particulars 
INFIRMARY and LABORATORY, 1125 Market St., S. F 




Calvert's Carbolic 

SHEEP WASH, 

$2 per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, Is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON, 
8. F., Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. 



SADDLES, <n 
HARNESS, % 
LEATHER. S 



W. DAVIS, 

410 Market St . 8. P. 
Manufacturer and Dealer in 
ALL GOODS in this line. 
£3T8end for Catalogue. 



M ARBLE_WORKS . 

Monuments and Headstones 

— IN— 

Marble and Scotch Granite. 
MANTELS AND GRATES. 

MARBLE AND ENCAUSTIC TILES. 

fSTDeeigns sent on applying for them. "^JB 

w. h. Mccormick. 

861 Market St. , opposite Baldwin's Hotel. 



This paper is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South loth 
St., Philadelphia & 59 Gold St., N. Y. Agent 
for Pacific Coast— Joseph H. Dorety, 120 
Sutter St.. S. F. 



Pay Cash in advance- $3 a year for the 
Rural Press. Credit rates, $4. 



Volume XX.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 17, 1880. 



Number 3 



Bermuda Grass. 

We have had frequent notes during the last 
two years on the persistent Bermuda grass 
which is now growing in different parts of the 
State, and which it is next to impossible to erad- 
icate when the roots have once taken hold upon 
the soil. In order that those who have never 
seen the plant may learn its appearance and 
manner of growth, we reproduce from the Re- 
port of the Department of Agriculture an en- 
graving and descriptive notes : 

Bermuda grass (Cynodon daclylon) is a 
low, creeping, perennial grass, with abundant 
short leaves at the base, sparingly sending up 
slender, nearly leafless flower stalks, with three 
to five slender, diverging spikes at the summit. 
The flowers are arranged in a close row along 
one side of these spikes. The spikelets are 
one-flowered, with a short pedicelled rudiment 
of a second flower. The glumes are pointed, 
but without awns; the lower palet boat-shaped. 

This grass is a native of Europe, and is abun- 
dantly naturalized in many other countries. It 
is said to be a common pasture grass in the 
West Indies. In the Southern States it has 
long been the chief reliance for pasture, and 
has been extravagantly praised by some, and 
cursed by others, who find it difficult to eradi- 
cate it when once established. Its properties 
have been very fully discussed in Southern 
journals, particularly in the "Manual of 
Grasses," by Mr. C. W. Howard, and in the 
"Grasses of Tennessee," by Prof. Killebrew. 
Mr. 0. Mohr says : "It thrives in the arid, 
barren drift sands of the sea-shore, covering 
them by its long, creeping stems, whose deeply 
penetrating roots impart firmness to a soil 
which else would remain devoid of vegetation. 
It is esteemed one of the most valuable of our 
grasses, either in the pasture or cured as hay." 
Col. T. C. Howard, of Georgia, says : "The 
desideratum to the South is a grass that is per- 
ennial, nutritious, and adapted to the climate. 
While we have grasses and forage plants that 
do well when nursed, we have few that live 
and thrive here as in their native habitat. The 
Bermuda and Crab grasses are at home in the 
South. They not only live, but live in spite of 
neglect, and when petted and encouraged they 
make such grateful returns as astonish the 
benefactor." 

It seems that it rarely ripens any seed, and 
the usual method of reproduction is to chop up 
the roots with a cutting-knife, sow them broad- 
cast, and plow under shallow. Col. Lane 
says : "Upon our ordinary upland I have found 
no difficulty in destroying it by close cultiva- 
tion in cotton for two years. It requires a few 
extra plowings to get the sod thoroughly broken 
to pieces." Prof. Killebrew writes : "In Louis- 
iana, Texas, and the South generally, it is, and 
has been, the chief reliance for pasture for a 
long time, and the immense herds of cattle on 
the Southern prairies subsist principally on this 
food. It revels on sandy soils, and has been 
grown extensively on the sandy hills of Vir- 
ginia and North and South Carolina. It is 
used extensively on the Southern rivers to hold 
the levees and the embankments of the roads. 
It will throw its runners over a rock six feet 
across, and soon hide it from view, or it will 
run down the sides of the steepest gully, and 
stop its washing. Hogs thrive upon its suc- 
culent roots, and horses and cattle upon its 
foliage. It has the capacity to withstand any 
amount of heat and drouth, and months that 
are so dry as to check the growth of Blue grass 
will only make the Bermuda greener and more 
thrifty." 

Personal. — One of our publishers who has been 
pursuing health in the rich counties north of the 
bay, reports a pleasant meeting with Mrs. Julia 
H. S. Bugeia, a lady of wide accomplishments 
and literary fame, who is now living in a rural 
nook near the base of St. Helena. Mrs. Bugeia 
is a contributor to the Californian and other 
publications, and we are pleased to announce 
that she may be expected to enter the list of th6 
Rural contributors. 

A Geneva dispatch, July 11th, reports great 
alarm in western Switzerland, owing to .the ap- 
pearance of phylloxera in several parts' of the 
canton of Vaud. 



The Large in Farm Machinery. — The operaS 
tions of Henry Dewey, of Plainsburg, Merced 
Co., give good illustrations of the large in farm 
machinery. Mr. Dewey has been increasing 
the size of his headers from year to year, until 
he is now using one which cuts a swath 34 ft. 
wide. This is without doubt the widest cut 
ever made by a piece of harvesting machinery. 



A New Race of Pears. 

The fact that our pear trees this year have 
shown themselves susceptible to the peculiar 
conditions which seem to be creeping into our 
climatology, will make our horticulturists more 
interested in the Eastern studies into the un- 
certainty of pear trees than they have been 
hitherto. This State has been regarded as a 




BERMUDA GRASS— (Cynodon dactylon). 



Such machines, of course, only have their spec- 
ial adaptations, but in Mr. Dewey's case there 
is apparently a good profit in them. He is a 
mechanical genius as well as a farmer, and his 
machines, harness, etc., are made upon the 
ranch. We hear also that a canvas-sided din- 
ing-room wagon for threshers has been lately 
constructed in Mr. Dewey's shops. Another 
portable concern is a horse-feed car for 30 horses 
with boxes around the outside for feeding grain, 
and a rick for feeding hay. 4 



The President has appointed Orange Judd of 
New York, of the American Agriculturist, to 
be a member of the Board of Indian Commis- 
sioners. 



sort of a pear paradise, into which no thought 
of evil could enter. This year's partial failure 
of the pear crop invites a review and revision 
of former judgments. 

We gave some months ago engravings of 
Chinese and Japanese pears, and one of the 
prominent hybrids produced therefrom by East- 
ern propagators. It was stated at that time 
that the hope of the East was to produce from 
these Asiatic varieties some new pears which 
would be more hardy, more productive and free 
from the diseases which attack the pear race which 
has hitherto been propagated in this country. 
This use of the Asiatic troes seems to be gaining 
ground at the East. Mr. Berckmans, the well- 
known Georgia propagator, has recently pub- 
lished his opinions on the subject, which we 



summarize, as we believe they will be of gen- 
eral interest. 

The Kieffers originated near Philadelphia 
from seed of the China sand pear, which is sup- 
posed to have been fertilized by the Bartlett or 
Flemish Beauty; but these are mere theories, 
as nothing authentic of this cross can be ascer- 
tained. All that is patent of this supposition 
is that the fruit, while retaining the peculiar 
brittle texture of the China sand, combines at 
the same time much juice and a well-marked 
musky aroma peculiar to the Bartlett, and a 
fine red cheek resembling the Flemish Beauty. 
Its shape is ovoide, and very much like the 
China sand; the color of the skin is yellow, 
with a bright vermilion cheek, and, unlike its 
parent, is smooth. In quality it is superior to 
the LeConte, and more attractive in appearance. 
Judging from a dozen specimens tested at 
various times, and coming from various sources, 
its size is, on an average, a little smaller. Tak- 
ing the standard of the American Pomological 
Society as a base, LeConte would rank as good, 
and Kieffer as very good. In point of habit 
and vigor of growth, both rank as uncommonly 
strong and healthy growers, their foliage and 
general habit being quite alike. The Kieffer's 
leaves are a little more narrow. 

The origin of the LeConte is somewhat ob- 
scure. It may be a distinct Japanese variety, 
but the production of the Kieffer from seed of 
the China sand leads to the supposition that 
both have a similar origin, and are crosses be- 
tween the old China sand and some cultivated 
varieties. Both varieties grow readily from cut- 
tings, a peculiarity well defined in the parent; 
both also grow remarkably well upon quince. 
Their growth upon that stock seems to be fully 
equal to that of the standard, and, as demon- 
strated in several instances, fruit is produced 
the second year from the bud when worked 
upon quince stocks. These two varieties are, 
in our opinion, the pioneers of a new race of 
pears, which may, ere many years, change our 
present list of popular kinds. They possess the 
most remarkable vigor, and, so far as known, 
total freedom from blight. Our efforts to im- 
prove our pears should, in a great measure, be 
based upon this strain; no doubt many valu- 
able seedlings will ensue from this race, as from 
the two varieties now introduced there is a ten- 
dency to variations. 

In this connection it would, perhaps, not be 
uninteresting to mention a few varieties of pears 
lately introduced into America, but of Japanese 
and Chinese origin. While none of these varie- 
ties are, so far as fruited, of a quality that 
wiil admit them among our table sorts, yet they 
are wonderfully healthy and of robust growth, 
as well as prolific in fruit bearing. These varie- 
ties may be used in the production of seed- 
lings, from which improved varieties will doubt- 
less be derived. If, as is now well demon- 
strated, they are capable of crossing with our 
leading sorts, we may, in the near future, expect 
a new race of pears, combining excessive vigor 
of growth, freedom from blight, with great fer- 
tility and good quality of their products, — a 
consummation which would be of untold value 
to our fruit growers. 

The Japanese varieties referred to are Daimyo, 
Mikado and Madam Von Siebold, all producing 
medium to large fruit of the type of the old 
China sand, and fit only for kitchen use. 
These fruits were illustrated in the Press of 
December 6, 1879, and January 10, 1880. The 
trees have already been introduced in this 
State, and our chance for developing something 
good from them is as good as our Eastern 
friends. The whole question promises to be 
one of great pomological interest. 

Good News. — A dispatch from Dublin, July 
6th, conveys the cheering intelligence that the 
weather all over Ireland, up to the present time, 
has been most favorable for the crops. It is 
expected that the crop of potatoes will be enor- 
mous; indeed, it gives full promise of exceeding 
any crop of potatoes seen in Ireland since a 
period anterior to the blighting famine of 1847. 
The crops of cereals and of roots generally are 
also said to be luxuriant. Even the meadows, 
which alone were backward, have been quick- 
ened by generous rains, and give promise of a 
fine yield. 

News has been received from the west coast 
of Africa that trade has been greatly interfered 
with by the withdrawal from circulation on the 
gold coast of all American dollars. 



34 



THE PACIFIC BU 



RAL PRESS 



[July 17, 1880. 



Mr. L. J. Rose's Wine Grapes. 

Mr. L. J. Rose, the well-known viniculturist 
of Los Angeles, gives the Herald of that city'an 
account of his experience, the chief idea being 
to show the superiority of some imported grapes 
over the old Mission variety for wine making. 
He concludes with descriptions of some of the 
varieties he prefers and which largely comprise 
his vineyard stock. He mentions the Zinfindel 
which is quite generally known, and then de- 
scribes others which are but little known in this 
State. We quote the latter parts for the in- 
formation of our readers: 

I will give you a description of some new va- 
rieties of grapes which I have grown for some 
years and which have special adaptabilities for 
special kinds of wine, all being heavy pro- 
ducers. They will, too, bear younger than the 
Mission, and, ripening early, they lengthen out 
the season for wine making, which is an item of 
much importance in itself. 

Blaue Elba. 

Bunches medium length and size, shouldered 
and about as compact as the Mission. Berries 
round, inclined in some specimens to oval. 
Skin thin, dark purple, with heavy bloom. 
Juice sub-acid and pleasant, and a pleasant, pi- 
quant flavored table grape. 

It is a vigorous grower, and the young wood 
has a very clean, pleasing, red look, which dis- 
tinguishes it even at a distance. It is a regular 
and heavy bearer, free from all diseases, and 
standing drouth remarkably well. It makes a 
white wine of some body, perhaps in that re- 
spect similar to the Reisling, but carries too 
much tartar, and is much like the celebrated 
Hock "Liebfrauenmilch" of the Germans. It 
is a white wine of the highest bouquet and qual- 
ity, and is admired and is a favorite with every 
white-wine drinker. It is pronounced the 
equal, by all German connoisseurs, of the bet- 
ter qualities of Rhine wine; and it is believed 
by many of these that, if shipped to Germany, 
it would command a sufficient price to pay for 
producing and shipping. It will, too, make a 
brandy of the highest bouquet. 

This grape was introduced by Jacob Keller 
(now dead), of Anaheim, who brought it from 
Germany. He gave me a small lot of cuttings 
which, from year to year, I increased, until now 
it is the leading variety in my vineyard. It has, 
too, been tried for some years in my neighbor- 
hood, and all who have planted it join in its 
praise for thrift and productiveness. 

It makes a red press wine which, however, is 
inferior, yet which is better than the Mission 
red wine. Since Mr. Keller's death this grape 
has been lost sight of and is scarcely known 
there. 

Berger. 

Bunches long, large, shouldered and very 
compact; berries round, fair size, skin thin 
greenish yellow, with some bloom. Juice acid 
and the poorest table grape as yet tried by me, 
of all the foreign grapes. It is a vigorous 
grower, and the leaves are large with white cot- 
ton down on the under side. I believe it to be 
the heaviest bearer of all the grapes and think 
it doubles the production of the Mission. It is, 
however, a matter of doubt with me whether it 
would do on low localities; for the bunches be- 
ing so compact, in wet places it would be al- 
most sure to rot and mildew. It makes, to my 
mind, the most pleasant light table wine in 
California, being more of the character of Ger- 
man Sauterne than any other wine. This wine 
is used one-third, and two-thirds Zinfindel, to 
make the best of Haraszthy's champagne. I be- 
lieve it especially adapted for this county, for 
our table lands. It was introduced to Anaheim 
from Germany and Berger is the German name. 
I am inclined to the belief that it is the same 
grape as that known in France as Fole Blanche, 
for it is identical with the description of that 
grape there. The Fole Blanche is used in France 
almost entirely as a brandy grape, making the 
celebrated cognacs. It has too much acidity 
there; and makes, in consequence, an inferior 
wine; whereas, with our perpetual sunshine, the 
grape attains a fuller maturity and makes a 
wine that, for a light wine for daily drinking, 
has no equal, to my taste. This shows that we 
can only find by experimenting what grape is 
best for our locality, for what may be worthless 
in a wet, cold locality, in our dry and warm 
climate will give entirely different results. 

Burgundy. 

Gen. Naglee, of San Jose, introduced from 
France the Charbonneux and Trousseau. These 
are mixed together and both belong to the 
Pinean family of grapes. Here in California 
they have acquired the general name of Bur- 
gundy, probably from the fact that they come 
from that district, and are used to make that 
celebrated wine. The two varieties of grapes 
are so much alike in wood, foliage and fruit 
that I for a long time believed them to be one 
variety, until, some years ago, the bees taught 
me the difference between them, for they would 
make their attack on one vine and another vine 
by its side they would not touch. I then found, 
by tasting, one much sweeter than the other. 
The grapes of either are small, very black, small 
bunches, the leaf but little lobed or serrated, and 
round, much like some of our wild grapes, 
grown in this neighlorhood. It has a great 
many bunches and is a heavy bearer. (;en. 
Naglee assured me that the year I was there 
they had averaged 33 pounds to the vine, and it 
is from this grape that he makes bis best 1 



brandy. He also told me it made a very su- 
perior black (he named it) wine. I have not 
tried it sufficiently here to speak with certainty 
about the quality of the wine, but I know it is a 
heavier bearer and believe it will make the best 
heavy red wine (Burgundy) in the State. As 
yet it is not generally introduced in this State, 
it being confined to San Jose and Santa Clara 
county, but such wine as has reached the San 
Francisco market has been pronounced the best 
red wine in the State. I have not had it long 
enough, or in sufficient quantity to make wine 
from it, except in an experimental way. I be- 
lieve in it. It is a fair eating grape. 

1 could add Muscat of Alexandria, which, I am 
inclined to think, will make a popular brandy, 
and WeBt St. Peter's, which is said to be the 
best sherry grape as yet tried in California. 

Tuolumne and the Grape Interest 

Editors Press: — As the season advances we 
gain a better idea regarding cereal and fruit 
crops. From observations made by farmers, I 
should judge that the grain crop is really bet- 
ter tliau appearances indicated a few weeks ago, 
both in quantity and quality. Of course some 
sections may be the reverse, but when the sum 
total shall be told, the result will astonish the 
faithless. In fruit, the only full crop amongst 
the foothills will be grapes and tigs. The ap- 
ple shows signs of the "coddling moth." As Mr. 
Winchester remarked in his last letter: "The 
worm is doing a splendid business amongst the 
apples." The grape crop is really good, only 
we amongst the foothills neglect this branch 
of horticulture. A tourist from Napa remarked, 
a few days ago, that everywhere he met with 
neglected vineyards. While grape fields in 
Napa are worth $300 per acre, and cultivated 
artisticaUy, land in these foothills, capable of 
raising the best of grapes and abundant crops, 
is almost worthless for lack of enterprise and 
cultivation. Now how is this? There must be 
a cause. Some say: "Too much alcohol;" 
others that it does not pay to make wine; while 
others lay blame to irrigation. A little of each 
may be mixed in with the present apathy. But 
I believe that the real cause lies in the fact, 
that the best locations for grape-growing and 
orchards generally, are held by men the very 
least adapted for such a business. Some wine 
company will find it for their interest in the 
near future to make purchases of choice loca- 
tions, and commence the cultivation of the wine 
and raisin grape on an extensive scale. The pres- 
ent population will never move in the matter, 
except in rare instances, not having capital or 
ambition sufficient for success, both of which 
are necessary. 

This friend gave such a glowing account of 
the business in Napa and Sonoma counties that 
I began to think that the foothills were surely 
asleep in this progressive age. We can success- 
fully compete with the above counties in raising 
a superior quality of fruit. Why should we 
not try for quantity ? How soon our mountain 
and valley lands would rise in value if once 
farmed for their excellence in wine and raisin 
culture. Instead of $4 (present average) per 
acre, it would soon reach $400 where irrigation 
was plentiful and convenient. 

There is a science in wine-making, and that 
science we are strangers to". We require some 
of the Sonoma and Napa experts to settle 
amongst us. It would give an impetus to the 
business and prosperity to the county. A 
large manufactory might even now be estab- 
lished, as grapes can be bought from §10 to 
•SI 5 per ton — so I am informed by a party who 
has sold at the above lowest figure. Lands 
to be valuable must be made so. Nothing will 
inhance these foothill valleys so rapidly as 
grape and fruit culture. Wine will be sought 
for in California in years to come, same 
as France in the past. Why not pre- 
pare for the harvest which is sure to follow 
the failures of Europe '! I am not an advocate of 
wine-drinking as a beverage; medicinally it is 
good; and if wine is to be used, let that wine 
be pure and good. 

Raisin culture requires less capital than wine 
making; hence our county produces a fair 
showing in quantity and quality. John Purvis, 
Goodwin, (^uinn, Jarvis, Parsons and others are 
noted for producing a superior article. I have 
dwelt on this branch of business more than 
usual. By comparison I find that we are far 
behind the bay counties, while we have within 
ourselves every element of success. Wine 
manufacturers should make us a visit to find out 
our natural resources. John Taylor. 

Mount Pleasant, July 7, 1880. 



Public Land Surveys. — On the last day of 
June the Commissioner of the General Land 
Office, with the approval of Secretary Schurz, 
made the following apportionment of the sum of 
$300,000 appropriated by Congress for surveys 
of the public land during the fiscal year, which 
began July 1st: To Arizona, $10,000; California, 
$35,000; Colorado, $30,000; Dakota, ¥30,000; 
Florida, $8,000; Idaho, $12,000; Louisiana, 
$12,000; Minnesota, $16,000; Montana, $15,- 
000; Nebraska and Iowa, $15,000; Nevada, 
$12,000; New Mexico, $12,000; Oregon, §16,- 
000; Utah, $12,000; Washington, $16,000; 
Wyoming, $10,000; leaving $39,000 to be used 
according to the exigencies of the service during 
the fiscal year. 

BoLFHTTB crystals may be obtained by dis- 
solving sulphur in hot concentrated acetic acid, 
and evaporating the solution at ordinary tem- 
perature. 



Ferns of Southern California. 

The southernmost part of California possesses 
a great diversity of climate. There are low 
hills whose sunny recesses are unvisited by frost, 
and mountain peaks 12,000 ft. high, whose 
summits are white with snow till late in the 
summer. The waters which descend from the 
western slope of these mountains find their way 
through steep and wooded canyons, abounding 
in water-falls, to fertile valleys; on the eastern 
side the scanty streams wind through barren 
hills, and hardly reach the edge of the thirsty 
desert whose lowest part is 70 ft. beneath the 
sea level. 

These varied conditions of heat and cold, of 
moisture and dryness, favor the production of a 
widely varied flora, extending from the pine 
and the oak to the palm, the agave and the 
cactus. From the same causes, there are to be 
found grouped together in the same natural or- 
der, plants which require very different condi- 
tions for their growth, as is well seen in the 
great number and variety of the native ferns. 
In rapidly passing these in review, it is not pro- 
posed to enter into any scientific description, 
but mainly to give a few notes concerning their 
manner and places of growth, and their general 
appearance. If we enter one of the many ra- 
vines, or canyons which cut the mountain sides, 
we soon see some sunny or half shaded bank 
thinly covered with the common brake, Pteris 
aquilina, var. lanuginosa; but even higher up 
in the mountains it does not show the size and 
luxuriance it attains in more northern climates. 
On drier and poorer soil are found the scattered 
tufts of the Bird Rock-brake ( Pelbea ornitho- 
pus ), its roots often hidden under a stone or 
sheltered by the heath-like chimizo bushes, but 
its stiff fronds thrust out to the sunshine. While 
young it is graceful, and of a soft glaucous green, 
but it is soon scorched to a duU olive color, and 
to a rigidity not at all in accordance with the 
grace looked for in a fern. Higher up in the 
hills there is to be found in a few places the 
rare Pelbia Wrightiana, so like in appearance 
to the Bird Rock-brake that a close examina- 
tion is needed to detect the botanical characters 
which distinguish them. It has, perhaps, a 
somewhat more elegant appearance than its 
commoner relative, as it stands shouldering up 
against a half -buried boulder, and looking like a 
bunch of little dingy pine twigs. Both of these 
ferns when cultivated in the shade, acquire a 
brighter color, and a more graceful manner of 
growth than they have in their native homes. 
But before going so high up, let us look for a 
handsomer member of this genus, Pellna an- 
dromediifolia. It is to be sought in places par- 
tially shaded and not entirely dry, although it 
is by no means notional, and will grow under 
al most any conditions. In cultivation it is very 
satisfactory, doing well either in the house, or 
out in the sun among the smaller border plants. 
Its few long and branching fronds are gracefully 
curved, or, in the shade, drooping, and the 
small ovate pinnules, although thick in text- 
ure, are of a pleasing green, or sometimes of 
quite a bright purple. Growing in the same 
places, is the California Poly pod, Polypodium 
Cali/ornicum, its single deeply pinnatifid frond 
illuminated on the back with rows of bright 
golden fruit dots. It is a winter grower, shoot- 
ing up with wonderful rapidity after the first 
rains, and withering when the moisture fails in 
the summer. It is a very easy and good fern 
for house cultivation. In the same places, but 
loving a little more sunshine, is seen the Gym- 
nogramme triangukiris, its polished brown 
stipes supporting handsome triangular fronds, 
the backs of which are covered with the bright 
yellow powder from which it gets its name of 
( Jold Fern. Nearer the coast, and on the edge 
of the desert, they are found coated with a 
shining white powder, and are then called Sil- 
ver Ferns, but botanists do not recognize them 
as distinct varieties. 

By this time we have ascended the ravine far 
enough to find a few oaks and pines on the steep 
sides, mingling their shade with that of the 
alders and cottonwood which border the stream. 
Here and there on these acclivities are seen the 
sturdy clumps of two shield ferns, Aspidium 
rigidum var. argulum and A. munitum. Both 
of them prefer a gravelly soil, and, although re- 
quiring very little moisture, keep bright and 
fresh the whole year. The ample, wide-based 
bipinnate fronds of the former are usually 
strongly curving, and about three ft. in length; 
the other is of the same hight, but more rigid 
in habit, and its narrow lanceolate fronds are 
simply pinnate, with auricled leaflets. High in 
the mountains has been found a rare variety of 
this fern (A. munitum var. imbricans). 

Our canyon now becomes narrower, and shut 
in by high rock walls, and we come to a place 
where the little stream leaps down a precipice 
50 or even 100 ft. high; the thick pines help to 
shut out the rays of the sun, and the water 
broken into spray, drenches the rocks with a 
perpetual mist, and maintains a refreshing 
coolness. Look up and see how the whole face 
of the cliff is fluttering with feathery maiden 
hair. Every crevice is full of them; here is 
Adiantum peila/um, * its shaft of shining ebony 
bearing aloft a broad crescent frond of the most 

"This fern is sometimes said to be deciduous, but it 
seems with us to be evergreen. 



delicate texture and color; here A ^marginatum 
and A. Cappillns-\-eneris wore their long droop- 
ing plumes, and with them are mingled the 
beautiful Cystopteris fragilis, its fronds of tender 
green, set off with black fruit dots, and sporting 
into an infinite variety of form. A little away 
from the mist of the fall the majestic Wood- 
wardia ( W. radicans var. Americana ) curves its 
graud fronds and dips them into the pool below. 
These are five or six, and even ten ft. in length, 
and have a tropical luxuriance that forms a 
beautiful contrast to the grace of the delicate 
ferns above. 

If we climb around the falls and follow our 
stream to its source, we will find, rooted in the 
miry black soil, the handsome Lady Fern 
( Aspleniurn Filir.-ftemina ), so widely distributed 
through the country. Not so high up there is 
occasionally found another Spleen wort (A. 
Trichomanes var. incisum, its small dark green 
pinnate fronds clustered at the base of some dry 
crag. It is quite rare. 

The ferns already mentioned, except those 
noted as rare, are very generally distributed, 
and may be confidently sought whenever there 
is found the conditions suited to their growth. 
But there are others more restricted in their dis- 
tribution, and some are even confined to a single 
tract a few acres in extent. They belong to the 
drouth-resisting genera Cheilanthes and jYoWAo- 
hena, which in summer become entirely dry, 
their curious fronds rolled up into compact balls, 
and showing the coloredf powderB, the scales, or 
the felted hairs of the different species. But 
although so dry that they crumble in the fingers, 
and the roots snap like dry twigs, yet they are 
not dead, and at the first shower the old fronds 
unroll bright and fresh, and new ones begin to 
push up around them. The writer has taken 
them up when in the dry stage and kept them 
hung in an open shed for six months, and when 
planted they started into vigorous growth. 

One of the commonest of them is Cheilanthes 
Fendlcri: its lanceolate frond, six or eight inches 
long by two wide, is subdivided into minute seg- 
ments, bright green on the face, and on the back 
covered with an abundant coating of chaffy 
scales, white on the young fronds, and passing 
through different shades of brown until it be- 
comes ashy-gray on the old ones. In some 
places it is quite abundant, growing in the crevi- 
ces of partially shaded rocks. Nearer the sea 
coast there are two somewhat Bimilar species, C. 
myriophylla and C. C'levelandii. There also 
grows the most beautiful of the genus, the Lace 
Fern (C. Calif or nica), whose well proportioned 
triangular frond, supported on a polished brown 
stipe, is divided and subdivided into thread-like 
segments. It is remarkable in being quite free 
from the hairs or other appendages so common 
in members of this genus. On our small hills, 
Cheilanthes Cooperce hides itself from the sun at 
the bottom of deep fissures in the rocks. It is a 
delicate fern, seldom six inches high, and the 
fronds have on both sides a light coat of fine 
long hairs. Still rarer, perhaps the rarest of all 
North American ferns, is Cheilanthes viscida. It 
grows, but not at all abundantly, in a few rocky 
ravines near the mouth of the Arroyo Blanco, a 
little stream that loses itself in the desert. It 
clings to seams in the rocks, in positions entirely 
shielded from the sunshine. Its fronds are 
almost as finely divided as those of the Lace 
Fern, but are narrowly lanceolate in outline, 
and about six by one and a half inches. They 
are covered with a viscid secretion, so abundant 
as to cause them to strongly adhere to the paper 
when drying them. 

On all the mountain slopes of this desert re- 
gion, there is an abundant growth of the pretty 
little Nothobrna Candida. Its elegant triangular 
frond is subdivided into numerous, closely set 
pinnules, and the- white powder that is lightly 
dusted over the frond is more abundant around 
the edges of them, so that they are set off with 
a faint silvery border; on the reverse, this pow- 
der is very plentiful, and in the successive phases 
of growth, changes from white to yellow, and 
then brown, and is finally hidden by the rich 
chocolate of the spore cases. When seen in 
the summer time closely relied up, and projected 
in serried lines from the narrow cracks in which 
they are rooted, they look like rows of little 
white and brown fists thrust out in the face of 
the sun; for they choose a place exposed to the 
fullest rigor of his glare, and flourish on bare 
rocks that become uncomfortably warm to the 
hand. Yet they are the easiest to cultivate of 
all the genus, and if kept moist will remain ex- 
panded all the year. In the same neighborhood 
there is a plentiful supply of Notholasna Parryi, 
a curious little fern, clothed above and beneath 
with a close felt of fine, long hairs, white in the 
young growth, and light brown in age. Its 
favorite place is the shady side of a large, firmly- 
bedded boulder, but it sometimes grows on the 
shady side of a rocky bluff. The closely related 
Cottony Fern (N. Newberryi), has the same pre- 
ferences, but finds them in a different region, 
the dry hills south of the Santa Ana river. It 
bears a general resemblance to Parry's Fern, but 
is a little larger (six by one and a half inches); 
and the tomentum, which exhibits nearly the 
same range of color, is of a different nature, 
having in the former a kind of wood-like appear- 
ance, while that of the present one resembles 
cotton. It is especially pleasing in early spring, 
when the milk-white young fronds curl about 
the bases of the rough stones in a charmingly 
graceful manner. 

Besides the ferns already mentioned, Crypto- 
gamme achrostiehoides has been found in this 
region, and last year added Woodsia Oregana; 
but as the writer has not yet had the good for- 
tune to see them growing, he can only add their 
names to complete the list, 



July 17, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



The drouth-resisting ferns, such as Oym.no 
gramme, triangularis and the various species of 
Notholcea, Cheilanthes and Pellcea would proba- 
bly be well suited to home cultivation. They 
are at home in a dry atmosphere, so that the 
air of stove or furnace-heated rooms would not 
be apt to be as injurious to them as it is to many 
kinds of ferns. If not wanted in the summer, 
they could be set away in some dry place until 
autumn. Most of them are easily cultivated, 
and their novel and curious variety would make 
them objects of great interest. — S. B. Parish, 
San Bernardino, in Cardeners' Monthly. 

Gathering Ferns. 
In case the foregoing description may excite a 
new interest in fern gathering, we add the fol 
lowing excellent suggestions written for the 
Petaluma Courier by the well-known floricult- 
ural writer, W. A. T. Stratton: A botanical 
pick, or a substitute, should be among the fixt- 
ures. As usually ferns grow between rocks 
that make the gathering of them difficult, or 
they may be found in strong, heavy soils that no 
amount of tugging at them will allow them to 
be dug unless some proper implement is at hand 
to loosen the soil or rock, to get as much root as 
possible. When dug, a piece of damp moss 
closely pressed around the roots secured by a 
strip of muslin or anything that will assist to re- 
tain moisture. All soft or growing fronds 
should be cut away at once, and a good portion 
of the old ones also. Place them in a box in 
the shade till back at home, when they should 
be permanently planted, always observing to 
give them the same exposure as when found 
growing naturally. There are but few plants 
more tenacious of life than ferns. One year 
ago we received, as botanical specimens from 
Puget sound, a large number of Aspidiums, 
Adianlums, Polypodrums, etc. , comprising com- 
plete sets of the ferns of that country. These 
had been gathered more than a year, carefully 
dried in the botanical press. As many of the 
Bpecies were new to us, they were at once 
planted, and now some of the finest ferns of the 
Pacific coast may be seen growing from these 
dry specimens. In the vicinity of Healdsburg 
our beautiful Cheilanthes Cali/ornica may be 
found in all its grandeur. It is the only locality 
north of Santa Barbara in which it has as yet 
been found. The delicately-cut fronds, lace- 
like in formation, attract the eye whenever 
seen. In the same locality the Oregon cliff 
brake (Relaea densa), so very rarely found in 
California, grows in abundance, and we hope 
these may be. among the trophies of the return- 
ing picnickers. 



Orange Marmalade. 

We find in an English exchange an outline of 
the way in which orange marmalade is made in 
large quantities by a well-known house of pre- 
serve makers for shipment to all the markets of 
the world: Marmalade is manufactured during 
the months of January and February when the 
Seville oranges are in season. In the course of 
these months the cutting and pressing of the 
oranges takes place, and we had the good for- 
tune to be just in time to witness the marma- 
lade industry in full operation. In a large 
building, erected especially for the purpose, the 
marmalade is made. There is a fragrant per- 
fume of oranges on entering the large apartment 
on the ground floor, which permeates the place, 
and savours distinctly of marmalade. Seville 
"sours" are imported in shiploads for this busi- 
ness, the oranges being carefully selected, each 
one being wrapped in paper when deposited in 
the chests in which they are packed. Hundreds 
of women are engaged throughout this busy 
season cutting the oranges into quarters and 
stripping the peel, this work being done with 
surprising celerity. The peel, which is cut into 
thin shreds by steam machinery, issues from the 
cutter in myriads of slices, marvellously fine, 
and having a refreshing bouquet. The pulp, or 
interior portion of the orange, is scalded and 
passed through a sieve; also worked by steam- 
power, the pips and particles of skin alone be- 
ing rejeoted. This machinery is admirable, 
and the mode in which the useless portions — 
fine and small as are pips and skin — are separa- 
ted from the pulp testifies to the perfection to 
which modern appliances have been brought by 
inventive genius. The peel and pulp are then 
mixed and removed to the boiling room. 

From the ground floor we ascend to the boil- 
ing room, which is situated on the top story. 
This spacious, light and convenient apartment 
contains 40 copper pans, shining like burnished 
gold, and each capable of boiling 1J cwt. of 
either marmalade or jam. The stirring is done 
by machinery, a complete mechanical arrange- 
ment for this operation being driven by a small 
and handsome new engine. 

On the floor beneath, the marmalade is filled 
into pots by females, who fill the vessels, as 
quickly as they are brought to them, from a 
trough or receiver containing the preserve. The 
pots and jars are then stacked away on trays 
until cold, when they are covered, tied over, 
labelled and packed. 



Hight of Monte Diablo. — Prof. Davidson, 
of the Coast Survey, has just established the 
hight of the summit of Monte Diablo at 
3,848.63 ft above tide level. 



Causes of Anomalous Distribution of Rain 
on the Pacific Coast. 

[By Prof. John Le Conte.] 
It is evident that these seeming anomalies in 
the distribution of the rainfall on the Pacific 
coast, must be due to the operation of peculiar 
physical causes which are unusually active in 
this region of the globe. It seems to me that 
nearly all of them may be satisfactorily ex 
plained by means of the fundamental principles 
previously enunciated, viz: (1). The tempera 
ture of the adjacent ocean, which determines the 
tension of the aqueous vapor contained in the air 
resting on it. (2). The direction of the prevail 
ing vapor-bearing winds which waft the moist 
ure to places of condensation or otherwise. 
(3). The temperature of the contiguous lands, 
which renders them efficient agents of conden 
sation or the opposite. 

(1). Temperature of the Ocean.— (a.) Warm 
Ocean North of Latitude 41*. 

The great north equatorial oceanic current flows 
westward from the American continent until it 
is arrested by the coasts of Asia and Australia, 
where it divides, and the north branch reaching 
the Philippine islands and Formosa, is deflected 
to the northeast and becomes the Japanese cur 
rent (Kuro-Sivo or Kuro-Siwo), the gulf stream 
of the Pacific. This vast body of warm water 
flows swiftly along the eastern coasts of Japan, 
and continuing its northeastern course across 
the North Pacific ocean reaches the peninsula 
of Alaska. Here it divides, a smaller portion 
flowing northward, while the larger portion is 
deflected southward and glides along the coasts 
of British Columbia, Washington Territory, 
Oregon, California and a portion of Lower Cali 
fornia. North of Cape St. Lucas, obeying the 
tendency impressed by the rotation of the earth 
upon its axis, it leaves the western coast of 
North America and turns westward to re-enter 
the great equatorial current and thus complete 
the cycle of oceanic circulation. In fact the 
north equatorial, the Japanese and the North 
Pacific currents seem to form one immense whirl 
pool in the North Pacific ocean. This noble 
oceanic stream of warm water, although very 
much reduced in temperature in its long voyage 
from the coasts of Japan to Alaska, retains 
enough heat to impart to the waters of the Pa 
cific ocean north of latitude 41* an abnormal 
warmth — that is, a temperature much above 
that due to the latitude. Whilst our existing 
knowledge enables us to thus outline the gene 
ral course of this oceanic current which bears 
inter-tropic warmth to high northern latitudes, 
yet much information is lacking in relation to 
many important points. What are the exact 
boundaries of the stream ? What are its off- 
shoots or branches ? What are the surface tem- 
peratures at various points in its course ? What 
is the distribution of temperature in relation to 
depth ? These and a great many other interest- 
ing physical questions will doubtless be an- 
swered as soon as our Coast Survey has had 
time to carry out the line of investigation which 
has been so intelligently inaugurated. We shall 
then be in possession of as accurate physical 
data in regard to the gulf stream of the Pacific 
as we now have in relation to the gulf stream of 
the Atlantic. 

(b). Cool Ocean South of Latitude 41°. 
It seems to be now quite satisfactorily estab- 
lished by the investigations of Prof. George 
Davidson in connection with the operations of 
the U. S. Coast Survey on the Pacific coast, 
that throughout the year there is a narrow cool 
counter or eddy current moving steadily to the 
northward, between the shore line and Kuro 
Siwo. Sometimes this is not more than a mile 
or two wide; "at other times, after a week of calm 
summer weather, it becomes as much as 15 
miles wide, even off Cape Mendocino." In the 
present .state of our knowledge it is difficult to 
assign an origin to this cool counter-current. 
And it is still more difficult to explain the re- 
markable coolness of the ocean south of Cape 
Mendocino. The idea of Arctic currents is out 
of the question: For the polar currents are al- 
most entirely absent in the North Pacific ocean, 
owing to the great shallowness and narrowness 
of Behring's strait, which is the only passage 
open to them. Is it not possible that a sub- 
marine cold current originating in the sea of 
Kamtchatka might find its way under the Kuro- 
Sivo and come to the surface near latitude 41° ? 
But in the absence of data it is useless to con- 
jecture. In the meantime we recognize the 
fact that south of Cape Mendocino the surface 
waters of the Pacific ocean are abnormally cool. 

(2) . Direction of the Vapor-Bearing Winds. 
It is well known that the great thermal 

agencies emanating from the sun, which keep 
up the grand cycle of atmospheric circulation, 
must tend to produce west winds along the 
whole Pacific coast north of the Tropic of Cancer. 
But the action of these general causes is some- 
what modified by the peculiar physical condi- 
tions existing along this coast. 

The great excess of temperature in summer 
of the interior valleys over the coast imparts to 
the winds of the coast at this season of year the 
features of monsoons ; that is, there is an in- 
draught of air from the cool ocean towards the 
hot area. 

(3) . High Summer Temperature in the Oreat 

Valleys. 

There is no country in the world where the 
temperature of the summer increases so much 



as we go from the coast to the interior as on the 
Pacific slope of North America, from Alaska to 
Lower California. 

The great valleys lying between the Sierra 
Nevada and Cascade mountains and the Coast 
ranges — being more or less protected from the 
cooling influences of the summer winds which 
sweep the air from the comparatively cold 
oceans — seem to become great reservoirs of heat 
during this season when their sloping sides are 
most exposed to insolation. The mean summer 
temperature in the central part of the San Joa 
quin valley rises above 84° (Fah.), when on the 
sea coast close by it is below 60° (Fah.). The 
following table will illustrate this point : 



Ft. Yuma.. 
Camp Cady 

Visalia 

Ft. Miller. . 
Ft. Reading 



Lat. 



32° 46' 
34° 58' 
36° 22' 
37° 00' 
,0" 28' 



Mean 
Summer 
Temper- 
ature. 



92V07 IF) 
89".98 (F 
P. 78 (F) 
85°. 70 IF) 
80\27 (F) 



Station. 



San Diego... 
Monterey.... 
Ft. Humboldt 



Lat. 



32° 42' 
36° 37' 
40° 45' 



Mean 
Summer 
Temper- 
ature. 



69°.67 (F) 
59*.73 (F) 
58'. 15 (F) 



Application to Coast Climate. 
The existence of a comparatively warm ocean 
surface north of latitude 41*, and of a compara 
tively cool ocean surface south of the same 
parallel of latitude, ^combined with the direc 
tion of the prevailing winds, serve to explain 
the peculiar and most remarkable features of 
the coast climate of the Pacific slope. For be 
tween the Coast ranges and the sea shore the 
thermal element of climate is governed by the 
temperature of the adjacent oceans. It is not 
necessary to assume that the waters of the 
ocean off the coast of Oregon are absolutely 
warmer than those off the Oolden Gate; for it is 
simply a question whether in the respective 
latitudes the temperature of the surface waters 
of the ocean is higher or lower than that due to 
the normal distribution of solar heat on the 
globe; in other terms, whether the ocean is 
abnormally warm in latitude 47° and abnorm 
ally cool in latitude 37°. Thermometric obser- 
vations on the surface waters of the Pacific 
ocean along the northern portions of the coast, 
sufficiently remote from the shore line to escape 
the influence of the narrow cool current, and at 
the same time to be under the full dominion of 
the "Kuro-Siwo" current, are still great de 
siderata. 

According to the observations made in con 
nection with the operations of the Coast Sur 
vey, the surface temperatures of the ocean 
waters are as follows: 

Off the Golden Gate in winter months 63' (Fah.) 

" " " " " summer " 68' ■' 

Mouthof Columbia river in winter " 60° ' 

' " " " " summer " 60" 1 

(1). Uniformity of Temperature Along the 
Coast. 

The remarkable uniformity of the distribu- 
tion of temperature along the Pacific coast is 
exhibited by the fact that the yearly isotherm 
of 52° (Fah. ) instead of running along the paral- 
lel of latitude actually skirts along the coast in 
a northern direction for about 650 miles, be- 
tween San Francisco and the northwestern part of 
Washington Territory. The same feature is 
indicated by the direction of the winter iso- 
thermsapproximating to parallelism with theline 
of the coast. The same is true of the summer iso- 
therms of 60° (Fah.). Outside the Golden Gate 
the oceanic waters have a temperature of from 
53° to 58° (Fah.) the year round. The presence 
of this comparatively cool ocean, together with 
prevailing westerly winds sweeping the air 
which had been resting over the sea upon the 
adjacent land, impress the chief characters on 
the climate of this coast. 

The characters thus impresbedupon the cli- 
mate of the Pacific coast are as follows : 

(a.) A comparatively high and uniformly 
distributed winter temperature, which is felt 
far in the interior of the continent, through the 
influence of the vast amount of latent heat car- 
ried by the vapor-laden winds during the rainy 
season. 

(b.) We are impressed with the compara- 
tively low summer temperature along the Pacific 
coast west of the Coast ranges; but this does not 
penetrate far into the interior. Indeed, the 
coldest place in the whole of the United States, 
during mid-summer (excepting high mountain 
ranges and peaks), is just outside the Golden 
Gate, where we encounter the summer isotherm 
of 56° (F.), which appears nowhere else during 
this season. With this low summer tempera- 
ture is associated little or no precipitation of 
moisture. The contrast with the Atlantic coast 
is most striking; thus we have near the mouth 
of the Chesapeake bay, in the corresponding 
latitude with San Francisco, a summer temper- 
ature higher by as much as 18° (F. ) 

In winter this contrast between the two 
coasts is of an opposite kind; the winter isotherm 
of 52° ( Fah. ) off the Golden Gate corresponding to 
the winter isotherm of 42° (Fah.) off the mouth of 
the Chesapeake bay. Finally, we "notice the 
extraordinary difference in the range of the 
mean temperature of the extreme seasons; this 
being about 4° (Fah.) on the Pacific and 33° 
(Fah.) on the Atlantic. 

( c. ) We have already noticed the great ac- 
cumulation of heat during summer in the valleys 
lying east of the Coast ranges. During this sea- 
son the indraft of air from the ocean to the 
hot interior, carries with it a deluge of cool at- 
mosphere, of nearly the same temperature as 
the water over which it has passed, which is 
poured in upon the adjacent land. As it ap- 
proaches the shore the slightly higher tension 
of the vapors resting up^n the shallow waters 
and moist land (due to the more etlicient solar 
action upon this shore belt), produces condensa- 
tion of vapors, when the cool aerial wave from 



the Pacific ocean comes in from the west. 
Hence, almost daily during the summer, soon 
after mid-day, huge masses of dense fog-cloud* 
come rolling in from the sea upon the shore; 
which deposit some of their moisture on the 
foothills, and on the slopes of the contiguous 
highlands. But these fog-clouds are completely 
dissipated before reaching the hot sunny val- 
leys of the interior. Between the sea coast 
and the interior valleys there is a region 
of country under the combined influence of 
the climate of the coast and that of the great 
valleys, and, consequently, enjoying a most de- 
lightful climate. Many of the small valleys 
surrounding the Bay of San Francisco, and pen- 
etrating into the interior, as those of Santa 
Clara and Napa, enjoy these advantages. The 
sea-winds with their fog clouds and abundant 
moisture, prevent these valleys from being 
parched with drouth during the rainless sea- 
son, temper the fierceness of the summer heat, 
and moderate the cold of winter. 



E plELD. 



The New Road Law. 

The road law adopted by the last Legislature 
divides the counties of the State, for highway 
purposes, into two classes. The first class in- 
cludes Alameda, Colusa, Fresno, Lake, Los An- 
geles, Nevada, Placer, Sacramento, San Benito, 
San Francisco, San Joaquin, San Mateo, Santa 
Clara, Yolo and Yuba counties; and the second 
class includes Alpine, Amador, Butte, Calaveras, 
Contra Costa, Del Norte, El Dorado, Humboldt, 
Inyo, Kern, Lassen, Marin, Mariposa, Mendo- 
cino, Merced, Modoc, Mono, Monterey, Napa, 
Plumas, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luia 
Obispo, Shasta, Sierra, Santa Barbara, Santa 
Cruz, Siskiyou, Sonoma, Solano, Stanislaus, 
Sutter, Tehama, Trinity, Tulare, Tuolumne and 
Ventura counties. The object of forming the 
two classes appears to be that the counties of 
the first class work under the old law, but in 
counties of the second class, which includes all 
the counties in the Third Congressional District, 
except Colusa, Lake and Yolo, each township is 
declared a road district, and a Road Overseer 
must be elected at the next general election to 
serve for two years from the first Monday of 
January next succeeding. The Board of Super- 
visors may, on the petition of 50 taxpayers, di- 
vide any township into two or more districts. 

The Boards of Supervisors have general super- 
vision over the roads in their respective coun- 
ties, and are obliged to let the lowest bidder a 
contract for the improvement of any road or the 
repairing or construction of any bridge, when 
the amount of work exceeds $200. They are 
also required to erect and maintain milestones 
or posts, and guideposts, on such highways as 
they may designate. They may annually set 
apart 20% of the property road tax collected 
for general county road purposes, to be expended 
for road purposes in which all the inhabitants 
are more or less interested, and to assist weak 
and impoverished districts, but cannot create a 
debt on any road district in excess of 10% of 
the estimated amount of receipts from such dis- 
trict for the next ensuing year. Every male in- 
habitant is required to perform two days road 
labor annually or pay a commutation fee of $3, 
or such smaller amount as may be fixed by the 
Board, who may also compel the payment of $^- 
in lieu of any such labor. The annual property 
tax for road purposes must not exceed 40 cents 
on each $100 of taxable property, and when col- 
lected is turned over to the County Treasurer 
for the use of the district in which it was col- 
lected. 

The Road Overseers must report quarterly, 
and their accounts must show the following: 
The names of all persons assessed to work in 
their respective districts; the names of all who 
have actually worked, and the number of days; 
the names of all who have commuted, and the 
amount collected from them; the names of all 
delinquents, and the amount received from 
them; a full return by items of the amount 
of labor and money expended at each sepa- 
rate point, and the manner in which and the 
time when the same was done; the number of 
road tax receipts sold, and those returned un- 
sold; an accurate account of every day he, 
himself, was employed and the nature and 
items of the service rendered. A failure to 
render such report or to pay over any moneys 
in his hands subjects the Overseer to a penalty 
of .$25. 

Any 10 inhabitants of a road district, taxable 
therein for road purposes, may petition in writ- 
ing to the Board of Supervisors to alter or dis- 
continue any road, or to lay out a new one. 
Petitions for new roads must be considered as 
at present, viewers must be appointed, their re- 
ports heard and a time appointed for hearing 
the matter as at present, the only change seem- 
ing to be, that in appointing viewers it is not 
necessary that one of them should be a surveyor. 
Petitions for private roads are considered in the 
same manner, except when the petitioner files 
with his petition the written consent of all par- 
ties interested in the lands crossed by such pri- 
vate road, then the Board may declare the same 
a private road, and have it recorded. 

All public bridges not specially provided for 
are maintained by the road district in which 
they are Bituated, the districts which they 
unite, and the county at large. Whenever it 
appears to the Board that any road district ii 
or would be unreasonably burdened by the 00a- 

[CONTINUED ON FAGE 42.] 



36 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[July 17, 1880. 



Correspondence invited from all Patrons for this Department. 

The Mythical History of Ceres, Pomona 
and Flora. 

[Written for Rural Press by D. M. S.] 
Belief is an excellent thing to lay upon the 
altars of the musty past; so I would gladly be- 
lieve the heathen story of these goddess patrons 
of grain, fruit and flowers. I am quite willing 
to accept all that is supernatural in the ancient 
pagan account of the three feminine deities. I 
must confess to a little curiosity in the matter 
of mythical lore, which led me to look up the 
origin of the fanciful personages that agricultur" 
ists have ever delighted to honor. 

Mount Olympus, in Macedonia, is famous as 
the residence of the most distinguished of the 
celestial deities, and the clouds which concealed 
the summit of this mountain were believed to 
hide the entrance to heaven. There must have 
been some communication between the two 
worlds, else how could all those gods and god- 
desses troop back and forth at their own sweet 
will. Ceres, the most celebrated of the trio — 
the goddess of grain and harvest among the 
Greeks and Romans — dwelt for a time upon this 
terrestrial elevation. She was the daughter of 
Saturn and Rhea. Her father was the son of 
Heaven and Earth — one of the oldest and princi- 
pal deities, and the sire, also, of Jupiter, Pluto 
and Neptune. Having considered the ancestry, 
I am sorry to be obliged to record that the 
family connections of the ancient dame were 
considerably mixed. Even Mormonism, in the 
19th century, furnishes no parallel case of 
doubled and twisted relationship. Her hus- 
band, Jupiter, and her son-in-law, Pluto, were 
her brothers. This masterful Jupiter had de- 
throned his own and her father, and obtained 
the empire of the universe, which he conde- 
scended to share with his brothers, Neptune and 
Pluto. He was the mightiest of all the Greek 
and Roman gods — the supreme deity. He was 
a much-married god, and Ceres was the fourtli 
of his seven wives. He should have been a 
canonized saint, instead of a heathen god, after 
all these matrimonial ventures. Juno, his 
seventh and last wife, presided over marriages, 
and was supposed to afford protection to mar- 
ried women. I suspect that the pagan mind in- 
clined to the belief that the wedded sisterhood 
were in need of protection, but whether from 
their own husbands or from other women's hus- 
bands, is not stated. 

In her maternal instincts, Ceres resembled 
the mothers of the present time. She did not 
favor Pluto's wooing; and her family troubles 
commenced with the abduction of her daughter, 
Proserpine, by this same god, with the knowl- 
edge and connivance of Jupiter. It is no 
wonder that poor Ceres was disgusted with the 
gods, and quite willing to abandon their abode. 
Like a devoted mother, she followed her child 
to the earth, where she established her seats of 
worship in Rome, Attica, Arcadia and Sicily, 
and was adored under the name of Demeter. 
Her great festivals, in Greece, were the Thes- 
mophoria and Eleusinia. The rites and myster- 
ies of the latter, she shared with her beloved 
daughter. Her Roman festival was called the 
Cerealia. 

Pluto forcibly carried off Proserpine to Hades, 
where she became queen of the infernal regions. 
It is evident that Ceres did not feel honored by 
this new dignity conferred upon her daughter. 
She proceeded to argue the case with impetu- 
ous Pluto, and persuaded him to consent to 
Proserpine's spending part of every year with 
her in the upper world. Hence, she too be- 
came a symbol of vegetation. Pluto, whom 
Homer called Hades, continued to be the god of 
the lower world. 

Ceres finally returned to her mountain; but 
her Jupiter had consoled himself with another 
spouse. In her earthly wanderings in search of 
Proserpine, she had conferred presents and 
blessings upon all who received her kindly, 
which shows that she was a grateful creature. 
There was also a spice of vindictiveness in her 
character; for on those who slighted her gifts 
and treated her inhospitably, she inflicted severe 
punishment. She has been represented in a 
variety of attitudes, sitting, walking and some- 
times riding in a chariot drawn b3' horses or 
dragons. She made herself fantastic, and per- 
haps bewitching, with a head-gear composed of 
garlands of corn and bands of ribbon. In her 
hand she carried a scepter, a bunch of corn, a 
poppy flower, and sometimes a torch or mystic 
basket. It is related of Ceres, that she occa- 
sionally sought forgetfulness from her sorrows 
and family afflictions in soothing drops, from 
the seeds of her favorite white poppy. She 
should be pardoned for wishing to forget such 
a history. 

Pomona, the goddess of fruit trees and gar- 
dens, also has her mythological story. She was a 
married woman, and had her temple in Rome, in 
partnership with a priest. I have never heard 
whether it was the honors or the fruits which 
they divided between them. Their temple was 
called Jlamen Pomonalis. Her husband, Ver- 
tumnas, was of divine origin, and presided over 
the seasons, and the blossoming and bearing of 
trees and plants. In their pursuits there must 
have been a congeniality of spirit and com- 



munity of interests. No domestic infelicity 
disgraces this pagan romance. It may be pre- 
sumed that they were a lovely and exemplary 
couple. Pomona's husband, Vertumnas, was a 
Sabine divinity. He belonged to an ancient 
people in Italy, who were conspicuous in the 
legends and history of Rome. His festival day 
came upon the 23d of August, and was called 
the Vortumnalia. 

Flora is the last, loveliest and least known 
or mentioned of the feminine deities. She 
stands the Roman goddess of spring and flowers, 
too sweet and pure for mortal experiences. She 
is no myth, but a beautiful reality. There is 
no place for scepticism concerning her origin 
andjmission. The last three days of April were 
her festival days in the olden time. Every day 
in the year might be her festival day in Califor- 
nia. 

San Luis Obispo, Cal. 

Visits of the Worthy Master. 

Amos Adams, Sec'y State Grange, makes the 
following announcement in the Patron : The 
W. M. of the State Grange, Bro. B. R. Spil- 
man, who has devoted himself so unselfishly for 
the last two months to the work of the Order 
of which he is the official head in this State, 
has yielded to the solicitations of many friends 
of the Order and consented to devote most of 
the time up to the meeting of the State Grange 
(which takes place on the first Tuesday in Oc- 
tober) in visiting the Subordinate Oranges. I 
repeat the suggestion made in the announcement 
of the last series of meetings: That a closed 
meeting of the Grange be held at 10 o'clock a. 
m., Harvest Feast at 12 m., and an open meet- 
ing in the afternoon. Meetings will be held as 
follows: 

Petaluma, Tuesday, July 20th. 
Two Rock, Wednesday, July 21st. 
Santa Rosa, Thursday, July 22d. 
Healdsburg, Saturday, July 24th. 

The Revised Manual. — W. M. Ireland, 
Sec'y of the National Grange, No. 602 D street, 
Washington City, D. C, announces as follows: 
In compliance with the instructions of the Na- 
tional Grange, given at Canandaigua, N. Y., 
November 28, 1S79 (see page 140, Proceedings 
Thirteenth Session), the Executive Committee 
has had printed the Revised Manual, which is 
now the "authoritative and official Manual of 
the Order," and has placed the same in the 
hands of the Sec'y for issue to Granges. The 
following prices have been fixed for this Manual: 
$14 per hundred copies; §1.75 per dozen copies, 
and 25 cents each for le3s than one dozen. Un- 
less orders are given to the contrary, the books 
will be shipped by express, the party ordering 
to pay the cost. If so desired, the books will 
be sent by mail, registered, in which case the 
postage and registration fee must accompany 
the order. The postage on 12 copies is IS cents, 
and, with 10 cents additional for registration, 
the cost of mailing is 2S cents. In no case will 
a Manual be sold to an individual; and all 
orders for them must bear the seal of the Grange, 
whether State or Subordinate, for which it is 
ordered. 

The Collision on the Sound. — One of the 
theories of the cause of the fatal col- 
lision of the steamers Narraganselt and 
Slonington on Long Island sound recently, is 
that the meaning of one of the prescribed signals 
was misunderstood. The provision of law is that 
when two vessels are approaching each other 
each shall pass to the right, giving as a signal 
that they will take that course one blast of the 
whistle; and if, for any cause, either shall desire 
to pass to the left, it must signal by two short 
blasts in quick succession. The inspectors have 
received information that the Narraganselt, 
when, in the fog at the time of the disaster, 
blew her whistle continuously at intervals of 
half a minute, and that this prescribed fog sig- 
nal was mistaken by the Stonington to mean that 
the Narragansett, which could not be seen at the 
time, meant to her left. If these statements 
are true they will explain in part the cause of 
the fatal blunder. Referring to this disaster, 
the New York Mail makes these pertinent sug- 
gestions : ' 'The crash of the Stonington and Nar- 
ragansett was followed by an outburst of flames 
which forced the bewildered passengers into the 
water almost without time to secure life-pre- 
servers. Had there been no fire the passengers 
could have been removed in the life-boats 
and there might have been no loss of 
life. The fire was caused by gas. Is gas a safe 
illuminator for passenger vessels ? That ques- 
tion is worth consideration by travelers and by 
owners of steamboats. Let the latter inquire 
whether it is not possible to adopt a generator 
which will both furnish their vessels with elec- 
tric headlights, and illuminate the cabins with 
a light which will be perfectly safe." 

The Washington Monument. — We unfor- 
tunately omitted to say in our notice of the 
design for a National Washington Monument, 
which appeared in our issue of July 3d, that 
the design was the work of a Californian, Mr. 
Frank Mathews, of Oakland, a young man who 
makes architectural drafting his specialty, and 
whose work appears on the pages of theCatifornia 
IlluslratedNews. We intended to have used with 
the engraving Mr. Mathews' explanation of the 
several features of his design, but unfortunately 
the manuscript was not available at the time 
the cut was used. We trust this statement will 
aid our readers in giving credit where credit is 
due. 



CALIFORNIA. 

CONTRA COSTA. 

Fine Grain. — Antioch Ledger, July 10: We 
have received from a gentleman who recently 
made a visit to Ygnacio valley, several samDles 
of wheat which indicate that farmers in that 
section of the county have been particularly 
fortunate in that their fields escaped the blight- 
ing effects of the hot northers which occasioned 
so much damage in many portions of the State, 
and especially in the San Joaquin and Sacra- 
mento valleys. The samples of grain received 
were from the farms of Isaac J. Smith, Munson 
Gregory and R. S. Potwin, well-known and 
prosperous farmers who have been residents of 
that valley many years. Our informant says 
that hundreds of acres of wheat stand five ft. in 
hight and some fields even better, with long, 
well filled heads, the kernel being plump and 
beyond danger. The grain in that section is 
not as forward as on this side the Diablo hills. 
Figs, nectarines, olives, peaches, and other 
varieties of fruit grow to perfection in Ygnacio 
valley and are plentiful on the Smith and Greg- 
ory ranches. We have never seen finer speci- 
mens of wheat than those received, as above 
mentioned. 
DEL NORTE. 

Fruit. — Courier, June 30 : A few weeks ago 
fruit prospects in this county never seemed 
more favorable. The trees were covered with 
blossoms, which in due time were shed, leaving 
the young fruit looking well. But, being vis- 
ited by a few seemingly light frosts, they prob- 
ably had the effect of deadening much of the 
young fruit, and thus making the present out- 
look very unfavorable for a large amount of 
fruit. This is particularly the case with ap- 
ples, but perhaps when they become larger 
they will look thicker upon the trees, and after 
all this will be a better year for fruit than is 
now hoped. 
EL DORADO. 

New Winery. — Republican, July 8 : J. H. 
Carroll & Co. are about to build an extensive 
winery at Shingle Springs, to be completed in 
time for this season's crop. The building is to 
bo 40x80, three stories high, with a capacity to 
work up all the grapes that may be offered. 
This will be good news to our grape producers, 
as it will make a ready cash market for their 
product at the very highest market rates, there 
being no middle man in the transaction. 
FRESNO. 

New Wheat. — Republican, July 11: We 
were a few days ago shown a few heads of 
White Australian wheat, grown on the San Joa- 
quin river bottom land, about 12 miles above 
the railroad bridge, by W. J. McNeill. The 
grain came up in a field of Propo wheat, and 
every head has been carefully gathered for seed. 
They are from 6 to 9 inches in length, the ker- 
nels growing in small leaf-like meshes arranged 
regularly on the two sides of the stem, each 
mesh containing from G to 10 kernels of wheat. 
Single heads have yielded over 160 kernels of 
large, beautiful wheat. Mr. McNeill prizes his 
accidental find highly, and anticipates a new 
departure in wheat culture in this county. 

Canes. — Mr. Geo. H. Eggers, of the noted 
Eggers rancho, brought to town this week some 
samples of Sandwich Island sugar cane, which 
he is cultivating in considerable quantity aa an 
experiment and test of its adaptability and prof- 
itableness in this locality. The growth of this 
cane does not seem to be rapid enough to be en- 
tirely satisfactory, although there is plenty of 
time yet for it to fully mature. Mr. E. also 
exhibited several canes of the amber variety, 
which has made a wonderful growth, the canes 
all over the fields reaching a hight of over 12 
ft., and the 3'ield of tons per acre of canes prom- 
ises to be enormous. Messrs. Eggers & Co. 
propose to fully test the practicability of its cul- 
ture, and also the growing of hemp. Of the 
latter, a small patch was planted this spring, 
which is now maturing and is pronounced equal 
in fiber to the best imported article. 
KERN. 

Irrigation. — Ktrn County Californian, July 
10: Mr. J. D. Schuyler, of the State Engineer 
Department, whose official duties have required 
him to examine irrigation works in various 
other localities of California, expresses the 
opinion that in many respects the canals and 
methods of irrigation of Kern valley are de- 
cidedly superior. He says that the canals have 
generally been constructed at less cost per acre 
irrigated than in other parts of the State, and 
that irrigation is conducted with more exact 
system than in most districts he has visited. 
This is particularly the case on the new works 
constructed on the north side of the river. In 
the economical use of water, Mr. Schuyler says 
there is no section to compare with this except 
Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties, 
where the soil naturally requires less, and 
where the scarcity of water compels the irri- 
gator to use it frugally. 

Weeds and Irrigation Ditches. — It must 
be admitted that there are some drawbacks in 
an irrigated country, and one of the most 
serious is the transportation and distribution of 
the seeds of weeds by the canals. A man may 
have his land ever so free from weeds, but when 
he irrigates he is sure to get a fresh seeding. 
The bad effect of this is seen in many other- 
wise promising grain fields, where the weeds 
have almost taken possession, and tower above 
the grain. There should be stringent regulations 



requiring canal companies to clear the banks of 
their canals, for some distance back, of all 
weeds, willows included. By sowing and irri- 
gating early the difficulty can be partially over- 
come, as the grain can thus get a start before 
the weeds and maintain its prestige through the 
season. 

Cotton Growing. — All experiments that 
have ever been tried in Kern county have amply 
demonstrated that the soil and climate of this 
valley is perfectly adapted to the successful 
growth of cotton, that great staple upon which 
the wealth and prosperity of the Southern 
States depend. Some 30 acres of cotton have 
been planted at Haggin & Carr's Poso ranch 
this year, and it is looking as well as possible. 
On the Belle Yiew ranch quite a large tract has 
been planted in cotton, but the army worm has 
damaged it there to some extent. With irri- 
gating ditches, however, it is always possible to 
head off the army worm. 
LOS ANGELES. 

New Dairy House.— Express : The most 
striking feature of the dairy ranch of F. S. 
Clough, in San Mateo canyon, is the new dairy 
house which Mr. Clough recently completed at 
a cost of SI, 500. It is 18x36 ft. in ground di- 
mensions, finished externally in rustic style, 
and inside is as trim and cleanly as the thrifty 
house-wife's "best room." The butter-room, 
an apartment 10x15 ft. in dimensions, is car- 
peted (1) and as inviting as a parlor. The ap- 
paratus for handling the milk and making the 
butter is complete in every detail, and is de- 
signed throughout for the saving of labor. A 
receiving vessel, fitted with a strainer, is lo- 
cated in the milking yard, and this communi- 
cates by a pipe with the dairy house. The 
milkers pour their milk into this receiver and 
that is the end of their duties. The milk passes 
down through the pipe to a 200 gallon tank in 
the dairy house, whence it is drawn by the 
dairymen, undergoing, meanwhile, a second 
straining process. It is then placed in pans to 
cool and raise the cream. Water is brought in 
pipes through the house from a mountain spring. 
The churn holds 52 gallons of cream and turns 
out from 100 to 120 lbs. of butter at each churn- 
ing. It is worked by goat-power, the appliance 
being a treading wheel 18 ft. in diameter, 
which connects with and operates a shaft run- 
ning into the dairy house, and this in turn con- 
necting with cog-wheels working the dashers. 
Mr. Gow says that the goats, in operating the 
wheel, indulge their natural propensity for 
climbing, and they apply themselves to the 
work with great gusto. The herd consists of 
some 8 or 10 animals, ranging from the grand- 
mother and old Billy with the whiskers down 
to the youngling not over a foot high. When 
released from their pen they one and all, great 
and small, run bleating for the wheel, and the 
only trouble to contend with thereafter is the 
excess of power which they are apt to give it in 
the course of their frolicsome gambols. 

The Sugar-Beet Crop.— Mr. Gennert informs 
us that the sugar-beet crop will be harvested 
at the end of this month. It is maturing now 
very rapidly and the beets are developing into 
great proportions. The analysis of the speci- 
mens brought to his laboratory a few weeks 
ago showed that they contained a very satisfac- 
tory percentage of sugar. The average yield of 
Nadeau's 700 acres of beets near Florence will 
be about 15 tons to the acre. There has been 
some damage done to the crop by gophers, but 
not to any serious extent. The sugarie will be 
ready for the beets as soon as they arc harvested. 
The machinery is all in place, and the finishing 
touches are being put to the building. 

MARIN. 

New Wharf. — Journal July 8 : The dairy- 
men of Point Reyes, in the vicinity of the 
"Chicken Ranch," turned out in large numbers 
with their horse and ox teams a short time ago, 
and in one day built a good substantial wharf 
at the landing, much to the joy of the men who 
do the freighting between the Point and San 
Francisco. The vessels were away at the time 
and all hands were agreeably surprised on their 
arrival back from the city. 

NAPA. 

A Prolific Cherry Orchard. — Register, 
July 10: The largest cherry orchard in this val- 
ley, now in bearing, owned by W. H. Chapman, 
and situated one mile west of the Court House, 
is also the most productive, and cannot be ex- 
celled by any in the State. The orchard con- 
sists of three acres of fine healthy trees, planted 
20 ft. apart in a light, loamy and very deep 
soil, in a bend of Napa creek. Many of the 
trees are 15 years old. The principal varieties 
raised are Black Tartarians, Bigarreaus and 
Pontiacs. The former is in greater demand as 
table fruit, always commanding good prices. 
For canning purposes, the firm-meated Bigar- 
reaus and other white varieties are fast growing 
in popularity. Owing to the favorable location 
of this orchard, the trees have yielded abund- 
antly every year but one since it was planted. 
The crop this year is larger than in any previous 
season. One bough, 30 inches long, cut from a 
Bigarreau tree yesterday, had 160 cherries 
thereon, and this was but one of hundreds. 
The oldest trees yielded this year from 300 to 
400 lbs. each. Seven persons are at present 
engaged in picking and packing the fruit, the 
latter operation being done in a very neat man- 
ner, so the fruit may present an attractive ap- 
pearance in the market. They are put in five- 
pound drawers, 12 of which fill a chest. The 
range of prices for Black Tartarians during the 
season is from $1 to SI. 50 per drawer. The 
season commenced about the middle of May, 



July 17, i88o.l 



THE PACIFIC BUHL PRESS. 



37 



and will close about July 15th. One of the 
finest varieties found in this orchard is the 
Centennial, a seedling raised by Mr. Chapman, 
much resembling the Bigarreau, which it excells 
in every way. It is a beautiful cherry. After 
repeated experiments in this orchard, it has 
been found that grafts on Mahaleb stocks do 
not thrive, whereas those on the Mazzard and 
Standard stocks make vigorous, hardy, pro- 
ductive trees. Mr. Chapman smokes his 
orchard in the spring to prevent injury by frost. 
He says he will smoke in the future, when the 
trees are in blossom, whether there is danger 
from frost or not, as from past experience he 
is confident the operation is very beneficial to 
the trees, causing the fruit to sell better. 
Cherries from Napa valley are in large demand 
in the markets, and always command the high- 
est prices. 

SAN BERNARDINO. 

Riverside Fruit Packing Co. — Press, July 
10: On Tuesday, July 6th, the work of canning 
fruit was commenced at the cannery just estab- 
lished by the Riverside Fruit Co. This com- 
pany is composed of San Jose capitalists and the 
works here are under the management of W. H. 
Wright, Supt. Mr. W., has been connected at 
San Jose for some 10 years and is thoroughly 
conversant with the business. Temporary 
buildings are used this year, as work was com- 
menced too late a date to allow of erecting per- 
manent buildings. The cannery is located iu the 
adobe building on Eighth street just west of 
Lyon & Rosenthal : s store. Adjoining this 
adobe has been put up temporary sheds for use 
this season. Mr. W. expects to be able soon 
to put up about 5,000 cans of fruit per day, 
which is equal to about five tons. The stock of 
cans on hand now is something over 50,000 and 
each week turns out 15,000 more. They have 
on hand two car-loads of sugar with which to 
make syrup for the fruit and enough material 
for caps to put up all the surplus fruit of San 
Bernardino county, which will aggregate this 
year probably 200 tons, or 200,000 cans. Were 
it not for this cannery this great fruit surplus, 
which is worth to the producers $10,000, would 
mostly go to waste; much of it would be dried 
and some would be canned, but a greater por- 
tion would as heretofore rot on the ground. 

SAN DIEGO. 

Honey. — News: Harbison & Dowling were 
again among the shippers of honey yesterday. 
Young Mr. Harbison said to us that the honey 
was coming in rather slowly, and we agreed. 
The fact is, for the last two weeks flowers seem 
barren of the usual sweets, and it threatens the 
crop with a cut down to under our previous 
guess at the average of a half crop. An At- 
kinson correspondent says : The honey crop in 
this county will be fully fifty per centum below 
the crop of year before last. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

Experiments in Wheat Culture. — Stockton 
Independent: David Dodge brought to this office 
yesterday samples of two varieties of wheat 
raised by him this year on his farm on the Cala- 
veras river bottom lands, about 10 miles from 
the city. The Australian white wheat, heavy 
headed and slightly bearded variety, will, it is 
estimated, yield at a rate of about 30 bushels to 
the acre this season. Ho has only about one- 
eighth of an acre, having sown only two pounds 
of seed. It was sown in January last and is 
perfectly ripe. From the two pounds of seed 
he expects a yield of not less than 300 lbs. The 
other is called Mold's White Winter wheat, a 
small quantity of which he received from the 
Agricultural Department at Washington seve- 
ral years ago. The first sowing was disappoint- 
ing in its results. The young plants spread 
over the surface of the ground, matted together 
and failed to send up more than a few stalks, 
the seed produced on which he carefully pre- 
served for future experiment. Next time he 
had better luck, and the best developed heads 
only were preserved for seed. That now ready 
for harvesting was sown on the 27th of Decem- 
ber. The grain is entirely beardless and the 
heads long and heavy. Mr. D. believes that it 
will yield at the rate of 40 or 45 bushels to the 
acre. The straw is taller and stronger than 
that of the Australian white wheat, but the 
berry of the latter is a little larger than the for- 
mer. Both are beautiful samples, and it is Mr. 
D's intention to experiment still further in their 
culture. He proposes to try the drilling method, 
and is sanguine in the belief that by selecting 
only the best heads and most perfect grain for 
Seed, and pursuing the most approved methods 
of culture, he will be able to increase the yield 
to not less than 100 bushels to the acre. Ten 
acres of good land will be selected upon which 
to carry out the experiments he proposes to try. 
He thinks, and rightly too, that a classification 
of wheat is much required in this State, with a 
view of ascertaining and pointing out the rela- 
tive value of varieties in their quantity of flour, 
weight of bran, etc. , weight of the straw of 
each, and their adaptation to soils. 

SOLANO. 

Threshing. — Dixon Tribune: George Cooper 
bought a Minnesota Chief of George Cadman, 
and has now given it a satisfactory trial, as it 
is a new machine in these parts farmers may be 
interested in learning that it works exceedingly 
well. Eight hundred sacks of barley were 
threshed with it in two-thirds of a day. Its 
principal merit, however, lies in cleaning the 
grain very thoroughly. In the particular case 
mentioned above the sacks averaged 112 lbs. 
each. J. M. Dudley's new style thresher not 
being finished in time for the beginning of the 



season, he will go to work with his old Pitts' 
separator. If the new machine is sent up from 
Vallejo, he will give it a trial some time during 
the season. 

Harvest Notes. — About 60 tons of wheat 
were hauled into tow Thursday, but it will soon 
be coming in faster. Jos. Kline, John Johnson, 
Richard Hall, W. R. Ferguson, and N. B. S. 
Coleman are among those who have been haul- 
ing. Most of the grain is of good weight — 140 
lbs. or over to the sack, though some shrunken 
goes as low as 125. In most cases the yield is 
reported good. Mr. Johnson will get about 
3,000 sacks from 180 acres. The best wheat we 
have yet seen is from G. C. McKinley's field — 
being that which he has improved by several 
years' attention. The kernels are very large. 

Fourth Volunteer. — N. B. S. Coleman, 
who hauled the first barley into town this sea- 
son, raised a crop of 30 bushels to the acre on 
land that had not been plowed for nine years. 
The present was the fourth volunteer crop, and 
oost but 50 cents an acre to put in. The qual- 
ity was very fine. 

SONOMA. 

Crop Prospects. — Democrat, July 10: The 
cloudy weather that has prevailed for several 
days past has had a most beneficial effect upon 
the cereals in this vicinity, and in fact in all the 
western and southwestern sections of the 
county. A farmer who owns a large ranch a 
short distance west of here, says that much of 
his adobe land will yield 40 or 50 bushels of 
wheat to the acre, and the crop promises better 
than it has for the past 15 years. A close ob- 
server from Bloomfield informed us on Wednes- 
day, that the farmers in all parts of Big valley 
felt greatly encouraged at the prospect, and he 
believed the yield of grain in Sonoma county 
would be much greater this year than even the 
most sanguine ever anticipated. Our attention 
has been called to the unusual fact, that wheat 
that was short and stunted in growth, that 
averaged not more than 18 inches in bight, had 
headed out well and would yield a fair crop. 
The quality of the wheat promises to be excel- 
lent. The berry seems to be plump and sound, 
and when threshed, will make a first-class mer- 
chantable grain. One fact, however, must be 
noticed, and that is, that much of the land is 
foul, being overrun with those two pests, dog 
fennel and wild turnip or mustard, hence large 
quantities of the grain will have to be thor- 
oughly cleaned. Rust, which always injures 
more or less the grain crop in wet winters like 
the last, has been almost unknown this season. 
In fact, we have the first complaint to hear 
about its ravages as yet. 

Sheep Killed by Leeches. — Healdsburg 
Flag: Week before last we mentioned that 
Young Bros, and Cagwin of this section had 
lost 50 head of sheep since shearing, and that 
upon dissection of the dead bodies leeches were 
found in the liver and gall. On Saturday last 
we were informed by Mr. Michael Young that 
over 300 tine stock in splendid condition, had 
died since shearing, and that the copperas fed to 
them did them no good. On the "day before 
Frank Sinclair, a neighboring sheep-raiser, ad- 
vised Mr. Young to examine the spring. They 
examined it togethtr and found the mud at the 
bottom alive with the same kind of leeches as 
were found in the carcases of the sheep, taper- 
ing at both ends, with red stripes on the back, 
length of body from J of an inch to 6 inches in 
length. Placing one of these on the liver of one 
of the dead animals, it forthwith buried itself 
out of sight, and after being cut out, repeated 
the operation. A remarkable feature of the 
pasture is that Henry Gird remembers to have 
lost a band of fine fat cattle out of it from the 
same disease, these very leeches having been 
discovered in the liver of the carcases. It is 
presumed that the water is full of infinitesimal 
germs, and as Young and Sinclair both drank at 
the spring, we hope their livers and galls will 
not become infested as in the case of the 
unfortunate animals. H. R. Brown, a large 
sheep-raiser on the Geyser range, states that he 
has a work that describes the leech and reports 
similar cases to this; also that losses are con- 
stantly experienced on the Cotate ranch in this 
county along the lagoon. Mr. Young will 
fence his stock away from the spring but expects 
the rest of his sheep, having drank the water, 
will also die in a few weeks. It is now believed 
that it must have been the leech and not the 
milk weed that created the loss to Mr. Young 
last year. 

SUTTER. 

Grain. — Harkey's Corner's Cor. Banner: The 
Best Bros, have the honor of blowing the first 
steam whistle, threshing barley on the Harkey 
ranch on the 1 6 th of June, as well as threshing 
the first wheat on the 28th. We paid a visit 
to the ranch of Henry Best on June 29th, 
where they were engaged in heading and 
threshing on a quarter section of summer-fallow 
wheat, to learn to what extent the crop had 
been injured by the north wind. Arriving at 
the machine, it only needed one glance at the 
genial face of the proprietor to tell that it was 
turning out well. The quality also was good, 
and we have since learned that the yield was a 
little over 40 bushels per acre. It is not rea- 
sonable to suppose that this is an average, inas- 
much as all early grain on alkali or adobe soil 
has suffered much more from the blight. And 
to sum up the damage, we should say that the 
summer-fallow and early winter-sown, which 
comprises one-half the acreage, has been cut 
short one-fourth, and the final result is that the 
prospective crop has been reduced one-eighth 
by the blight. 



TEH MA, 

Editors Press: — The weather has been very 
favorable for harvest ever since my last, until 
last evening, when a strong north wind sprang 
up, which has blown all day to-day, but is now 
moderating. Heading and threshing are being 
vigorously carried on throughout our agricul- 
tural county, and she will be among the front 
rank of grain-producing counties this year. 
New wheat is daily arriving from the ranches 
at the several grain depots, and from the dealers 
I learn that the grain offered is on an average 
better than either the dealers or producers had 
any idea of its being this year, and that the 
damage reported earlier in the season by the 
north wind was very much exaggerated. The 
market has not opened up yet, only a few 
small lots having been purchased by local 
millers. No crops of any magnitude have yet 
been contracted for. J. S. Cone, of the Ante- 
lope ranch, has teams hauling his immense crop 
into the warehouse at the railroad depot at this 
point. R. H. Blossom, his neighbor, generally 
sells at Sesma. He reports his harvest to be 
progressing very satisfactorily, and the grain is 
plump, full and clean. He will have more grain 
this year than last. H. A. Rawson, of the well- 
known sheep firm of Rawson Bros., has a finer 
crop this year than he has ever harvested in 
this valley, and his grain is excellent. Since 
threshing has commenced and a thorough ex- 
amination of cereals has been had, we realize 
the glad fact that Tehama county will roll up 
an immense quantity of grain for 1880. On 
the old "Thomes grant," owned by J. Finnell 
& Sons, of Napa, the renters and owners 
together will gather near 400,000 bushels of 
wheat. This of itself is a fine showing, and we 
have other large farms which will pile up more 
in proportion than the famed old "grant." Our 
smaller farms have all got excellent crops this 
year, owing to the careful state of cultivation 
and the good season. Improved times are 
looked forward to by our hard-working agri- 
culturists, and it is devoutly to be hoped that a 
fair paying price for their produce will be 
offered by dealers at the proper time. As yet, 
we have heard of no very poor crops having 
been harvested in our county, and those who 
fancied they were damaged seriously during the 
north wind, are agreeably surprised at the 
slight damage their crops sustained. At no 
time in the history of our county has the pros- 
pect looked brighter for its future and her 
industrious husbandmen than they do at this 
writing. Long may she prosper ! — Felix, Red 
Bluff, July 10th. 
YOLO. 

Harvesting. — Knight's Landing Cor. Demo- 
crat : C. F. Reed is now running seven self- 
binding reapers and a large steam thresher in 
his immense wheat field, and working over 50 
men and about as many threshers. The reap- 
ers run night and day, and it is his calculation 
to run that way until the grain becomes too 
ripe to cut with reapers and theu put on head- 
ers and finish up. Everything goes as smooth 
as clockwork, and the grain is turning out well 
and is of good quality. As a rough estimate, 
his crop this year is set down at 60,000 sacks. 

Odd Fellows' Library Association. — We 
have received from Mr. Geo. A. Carnes, libra- 
rian, the 25th annual report of this association 
for 1879-80. The report shows a very credita- 
ble condition of affairs. The receipts for the 
year were $10,549.99, and the disbursements 
$8,673.26, of which sum $2,693.89 were paid for 
books, newspapers and magazines, and for bind- 
ing and repairing books. The number of vol- 
umes on the register is 36,777. During the 
year donations of 425 volumes were made to the 
House of Correction and 189 to the State Prison 
at San Quentin. The number of volumes lent 
during the year was 96,567, classified as follows: 
belles lettres, 2,736; biography and letters, 3,- 
054; history, 2,798; novejs, 76,819; periodicals, 
2,711; poetry and drama, 2,235; science and art, 
2,074; theology, 365; voyages and travels, 3,- 
145. It will be observed that the taste of the 
ordinary reader, who has not yet learned to 
select "books which are books," tends towards 
the novel, but Mr. Carnes says it is his ambition 
to bring the circulation of the novel within the 
limits of the rule in the so-called "intelligent " 
communities of the Eastern States, beyond 
which his association is now some 8% or 10% in 
excess. The Librarian utters a mild but very 
reasonable complaint against the general prac- 
tice of marring and defacing the books, to which 
grievous offence the softer sex is chiefly obnox- 
ious. The more intelligent readers, too, are by 
no means blameless in this matter, for it appears 
that some of them are addicted to the vanity of 
interlining passages and scoring the margin with 
notes. Elia prattles with affectionate pride of 
his friend Coleridge's wont to "enrich with an- 
notations, trippling their value," his darling 
folios; but it should not be forgotten that there 
are not many Coleridge's among even the criti- 
cal readers of a library. Good books are al- 
ways entitled to reverence. 

The Tay Bridge Disaster.— The Tay bridge 
commissioners have presented two reports. The 
majority report censures more or less severely 
the contractors, engineer and North British 
Railway Company. The design of the bridge is 
condemned, and the company charged with 
neglecting to keep it in proper repair. Although 
the construction of the bridge was faulty, the 
commissioners believe it might have weathered 
the storm and lasted for years had it been kept 
in thorough repair. The minority report arrives 
at substantially the same conclusion, but differs 
I on matters of detail, 



News in Brief. 

Tom Taylor, the dramatist, died suddenly 
in London, July 12th. 

Considerable damage was caused by a 
cloud-burst near Yreka, Siskiyou Co., July 5th. 

Henry M. Stanley has been made a doctor 
of philosophy by the German Academy of Natu- 
ralists. 

The entire press of Texas, without exception, 
condemn in the strongest terms the acquittal of 
Currie. 

Two colored boys have passed the examina- 
tions for entrance to the Reading (Pa.) High 
School. 

In this city Robert Neil, a twelve-year-old 
boy, committed suicide rather than be returned 
to school. 

TnE increase of acreage in grain in Wasco 
county, Oregon, is five times what it was three 
years ago. 

From: the agricultural districts of France 
come reports of good weather and prospects of a 
rich harvest. 

There were 40,000 cars built in the United 
States last year, and there will be about 50,000 
built this year. 

The Snake river in Oregon was rechristened 
by the Villard party, and now goes by the name 
of the Lewis river. 

Adjutant-Gen. Jones of Texas reports that 
the State has about 6,000 criminals at large, 1,000 
of them murderers. 

A banquet took place in Liverpool, July 5th, 
given by the United States Consul in honor of 
Independence Day. 

A cool wave struck Salt Lake July 12th, 
and snow fell in the Wasatch mountains to a 
depth of four inches. 

The peasants of Lombardy live chiefly on 
black bread and a broth made of rice, a few vege- 
tables and rancid oil. 

It is said that young laborers will soon be- 
come scarce in Ireland if the present rate of 
emigration continues. 

One of the census enumerators of McLen- 
nan count)', Texas, found a widow 35 years old 
with a son 27 years of age. 

In Mono Co., Cal., there is a giant juniper 
tree fully 60 ft. in circumference, with limbs 
five to six ft. in diameter. 

Says the Merced Express: A good crop of 
wheat in this county is always succeeded by a 
large fall crop of weddings. 

The visible supply of petroleum is the larg- 
est known in the history of the trade, being 
estimated at 9,000,000 to 10,000,000 barrels. 

Samuel P. Bowles, ex-County Engineer, of 
Cincinnati, convicted of forging county bonds, 
was sentenced to ten years in the penitentiary. 

The Big Horn was the first boat out of the 
Yellowstone this season, and brought down 
5,000 buffalo robes and large quantities of furs. 

Berkeley Springs, Va. , is said to be the oldest 
watering place in the country, dating from the 
aborigines, who discovered the virtues of the 
waters. 

A suit for $25,000 has been brought against 
the city of Augusta, Ga., for injuries to a child 
that had been gored by a cow running loose in 
the streets. 

The old whipping-post in Raleigh, N. C, 
which had been used as a hitching-post since 
1868, has disappeared from its place near the 
Court-house. 

Light wines, bread, coffee, salad, vegetables 
and fruit form the staple diet of the working- 
men of Paris. The vegetables are good, plenti- 
ful and cheap. 

The Belgian Bishops have advised the Vatican 
that their action will be more free and power- 
ful since the rupture of diplomatic relations 
with Belgium. 

A British ship has sailed for Texas with 
3,500 barrels of oil, made for the purpose of 
preserving railroad ties and bridge timbers un- 
der a new process. 

There are 38 Masonic Lodges in Washington 
Territory, representing something over 1,000 
members, St. Johns of Seattle being the largest, 
it having 80 members. 

The scheme of mutual aid among the Masons 
of Mississippi, inaugurated in February last, is 
an assured success. The membership within 
the year will number 2,000. 

The corps of able ladies who make Demo- 
rest's Monthly so attractive to their sex, has 
filled the July number with all manner of inter- 
esting and instructive things. 

In Switzerland, July 4th, there occurred a 
severe and widespread earthquake. A large 
area of wooded land was covered, and two per- 
sons are known to have been killed. 

While a mail agent of Little Rock was han- 
dling a mail pouch rather roughly, a loud ex- 
plosion occurred inside of it. It was caused by 
a loaded revolver mailed by a Texan. 

California's wool clip this year (spring and 
fall) will probably be not less than 35,000,000 
lbs. The total value of it promises to be nearly 
double that of any preceding wool crop. 

A drunken driver, July 12th, while driving 
from the Glen House to the summit of Mount 
Washington, N. H., capsized the stago contain- 
ing nine persons, killing one and seriously in- 
juring five others. He was fatally injured. 

In the heart of a large pine tree, recently 
cut down by Jonathan Oatley, of Unadilla 
Forks, N. Y., was found an Indian pipe of 
stone, with the date roughly carved on it, 1783. 

A New York man was challenged to fight a 
duel the other day, and being at liberty to 
choose his own weapons, proposed a trip to Bos- 
ton on a Sound steamer. The challenger backed 
out. 



38 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July 17, 1880. 




Make Childhood Sweet 

Walt not till the little hands are at rest 

Ere you All them full of flowers; 
Wait not for the crowning tuberose 

To make sweet the last sad hours; 
But while in the busy household band, 
Your darlings still need your guiding hand, 

Oh, fill their lives with sweetness. 

Wait not till the little hearts are still, 

For the loving look and phrase; 
But while you gently chide a fault, 

The good deed kindly praise, 
The word you would speak beside the bier 
Falls sweeter far on the living ear, 

Oh, fill young lives with sweetness. 

Ah! what are kisses on clay cold lips 

To the rosy mouth we press, 
When our wee ones fly to their mother's arms, 

For love's tenderest caress ? 
Let never a worldly bauble keep 
Your heart from the joy each day should reap, 

Circling young lives with sweetness. 

Give thanks each morn for the sturdy boys, 

Give thanks for the fairy girls; 
With a dower of wealth like this at home, 

Would you rifle the earth for pearls ? 
Wait not for death to gem love's crown, 
But daily shower life's blessings down, 

And fill young hearts with Bweetness. 

Remember the home where the life has fled, 

Where the roses have faded away; 
And the love that grows in youthful hearts, 

Oh! cherish it while you may! 
And make your home a garden of flowers, 
Where Joy shall bloom through childhood's hours, 

Aud fill young hearts with Bweetness. 



On the Go. 

.Editors Press: — On they go, the tourist, the 
tramp, the moving, flitting throng, hurrying 
hither and thither in quest of what the heart 
seldom realizes — happiness. The tourist will 
encounter fatigue, climb mountains, descend 
into valleys almost inaccessible, visit distant 
lands, spending fortunes, wearing out soul and 
body in a fruitless search. And for what ? 
HappinesB ! Men in affluent circumstances, 
surrounded by peace and plenty in rural homes, 
will make a sacrifice of all home's endearments. 
Convert the cows into cash, and pack the house- 
hold into a carry-all, shed a tear at parting with 
scenes, hallowed by life's dearest associations, 
and on they go to some far-off fairer domain 
"where roses bloom and myrtles twine;" hopes 
high for happiness in the roseate future, with 
never a cloud to darken life's horizon. But> 
ah, how soon the sun is veiled. 

The world seems to be on the go, from morn- 
ing until night; ftom Maine to Alaska; from 
Rome around the globe to Rome again, and 
all for happiness, impelled by a force intangi- 
ble to the senses. Have you ever found a sin- 
gle son or daughter belonging to God's family 
who have found what they were in quest of ? — 
happiness ! Ask the returned tourist, the im- 
migrant, the hurrying throng, the frequenters 
of cars and steamboats, etc. , and the tired sigh 
will arise: "All is vanity. Would I were 
home again I" Home again, what magic in 
that word ? What happiness clusters around 
home's altar ? The heart's temple — the place 
above all places where happiness, true happi- 
ness, is found. Do we fully appreciate its 
blessings, its divine character, its many sources 
of happiness ? It would seem not from the 
daily tossings hither and thither the mothers 
and buds of paradise are subjected to. The 
immigrant's wagon contains the all saved from 
home's wreck and ruin. The little ones appear- 
ing as if deprived of an abiding place in a 
strange land, create a sympathy as they pass 
along in quest of that which they have left be- 
hind — happiness. But doubtful and dark the 
future to those who hazard life's fortunes, seek- 
ing that which eludes their grasp, because 
sought for in a way that it is seldom found. 

My experience, by observation and contact 
with tourists, goes to prove that happiness be- 
longs to those who cultivate home associations; 
who withstand the temptations of a far-off 
paradise, where it is declared fabulous wealth 
may be gained in a day. I fear that we cannot 
fully appreciate home blessings, until we are de- 
prived of them. We look afar off for a happi- 
ness we then enjoy, but cannot appreciate, until 
we foolishly sacrifice all on the altar of change, 
and find, when on the go, that we have lost 
that which we have in vain sought to find. 

We may perch ourselves on Yosemite's high- 
est dome; we may traverse Europe and the Holy 
Land, or China's flowery kingdom, in search of 
happiness, and find it not; and why? Scenes of 
nature are truly grand and beautiful; changing 
scenes are ever a pleasure to the eye. We seek 
and we find, but not that which satisfies the 
longing soul within. A vacuum seems to exist, 
go where we may, or do what we will. What 
then will produce a lasting and true happiness? 
This is a problem which lovers of change are 
seeking to solve. 

The wrocks and ruins of life attest to the 



very few who attain God's grandest gift to man 
— happiness; and why? Because man seeks it 
"on the go," instead of within. True happi 
ness is found by "doing good to one another;' 
not living so much for self as for the happiness 
and elevation of the human race. And where 
can you plant and grow fruitful seed which shall 
produce an abundant harvest of happiness, if 
not around and within the sacred precincts of 
home? If it is humble, contentment will enrich 
it into a palace. If it is a center of refinement 
and wealth, make it an attraction to those less 
favored. A glow of love permeates the soul of 
the philanthrophist for every noble act and im- 
pulse, and soon the reign of true happiness and 
peace will begin upon earth, ending in eternal 
happiness in heaven. John Taylor. 

Mt. Pleasant, July 8, 1880. 



How She Married Him. 

Keziah Buckthorne had survived, by a con- 
siderable period, whatever of feminine charms 
and graces she might have once possessed, when 
a handsome fortune dropped down upon her as if 
from the clouds. 

Had the riches come a score of years sooner 
there is no telling what might have been. Ke- 
ziah's attractions had never been, so to 
speak, dazzling. But 20 years have great 
potency in turning dimples into wrinkles and 
lines of beauty into crows' feet; and many an 
adventurous Ca lebs who might have found Miss 
Buckthorne a match acceptable, with such a 
fortune, at 25, passed her by at 45, saved from 
the sin of covetousness by the reflection that 
she and her money were inseparable conjuncts, 

Even Topham Gynblaney, the daily problem 
of whose life is to keep adjusted the balance be 
tween a very moderate income and quite ex- 
pensive tasteB, and who looked upon a thrifty 
marriage as the goal of human wishes, after a 
few visits of reconnoissance to Kesiah, which 
left him in doubt that he had but to say the 
word to receive a gracious answer, left the word 
unspoken. 

Mr. Gynblaney's visits had ceased for some 
weeks, when a message came one day that Miss 
Buckthorne was quite ill — had fallen into a de- 
cline, in fact — and had been given up by Dr. 
Croke. She desired to see Mr. Gynblaney and 
such other friends as might wish to bid her 
farewell ere she started on that journey whence 
there is no return. 

Of course there was no refusing such a re 
quest. Decorously clad in solemn black, and 
with a face put on to match, Topham Gynblaney 
presented himself at the invalid's door. 

"How is she, Doctor?" he inquired gravely, of 
a dried-up little man, who met him at the 
threshhold with a countenance in which was 
a whole homily on the vanity of hope. 

" Sinking rapidly," Dr. Croke replied; "those 
who wish to see her alive have no time to 
spare. " 

"There is no chance for her, then?" 
"Not the slightest. Constitution gone — ner- 
vous system shattered — lung collapsed — no re- 
cuperative force — no — " 

''How long do you think she'll last?" inter- 
rupted Topham, anxiously. 

"Eight-and-forty hours at the furthest; more 
likely less than half of it." 

'Would you like to see her?" asked the doc- 
tor, at length. 

'I called for that purpose," returned the 
other. 

"Let me apprise her of your presence," said 
the doctor; "in her present state any sudden 
surprise might prove fatal." 

After a brief absence the doctor returned. 
"This way," he said, leading the visitor to 
the sick room. 

Mr. Gynblaney was shocked at the spectacle 
that met him. His heart, we have hinted, was 
pretty tough; but tough as it was, it was touched 
at the 'sight of the pale emaciated face — enough 
of itself to dispel all doubt of the truth of the 
doctor's predictions. 

'This — is — very — kind — of you, Top — Mr. 
Gyn — blaney, I mean, " the sick lady murmured, 
a spasmodic cough interrupting her words. 

Mr. Gynblaney took the chair placed for him 
at the bedside, and clasping in his own the thin 
hand extended to welcome him, returned its 
trembling pressure. 

The doctor and the nurse retired to prepare a 
posset for the patient, leaving the latter and 
Mr. Gynblaney alone. 

"I trust you will be better soon," said Mr. 
Gynblaney, with well-meant hypocrisy. 

"That — is — past — hoping — for," was the 
scarcely audible answer. "Dr. — Croke — has — 
told — me — the — worst. " 

Dr. Croke, we may here remark, always told 
his patients the worst. If they got well the 
more credit to him. If they died, of course it 
wasn't his fault. 

A sudden though flashed across Mr. Gyn- 
blaney. If he could only marry Miss Buck- 
thorne now ! In two days or less, he would be 
a widower, and the lawful possessor of his wife's 
fortune. Here was an opportunity indeed. 

Rubbing his eyes with his handkerchief till 
they watered and looked red from the force of 
the friction, he gave the hand in his another and 
more tender pressure. 

'Dear Keziah," he whispered softly between 
his sobs, "how — how — cruel that — that we sh — 
should be parted thus 1" 

"I have long cherished the purpose," he went 
on hurriedly, mastering his emotion with an 
effort, ' 'of asking you to be mine. Diifidenoe 
alone restrained me. But if you will even now 
consent—" 1 



"Do — you — feel — that — it — would — be — a — 
comfort — to you — Top — Topham, dea — " 

The cough would not allow her to finish. 

"It would ! — it would I" he exclaimed, with a 
hurst of well-feigned feeling. "To call you 
mine, but for an hour, though I lost you the 
next, would forever link my soul to a precious 
memory which — which — " 

Mr. Gynblaney was on the point of ending 
his flight in an inglorious flop-down when 
Keziah came to the rescue. 

' 'It — shall — be — as — you — please, — dear, " 
she sighed. 

"No time is to be lost !" he cried, springing 
up. "Let us send for a minister at once 1" 

Just then the doctor and the nurse returned 
The minister was summoned, and a few minutes 
sufficed to make Topham Gynblaney and Kesiah 
Buckthorne one flesh. 

A tinge which might have passed for a blush 
20 years ago, overspread the bride's counten- 
ance. For some moments she lay like one en 
tranced with happiness. 

"Toppy, dear, she said, when they were 
again alone, "I feel as if I could eat something; 
they've kept me on gruel till I'm nearly 
starved. " 

"What would you like dearest ?" 

"Some tea and toast, and chops, and boiled 
eggs, and " 

"Good heavens !" exclaimed the doctor, en- 
tering in time to catoh a portion of the list, " do 
you wish to commit suicide ?" 

"What hurt can it do ?" she answered. "You 
have already told me there is no Hope." 

"I think we might as well gratify her," her 
husband added; and finding himself outvoted, 
the doctor held up his hand in horrified protest. 

The repast was brought and received ample 
justice. 

Next morning Mrs. Gynblaney was up by- 
times packing her trunks for an elaborate wed- 
ding tour, from which her husband and the 
doctor strove in vain to dissuade her. It would 
be hard to tell which of them was most amazed. 
Both were firmly convinced that the age of 
miracles was not yet past — unless, as the dis- 
consolate Gynblaney half suspected, he had 
been made the victim of a cunning plot. 

Ten years have passed and Topham Gynblaney 
has still the old problem to puzzle over, for 
Mrs. Gynblaney holds her own purse strings, 
and insists on "Toppy 's" living on his own in- 
come. — Selected. 



Our Boys. 

Last Saturday one of our saloons was pretty 
well filled with half-grown boys and young men, 
more or less under the influence of drink, and 
engaged in playing for beer. The outcome was 
the arrest of a young man by the Marshal, and 
his trial on Monday under the ordinance against 
drunkenness. The defense attempted to prove 
that the prisoner was not drunk, but simply 
jolly and sociable. The witnesses were mostly 
boys from 15 to 20 years of age, and they lacked 
the experience to make so nice a distinction. 
The defense failed, and Recorder Cunningham 
fined the prisoner $15, with the alternative of 
15 days' confinement. 

There is a law forbidding the sale of intoxi- 
cating drinks to boys under 16 years, and to 
common drunkards. Both these classes are re- 
presented in our community, and we are as- 
sured that both were furnished with intoxicat- 
ing drinks on Saturday, at the place in question. 
Is there no remedy for this ? In beautiful lan- 
guage, the attorney for the defense set forth 
that these houses were licensed to prosecute 
their calling; that they must necessarily be kept 
orderly, or they would lose the better class of 
custom; and therefore the conclusion was inevit- 
able that the defendant was peaceable and 
quiet; otherwise the demands of business pru- 
dence would have ejected him from the saloon. 
The argument, however, is wholly presumptive, 
for the place was a pandemonium for hours. 
And it is also well settled that a license does 
not protect its holder in violating law, Even 
where the logic of the defense sustained by the 
facts, what consolation does it afford parents 
anxious for the future of their boys, who would 
thus be encouraged to put the cup to their lips. 
Does it help the matter at all if they are kept so 
respectably that youth may enter without dan- 
ger of physical violence ? 

Complaint has been made of the growth of 
hoodlumism in our town. What have we done 
to check it ? Do parents generally take pains 
to furnish healthy amusements or excitements 
for their children. Have we encouraged libra- 
ries, baseball clubs, gymnasiums, running, 
wrestling, leaping and such athletic games as 
will give vent to their animal spirits, to the end 
that our boys will not seek the artificial excite- 
ment of strong drink ? Have we attempted to 
enforce the humane law which forbids the sell- 
ing of intoxicating liquor to children before 
their judgment can teach them to let it alone. 
Neither the one nor the other has been done. 
We have only an ordinance to punish the poor 
simpletons who ape their elders and partake of 
that which nullifies the teachings of preacher, 
teacher, parent, guardian, friend and common 
sense. — Ukiah Press. 

Science and Common Sense. — "Common 
sense," says Prof. Huxley, "is science exactly so 
far as it fulfills the ideal of common sense; that 
, sees facts as they are, or at any rate without 
the distortion of prejudice, and reasons from 
them in accordance with the dictates of sound 
judgment. And science is simply common sense 
at its best; that is, rigidly accurate in observa- 
tion, and merciless to fallacy in logic." 



Aunt Jerusha Goes Blackberrying. 

" A bit a pound I " sez I to the copper-colored 
becued John, with hiz coal-oil kans balanced on 
a wiUer pole over his shoulder like the Goddess 
of Justice on the new court-house in Stockton, 
which really does need a koat ov whitewash. 
I furgot to say, his kans were about half full ov 
the greenest ripe blackberries I ever sot my two 
ies on. "A bit a pound," sez I, recapitulatin, 
"that are too much; why, a man can pick — let 
me see — about five dollars worth a day at them 
figures," so sez I, " no, I don't keer to lay in 
any to-day," an arter I'de dismissed him, a per- 
lite way, I sez to Andrew Jackson, sez I, "let's 
us go arter sum blackberries." " La I " sez he, 
" Aunt Jerusha, the river flats is jest overflowed 
with high water, and you can't get a pint if you'd 
try." Now, that's a man fer you; they are like 
the menfolks ov Bible time. They kan always 
see a lion in the way, an sez I, "You stay at 
home an tend to that soft soap I'm bilin' on the 
kitchen stove, an' picket out the pet goat an do 
the churning an a few other little chores, an I'U 
try my luck arter a few wild blackberries. I've 
got a friend who resides on the river bank near 
the blackberry fields, so I made up my mind 
I'd get him to set me acrost the slough in a 
skift, on the bank ov the river, where there is 
just dead loads on 'em. I took a little boy 'long 
to carry my lunch-basket, an seven or eight ex- 
tra pails and kans — I do hate to be short ov 
measures when you git into a nice thick patch 
on 'em. We arrived on the pier ov embarka- 
tion about 10 o'clock A. m. The aspect of na- 
ture waz inchantin', the river bottom ov some 
10 acres or more, which had been a potato field, 
but which had succumbed to the force of the 
flood of old Mokelumne an waz now a plasid 
lake, with a strong current runnin' through it. 
My friend plied the oars with true artistik skill, 
an in less than no time we wax headed for the 
strip of Woodland that told us plainly it waz the 
high and dry bank ov the river, beneath whose 
green foliage the deep rich berries waz basken 
in a June sun. We skirted along the willers 
that waz growin' in the water for a long while, 
and saw a good many bushes (blackberry bushes 
I mean), but the northener a few months ago 
had nipped the berries in the bud, so we con- 
tinued on for a spell, findin' no berries, but 
more water than we'd expected. Arter awhile, 
the boy who sot in the bow to balance the boat 
cried out, "There are 'em I" an that short sen- 
tence waz equly az wellcom as land in site to 
the wery mariner. An the boy waz rite; there 
waz a clump ov bushes an sum live oak branches 
growin' rite out ov the water, an the berry 
bushes coverin' um like a hop vine over a smoke- 
house back in Missouri. We pulled up along- 
side, but couldn't anker, coz we couldn't toutch 
the bottom with our oar, but we clung to the 
limbs, an arter awhile the man took the bords 
which formed an upper floor in the skift, an 
made a gang-plank by throwin' one end out into 
the branches an restin' the other end on the 
skift. I put a musketo net round my head, for 
the pesky fellers waz az thick az bees in buck- 
wheat blossoms, but a limb flew back an relieved 
me ov my proteckshun, an I stood an looked at 
it danglin in mid-air like a flag. Well, I 
walked out into the top ov that tree on the 
gang-plank, an I guess I must have gone a little 
too far, coz it sunk down before I could git back 
an let me into the water over two feet. Gracious I 
how cold the water waz I I know I didn't say a 
word, tho' that miserable urchin says I hollered 
"Help ! help ! I'm drownin' 1" Wal, we couldn't 
find no dry land an less blackberries, an from 
now on, in this season, I'll pay John Chinamen 
any price for the delishus etceteras before I'll go 
berryin' agin', an if you take the advice ov a 
friend, you'll do likewise, while I remain a 
berryin'. Yours — Aunt Jerusha, in Lodi Re- 



What to Do When the Farm is Paid For. 

In an essay read before the Lake George Fruit 
Growers Association, by Mrs. A. B. Bartlett, of 
Georgetown, Fla., the following positions are 
taken: When our agriculturist has got his place 
into such a conditon that he has a comfortable 
income— no debts— regular meals every day, as 
he chooses, his young people fairly educated, then 
what? "Well, civilization, life." Life in all 
its fullness and beauty, as intended by our all- 
wise Creator. He has health, or ought to have, 
and everv good thing is open to him. J ust so 
far as his" taste is in harmony with the laws of 
right living, and the peace of his fellow-creat- 
ures, so far is he at full liberty to carry out his 
tastes. Then comes in all the amenities of civil- 
ization. In the world of books he has free ac- 
cess to all its wit, all the wisdom of the past. 
With Romeo he can woo fair Juliet in the bal- 
cony, tame the shrew with Petruchio, or see 
Bottom translated in the magic Athenian wood, 
with tears of inextinguishable laughter. Aladdin 
had a wonderful lamp, which, when he rubbed, 
immediately there came to him a genius of the 
air who brought him whatsoever he desired. 
Like that lamp is the love of reading, to the 
man of imagination. It brings "that light 
which never was, on sea or on land, whereby 
the universe of common things is transfigured 
and glorified. Or if he cares not for the fig- 
ments of others' brains, nor the history of their 
toil, defeat, or triumph, then can he travel over 
the "whole round world" and eee it with his 
own eyes. , , , . . ... 

Civilization has so triumphed for him, witM 
less of toil and weariness, than a century ago 
it would have required for the journey from 
Florida to Washington. So entirely, in the 



July 17, 1880. j 



THE PACIFIC 



BUBAL PRESS. 



39 



history of these United States, have agricul- 
ture and civilization marched abreast and with 
an even stride. If he care neither for books 
nor travels, the whole world of art, architecture, 
music and painting await his call. If he love 
the drama, his sons and daughters are ready to 
enjoy themselves and entertain him, by enact- 
ing before him temperance dramas, scenes Irom 
the immortal Pickwick, and choruses from the 
jubilee singers. Thus the successful agricul- 
turist lays the foundations, broad and strong, 
for the highest civilization. By the succession 
of its humblest processes, slowly but surely, 
eradicating those nomadic instincts, which for 
ever prevents the noblest, possible savage, from 
attaining the development and self-poise of 
civilization. Our agriculturist may be to a de- 
gree ideal, without some ideal, he will never 
become even a passable agriculturist. My claim 
is, without a fair development of agriculture, 
civilization is impossible, or at least there is no 
record of any such. Also, that the agriculturist 
has a claim to enjoy the highest products of 
civilization. But in agriculture, as in every 
thing else, there is a tendency to take the 
means for an end, and the farmer and fruit 
grower who has worked hard to secure a roof 
over his head, and sufficient food and clothing 
to keep him in order, as a working machine, 
forgets that he has any possibilities, other than 
mechanical, and keeps on the old routine, like 
Bunyan's man with the muck rake, or like a 
horse so used to grinding in a treadmill that he 
returns to the old wheel with endless travel, 
and no progress, long after the grists are all 
ground, and the mill unused. 



Chaff. 

The young man who wants to get up with 
the sun must not sit up too late with the 
daughter. 

"Never mistake perspiration for inspiration," 
said an old minister in his charge to a young 
pastor just being ordained. 

An unfortunate Indianapolis man who lost 
several toes by a car-wheel, was consoled by an 
Irishman near by with: "Whist, there, you're 
making more noise than mony a man I've seen 
with his head off. " 

"One kind of ship I always steer clear of," 
said an old bachelor sea captain, "and that's 
courtship, 'cause on that ship there's often no 
mates and two cap'ns. " 

An old man was wondering "why in these 
days it seems impossible to have an honest horse 
race," when a neighbor interrupted him with 
the remark that "it's because we haven't an 
honest human race." 

Either we must make the ocean wider or the 
steamships narrower. Something must be done 
to enable two ships to pass without going 
through each other. Society kind of demands 
it, and the comfort of the passengers seconds the 
demand. 

We frequently hear a lady exclaim, "Oh, 
dear! I wish I were a man!" But we do not 
remember ever hearing a man wish himself a 
woman. No; man never dared allow his wishes 
to soar so high. He is contented to admire 
rather than be admired. N. B. — This is not 
taffy. 

"And how is your neighbor, Mrs. Brown?" 
inquired one nicely-dressed lady of another. 
"She's well enough, I suppose. I haven't seen 
her to speak to her for six weeks." "Why, I 
thought you two were on the most friendly 
terms." "Well, we used to be; but we've ex- 
changed servants." 

It is told of an American map agent that on a 
recent trip he was attacked by highway robbers, 
who demanded his money. As he was too pru- 
dent to carry money in the country, they failed 
to make a haul out of their victim. "But," said 
the agent, "I have some splendid maps of the 
country along with me, which I should like to 
show you." And in a twinkle he was off his 
horse, had a map stuck upon a pole, and ex- 
plained it so effectually that he sold each of the 
banditti a map, pocketed the money and re- 
sumed his journey. 

A colored banker, much alarmed by the 
failure of several other banks in his neighbor- 
hood, closed his own establishment, A man 
knocked at the barred door. "Who's dar?" 
cried the banker. "Open the door!" called the 
man. "Dis bank's closed," remarked the 
banker, "Don't care whether the bank's closed 
or not," cried the stranger, "I left a pair of new 
boots here yesterday and I want them. " Pres- 
ently the door was thrust partly open and one 
boot pushed out, with the remark: "We is 
only payin' 50 cents on the dollar to-day." 



Conditions Injurious to Sight in School 
Children. — Prof. Raux mentions the following: 
Air vitiated by animal emanations, vegetable or 
mineral dust, the smoke of various combustibles, 
especially tobacco, in which nicotine exists. 
Temperature too high or too low, and sudden 
changes or drafts. Clothing too tight, par- 
ticularly at the neck or waist. Position with 
the head and body too much bent forward dur- 
ing labor with the eyes. Premature study, ex- 
cess of reading, etc. Alcoholic excesses. Use 
of the eyes and brain immediately after eating. 
Habitual constipation, cold feet, and everything 
which tends to produce congestion of the head. 
Immorality, especially during childhood and 
youth. We might assign a cause still more po- 
tent than any of the foregoing, viz: a deficiency 
of light — Detroit Lanctt. 



School Sketches— No. 4. 

[Written for the Rural Press by Laura J. Daein.] 
When I was a little girl there would very 
often come a year in which we would not have 
much of a "Fourth of July" in the small village 
near which I lived. We did not hear the can- 
non boom, the drums beat, or the Declaration 
read; and as for flags flying, why, I do not be- 
lieve there was more than one flag in town, for 
they did not have them to sell by the dozen 
then as they do now. And as for toy drums, 
guns and cannons, we never saw such things or 
dreamed that children could be so blessed as to 
possess them. Very often we went off to school 
just as though it was a common day; and then 
sometimes we would get the teacher to give us 
a long nooning, so we could celebrate all by our- 
selves. 

I remember one especial Fourth how hard we 
tried to have a glorious time, such as we were 
sure somehow belonged to the day. There were 
several quite large girls, but no very large boys 
at the summer school; but a boy we must have 
to deliver the oration. So we chose the biggest 
one, pulled him along by his shirt sleeves and 
stood him up on a knoll, telling him he must 
speak about "Our Country and the Glorious 
Fourth. " The poor fellow grinned and dug his 
bare toes into the dirt; he wiped the perspira- 
tion from bis face with his sleeve and glanced 
at us with terrified eyes, as we sat upon the 
ground around him — an attentive but severely 
critical audience. 

"This is the day our country celebrates," 
whispered Alida Whipple, prompting him. 

"Day'er country," whimpers Tom. 

"Celebrates in mem'ry of the glorious" — 

"Cel-cel'bra-a-a-tes," gasped Tom, and then, 
breaking down with a regular boo-hoo, he added 
of his own accord: 

"I w-wont so th-there!" and with a bound he 
retired from the platform. 

"Huh! I could do better'n that," said Alida. 
"But now let's play the speech is done and was 
a good one, 'cause we want to cheer. All throw 
up your hats and sunbonnets an' say, 'Hip, 
hip, hurra!' as loud as ever you can." 

So we threw up our bonnets and hurrahed for 
a long time, trying to feel as though we were 
enjoying our celebration wonderfully well. 
Grown-up folks sometimes have to try even 
harder than we did, to make their enjoyment 
real. 

"The next thing on the program'," said 
Alida, "is singin' a song called 'This Day was 
Won. ' The choir will stand up in a row. Come 
on, Tom! Now begin:" 

"We'll shout and sing, and flowers bring, 
Youth's joyful emblems they; 
This day was won by Washington — 
'Tis Independence day! 

"Hurra, again another strain, 
And then for home away; 
This day was won by Washington — 
'Tis Independence dry!" 

After the singing we did "hurra again," and 
then we climbed the fence into the next field, 
and marched in procession with our sunbomiets 
stuck on poles waving in the air. But all at 
once we saw a woodchuck, and our ranks broke 
andwere flying in every direction in pursuit of 
the little animal. 

"Head 'im off, ketch 'im, ketch 'im!" shrieked 
Tom, full of life and energy, and looking more 
like an orator than he had a half-hour before. 

After a prolonged chase we did catch the poor 
beast, and immediately hurried to the school- 
house with him, so as to build him a pen under 
the back seat before the teacher should come. 

Alida and I thought our prisoner was almost 
as good for a pet as a rabbit would be, so we sat 
down to write some poetry on his capture. 

" Little creature full of glee 
Playing round so niemly — 

I wrote, and then I stopped to ask Alida if 
we couldn't call the woodchuck Bunny. If it 
was a rabbit's name, she said, she did not think 
we could — it would not be right ; and then 
she showed me her slate and I read: 

"On the Fourth we were at'play 
To celebrate the glorious day. 
So through the field we gently passed 
And found Sir Woody eating grass." 

" Yours is ever'n ever so much better 'n 
mine," said I, full of admiration at the name of 
Sir Woody. 

"I don't know as 'tis much," said she, 
modestly. 

So we continued to work on our 'poem' till 
the teacher came. She called the school to 
order, and then told each class that as it was 
the Fourth of July they might select their own 
reading lesson. 

Alida and I had been promoted to the Rhe- 
torical reader that summer, and we had been 
in great haste to get over to the "Scenes from 
Pizzaro," in the last part of the book. So,$of 
course, we chose that for our lesson. We had 
often practiced reading the dialogue together, 
and we stood up full of confidence and com- 
menced: 

"How, now, Gomez! whence comest thou?" 
demanded Alida, looking me in the face with 
a sternly enquiring air. 

"On yonder hill among the palm trees we 



have surprised an old Peruvian. Escape by 
flight he could not, and we seized him unre- 
sisted." 

"Drag him before us !" 

Just at that instant there was a rattling of 
boards in the back seat and Sir Woody rushed 
between us down the aisle. 

"There goes the woodchuck !" cried Tom, 
tumbling over the top of his desk in excite- 
ment. "Head him off 1" 

The teacher was speechless with astonish- 
ment, and several scholars rushed into the mid- 
dle of the floor, but before they could close the 
door, Sir Woody's hind legs disappeared over 
the sill, and in half a minute he was across the 
road among the bushes. The scholars went 
back to their seats in a shame-faced way, but 
the teacher never gave us one word of reproof, 
only looked at the book as though she was 
ready for us to go on with our lesson. She had 
a realizing sense that it was the Fourth of 
July. 



Keep Your Mouth Shut. 

The peculiar arrangement of the narrowed 
and branched and delicately-furnished nasal 
passage sare specially suited to strain the air 
and to warm it before it enters the lungs. The 
foul air and sickening effluvia which one meets 
in a day's travel through the crowded city are 
breathed with greater impunity through the 
nose than through the mouth. Raw air, in- 
haled through the mouth, induces hoarseness, 
coughs, etc. 

The great actor Cooke, when dying, told his 
friend and faithful attendent, Broster, that, al- 
though he could make him no bequest in money, 
he would give him something worth money. 
He then advised Broster to set up as a teacher of 
elocution, and to impart to his pupils, on condi- 
tion of a large fee, and a solemn promise not to 
divulga it, the secret of his (Cooke's) extraor- 
dinary powers of voice and its unflagging qual- 
ity, which was to carry on respiration through 
the nostrils, so as not to dry or irritate the deli- 
cate organs of the voice. Broster took this ad- 
vice, and used it so well as to retire with a for- 
tune. He made every young clergyman, who 
took lessons, sign a bond that in the event of 
his becoming a bishop he would pay a further fee 
of 100 guineas. John Thelwall inherited the se- 
cret from Broster, and used it with similar 
reserve and profit; but [his son, on being ap- 
pointed a college lecturer on public reading and 
speaking, disclosed the secret to all his pupils 
as a thing of the greatest importance to them. 

Mr. Pitman gives an epitome of the experience 
of George Catlin in his travels among the 
Indians, of whom he visited 150 tribes. Every- 
where he found the Indian woman careful to 
press together the lips of their children after 
leaving the breast and before being suspended 
in their narrow cradles in the open air, and he 
found it to be a very rare thing to hear of a 
death during childhood among any of the tribes, 
before strong drinks and new diseases were in- 
troduced among them by the whites. It is said 
that no animal but man sleeps with his mouth 
open, and that the lungs need a degree of rest 
from labor which they get with the moderate in- 
halation that, with a slow pulse, attends perfect 
nightly repose. 

Mr. Catlin attributes his escape from malarial 
fevers, and his actual recovery from pulmonary 
weakness, to a strict observance of the rule to 
keep the lips and teeth tightly shut. When he 
went to the wilderness he was feeble. He 
found himself compelled to sleep in the open, 
dewy air. His one main precaution secured the 
entire restoration of his health and vigor. He 
found that all the Indians had good teeth, which 
remained sound to old age, and that there were 
no stutterers among them, 

In his closing paragraphs he advises that 
mothers at home, and teachers in seminaries, 
should make nightly rounds as long as neces- 
sary to put a scop to the unnatural, dangerous 
and disgusting habit of sleeping with the mouth 
open. "No one who has been snoring through 
the night feels properly refreshed in the morn- 
ing. Keep your mouth shut, my young readers 
— when you read silently, when you write, when 
you listen, when you are in pain, when you are 
walking or riding and by all means when you 
are angry." 



Rapid Cure por Colds. — An Italian medical 
paper contains a letter from Dr. R. Rudolff, re- 
cording the discovery of a rapid cure for colds. 
Being seized with a severe coryza, he happened 
to chew one or two twigs of the eucalyptus, at 
the same time swallowing the saliva secreted, 
which had a bitter and aromatic flavor. To his 
surprise he found that in the course of half an 
hour the nasal catarrh had disappeared. Some 
days later he was seized with another attack, 
from a fresh exposure to cold, when the same 
treatment was successful. 



Wheatmeal or Oatmeal. — Both these cere- 
als are sufficient food for man. Oatmeal, how- 
ever, contains more carbon, starch, or heat-pro- 
ducing material. Cornmeal contains a much 
larger proportion still, while its albuminous 
constituents are greatly inferior to those of oat- 
meal; and wheatmeal, in its turn, is inferior to 
oatmeal in the same important constituents. 



OojAESjic EcofJopy. 



Uses for Currants and Berries. 

Editors Press : — I have enjoyed reading your 
paper for a number of years, and have obtained 
several very good recipes from your columns; 
so now I would like to return the compliment 
by sending a few of my own, which I know to 
be good: 

Currant Jelly. — Now that the jelly season is 
at hand, I will offer my way of making it, 
which at least saves the hands and makes th« 
work easier. I look over my currants the same 
as usual, and put them on to boil. When ready 
for squeezing, I put them in a bag and let them 
hang over an earthen dish (do not use tin, as it 
discolors the juice) over night. The next morn- 
ing, if your bag is not made of too thick ma- 
terial, you will find your juice all dripped out 
and ready for your sugar, etc. Y ou will find it 
a little nicer to point your bag at the bottom, as 
then the juice will only run out of one portion 
of the bag. I have only tried this with cur- 
rants, but have no doubt but it would work 
well with any fruit that jells. 

Spiced Berries. — To seven lbs. berries — cur- 
rants or blackberries — put three lbs. sugar, one 
pint vinegar and spice to taste; boil 20 minutes. 
They are very nice to eat with meat. Put a 
teaspoonful of each kind of spice in a little bag, 
tie up and boil with the fruit. Put a little bag 
into each jar of fruit. 

Strawberry Imerangue. — Use one-half teacup 
of tapioca, soaked over night in one teacup of 
water. The next morning put on the stove 
with one cup sugar and the juice of one lemon. 
Let it boil to a jelly, and then stir in the whites 
of two eggs, beaten to a froth. Take off the 
stove and mix with as many berries — strawber- 
ries, raspberries, blackberries or currants — as 
you desire. Pour in a mold and set on the ice 
to cool. This makes enough for a family of 
five. G. H. F. 

Oakland, Cal. 

Rhubarb and Apple Jelly. — Wipe, peel 
and cut up a bundle of rhubarb; peel, core and 
quarter three pounds of apples; take the thin 
rind of half a dozen lemons, and put it into a 
preserving pan with one and one-half pint or 
two quarts of filtered water and the juice of the 
lemons. Boil until reduced to a pulp. Strain 
the juice through a napkin, pressing the fruit 
well. Weigh the juice, and aUow one pound of 
loaf sugar to every pound of juice. Boil up the 
juice, add the sugar, boil, skim well, and when 
it jellies on the skimmer pour into pots, and tie 
down when cold. The jeUy makes excellent 
sauce for puddings, and, when liked, can be 
colored with some cochineal, if it is wanted of 
redder color. The pulp, stewed down with loaf 
sugar, can be used for children's or servant's 
jam puddings, or is very nice put into a glass 
dish, covered with a custard, and garnished 
with pastry, or with sponge cakes, cut into 
slices and fried lightly in butter. 



Oat Meal for Breakfast. — In the last five 
years the consumption of oat meal in this coun- 
try has probably increased 20-fold. People dif- 
fer so much in their likes and dislikes that we 
do not insist upon anybody eating oat meal 
because somebody else does, but the great 
growth of the popularity is beyond doubt. 
Generally the Irish and Scotch meal have been 
considered best, but they sell comparatively 
high, and persons well acquainted with the sub- 
ject say that Akron meal of Ohio is just as 
good. Oat meal should be well cooked. As it 
is usually made a breakfast dish, it may be 
soaked over night, and then boiled like mush 
for, say, half an hour, while the other part of 
the breakfast is getting ready. No doubt it is 
more wholsome eaten plain, but the temptation 
to use various "dressings" — generally cream 
and sugar — is too strong for any except very firm 
health-seekers. But where these are eaten it 
should be, as the friends say, " in moderation.' 

Oranges as a Regimen. — A vast number of 
oranges are eaten by the Spaniards, it being, in 
fact, no uncommon thing for the children of a 
family to consume ten or a dozen oranges each, 
before breakfast, gathering them fresh for this 
purpose from the trees. Such wholesale con- 
sumption of what is commonly looked upon as 
a luxury, appears to have no unwholesome effect 
upon the system. On the contrary, the testi- 
mony of a late eminent physician authorizes the 
use of fruit ripe, fresh and freely as a trust- 
worthy auxiliary in the treatment of chronic 
dyspepsia. 

A Cream to Eat with Fruit. — Boil half a 
pint of cream and half a pint of milk with a bit 
of lemon peel; add a few almonds beaten to 
paste with a drop of water and a little sugar. 
Take a teaspoonful of dry flour, rub it smoothly 
down with a little cold milk and a few drops of 
orange flower water; mix all together, and let it 
boil; let it remain till quite cold, and then add 
a little lemon juice. 

Chocolate. — In preparing chocolate for fam- 
ily use, cut off about two inches of the cake to 
one quart of water; stir it first in a little cold 
water till it is soft, then pour on the boiling wa- 
ter. After it has boiled a short time, add a 
pint of milk; boil up and serve; sweeten to 
taste. 



40 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July 17, 1880. 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 
A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Office, 202 Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St, 

Annual Subscriptions, $4; six months, $2; three 
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one dollar will bo deducted. No nkw names will be 
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tered letters or P. C. orders at our risk. 
Advertising Katbs. 1 week. 1 month. S mos. 12 mos. 

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The Scientific Press Patent Agency, 
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a. n. strong 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 17, 1880. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



EDITORIALS — Bermuda Grass; The Large In Farm 
Machinery ; New Race of Pears, 33. Cheese Curing ; 
The State Fair of 1880; The Wool Trade, 4D. Great 
Need of Penitentiary Reform; International Sheep and 
Wool Show; First Locomotives in America; Work of the 
Drainage Commission, 41. Notices of Recent Patents, 
44. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— Bermuda Grass, 33. The "Best 

Friend" — The First American Built Locomotive, 41. 
QUERIES AND REPLIES.— Lime for Smut; 

Beggar Lice, 42. 
THE VINEYARD.— Mr. L. J. Rose's Wine Grapes; 

Tuolumne and the Grape Interest, 34. 
FLORICULTURE.— Ferns of Southern California, 

34. 

HORTICULTURE.— Orange Marmalade, 35. 

METEOROLOGICAL— Causes of Anomalous Dis- 
tribution of Rain on the Pacific Coast, 35. 

THE FIELD.— The New Road Law, 35-42. Dirt in 
Grain, 42 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— The Mythical 
History of Ceres, Pomona and Flora; Visits of the 
Worthy Master; The Revised Manual, 36. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 36-37. 

NEWS IN BRIEF, on page 37 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE — Make Childhood Sweet (poetry); 
On the Go; How She Married Him; Our Boys; Aunt 
Jerusha Goes Blackberrying; What to Do When the 
Farm is Paid For; Chaff; Conditions Injurious to Sight 
in School Children, 38-39. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. —School Sketches- 
No. 4, 39. 

GOOD HEALTH— Keep Your Moutli Shut; Rapid 
Cure for Colds; \\ heatmeal or Oatmeal, 39. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -Uses for Currants and 
Berries; Rhubarb and Apple Jelly; Oatmeal for Break- 
fast; Oranges as a regimen; A Cream to Eat with Fruit; 
Chocolate, 39. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Railroads in Northern Mexi- 
co; California Appropriations Passed; Land Patents 
Issued, 42. 

Business Announcements. 

St. Matthew's Hall— Rev. Alfred Lee Brewer, San Mateo. 
New Style Cards— Conn. Card Co., Northford, Ct. 
Mason & Hamlin Organs— Kohler & Chase, Agts., S. F. 
Pumping Engine for Sale— Manuel Eyre, S. F. 
Institute for Young Ladies— Mme Zeitska, S. F. 
Land in Fresno— E. Janssen, S. F. 
To Farmers— A. A. Rose, S. F. 



The Week. 



There has been a succession of bright days, 
the first touch of genuine summer which has 
reached the bay counties. In the interior the 
thermometer has reached harvest figures, and 
the long days have been fully employed. Re- 
ports still speak of an outcome from the sep- 
arator more satisfactory than was expected, 
and the handling of a considerable surplus seems 
now assured to shippers and skippers. The 
question of price is one of the greatest import- 
ance, and should be studied with great care. 
There has been no little excitement in the 
Liverpool market during the past week, owing 
chiefly to local conditions which are liable to 
restrict supplies. It now seems as though the 
home crop of England was somewhat endan- 
gered by unseasonable weather. The reports 
from Russia are also unfavorable. The official 
newspaper of St. Petersburg, as telegraphed 
July 13th, publishes an article, based on returns 
sent by the Governors of the Provinces in 
European Russia, showing that the total deficit 
of grain, as compared with the average crop, 
will amount to 9,761,310 quarters, and says 
that in view of the poor harvest it is considered 
impossible to export the usual average of 40- 
000,000 quarters without suffering an insuffi- 
ciency for home consumption. This fact will 
of course have some influence upon wheat 
values in all parts of the world. It is, however, 
too soon to determine future values, as there 
are too many conditions still undetermined. 
The arrivals of new wheat in this city are 
small, and but little trade is accomplished. 
Farmers generally are too busy getting the 
wheat into sacks to pay much attention to mar- 
keting. 

The Reese River Reveille complains of the 
drouth in that section. It says the springs, 
creeks and grass are all drying up. 

The Central Pacific Railroad Co. last month 
carried 2,840 passengers East and 3,100 West, 
making a total of 5,940. 



Cheese Curing Rooms. 

There has been considerable improvement 
during the last few years in the condition of cur- 
ing-rooms in California cheese factories. Be- 
fore that many thought that any kind of a shed 
would do to cure cheese in, and the result was 
that the ripening curd was subjected to great 
variations of temperature which are known to 
be detrimental to quality in the finished pro- 
duct. We have seen cheese sheds in this State 
where the temperature was sometimes 30° lower 
at daybreak than at sundown. The best tem- 
perature for curing cheese is 65° to 70° Fahr., 
and every effort should be made to guard against 
violent departures from that limit. Another 
most important point is that by having no de- 
cent curing or storage-rooms the cheese dairy- 
man is forced to ship his cheese to the city at 
times when the price is low and is still farther 
depressed by the amounts coming in. 

The best Eastern cheese makers are fully 
aware of the influence exerted by the curing- 
room upon the quality of the product. The 
president of the Wisconsin Dairymen's Associa- 
tion lately offered a cash prize for the best essay 
on the construction of curing-rooms, which was 
awarded to Mr. J. A. Smith, of Sheboygan 
county. Of the general importance of the cur 
ing-room he said. "On the question of curing 
cheese, I will say that I believe it is the point 
most neglected and abused of any of the stupid- 
ities we practice on unoffending cheese, that are 
comparatively perfect when they come from the 
hoop. There is far less difference in the quality 
of cheese at that time than there is after that. 
If all the cheese of a county like Jefferson and 
Sheboygan were taken from the factories, say- 
twice a week, and put into suitable curing- 
rooms, where they would have the best care in 
addition to being in the right kind of an atmos- 
phere, the product would sell for tens of thous- 
ands of dollars more per annum than it does 
now." 

It will be interesting to review briefly the 
style of building which the prize essayist pre- 
scribed for a curing room. Although some de- 
tails which he insists upon may not be essential 
in this country where winters are not so severe 
as at the East, our readers can perhaps use his 
ideas as suggestive and modify their construc- 
tion to meet local conditions. 

'The end and aim should be to construct a 
curing-room capable of good ventilation, in 
which cheese can be placed when taken from 
the hoop, that has a temperature of from 65 to 
70, and which can be maintained night and day, 
with very little variation, till the cheese are 
boxed and shipped. To do this it is necessary 
for the room to be constructed so that the cheese 
maker can work in harmony with the universal 
law that heated air will rise easily, rapidly, and 
freely if it has a chance, and that cold air will 
fall by the operation of the same law. It moves 
most naturally in perpendicular lines. To move 
heated air in a lateral direction requires far 
more force, as it has to struggle against the nat- 
ural law that makes it rise. Hence, the posi- 
tive heat force should be in the base of the 
building, and the escape or ventilation, at the 
top. So if I was going to build a cheese curing- 
room, to be heated either with wood or coal 
stoves, I would make the stone or brick base walls 
six and one-half ft. high, put the heating stove 
at one end of the basement room, the chimney at 
the other, and run the pipe the whole length of 
the room, enough below the floor joists to make 
it safe in regard to fire. The superstructure I 
would have only one high story in hight, so that 
one or more skylight ventilators, having an or- 
ifice of 30 square ft. could be easily made with- 
out running them through a second story; but I 
would have a double air space between the ceil- 
ing and the roof, to the end that the hot rays 
of the sun could not penetrate, as they will 
through a roof and one ceiling. The floor of 
the curing-room, instead of being laid with 
matched stuff, I would have of one and one-half 
inch boards, laid far enough apart to let through 
the warm air from below, making interstices 
wider as the floor was laid from the stove to 
the chimney end of the building, for the reason 
that as the air would be warmest at the stove 
end the interstices should be less, to let it 
through. The windows should be double, and 
have blinds. The walls of the superstructure, 
if made of brick, should have an air space 
within, or be furrowed and plastered, so as to 
give an air space. If made of wood, the stud- 
ding should be six inches wide, papered and 
sealed, both sides, and the space tilled with 
sawdust, shavings well packed down, or grout. 
What is wanted is to make and retain the 
whole air of the room warm so as to mark 70° 
on the thermometer when the outside air is be- 
low that point, and when it is hotter than that 
outside, shut out the influence of the heat as 
much as possible. There will be a few hot 
days each season, when the heat will arise above 
70° in such a building, but the influence of 
those days may be very much modified by 
throwing wide open the basement door and the 
windows and the skylights at night, and at times 
in the day when the sun is not pouring down 
its hottest rays. While the plan will not keep 
the temperature where it ought to be during a 
very few of the very hottest days, yet it has 
complete control of the room to make it as 
warm as required at any time, and that time 
embraces nineteen -twentieths of the time, or 



more, of making and curing the cheese, during 
the time our factories are usually operated." 

The plan of construction which we have de 
scribed might do very well in the cooler parts 
of our State, as for example the regions adja- 
cent to the coast. Cheese-making is, however, 
extending into the heated valleys of the inte 
rior and the sunny expanses in the southern 
counties. It would be altogether impossible to 
keep such a building as described by the Wis 
consin essayist cool enough in those parts of the 
State. Probably cheese-makers in the warm 
districts will have to build lower down, some- 
times excavating for part of the required hight, 
and thoroughly shading the roof and sides of 
the building with quickly-growing trees. The 
construction of proper curing-rooms will give 
room for the exercise of much ingenuity, and 
should be undertaken with a full understanding 
of the local conditions prevailing. 

Concerning the size of curing-rooms, the re 
marks of the Wisconsin essayist may be of gen 
eral application : "A building 20x40 ft., having 
three rows of double racks running lengthwise 
of tire building, each rack being four shelves in 
hight, would make storing room plenty for a 
four thousand pound vat worked full each day. 
This would admit of the cheese being kept un 
til the oldest were about seventy days old, and 
would store the contents of near two vats full, 
if sales were made as fast aB the cheese is thirty 
days old. After cheese are thirty days old, if 
kept well curing in the meantime, they should 
be put in a cooler room than is essential for new 
cheese, and so I would have a partition two 
thirds the distance from the stove end, across 
the room, and have it made with large folding 
doors in it, and the floor so arranged with stops 
that the heat from below could be shut off from 
that portion of the curing-room. Into this 
room I would put the older cheese till time of 
shipment. I have used "turners" and cheese 
box covers to set cheese on, but have not found 
anything so satisfactory as about one and one 
half inch boards planed on both sides, and 
about one inch wider than the diameter of the 
hoops used." 

The State Fair of 1880. 

The State fair of 1880, commencing Septem. 
ber 20th and ending September 25th, will be 
the first under the auspices and direct control 
and management of the State. This fact 
should and will invest its proceedings with a 
more official character, and give them a greater 
dignity and weight. Its records will go abroad 
as State documents, stamped with official 
authority, and bearing the indorsement of every 
citizen of the commonwealth. It becomes, 
therefore, a matter of greater importance than 
heretofore, not only to the State, but to each 
individual citizen interested in the welfare of 
the State, that the fair should be made a true 
and full exposition of all the known material 
resources of the territory within our borders 
of all the industries and industrial productions 
of the State, and of all the tangible evidences 
of the substantial prosperity of the people. 

While the members of the Board of Agricul- 
ture, who give their time and services without 
fee or reward, except that which comes from 
the satisfaction of having benefited their 
adopted State, propose to exert their best en- 
deavors to make the society and the fair what 
they should be, they know that they can do but 
little unless their efforts are seconded by the 
people who develop those resources, conduct 
and manage those industries, and enjoy that 
prosperity. What is true of the State Board 
of Agriculture in this respect is equally true of 
each District Board. They can do but little 
towards advancing the material prosperity of 
their districts without the aid of the people of 
the districts. With this aid, the District and 
State Associations, as now organized, working 
in harmony for a general purpose, may con- 
tribute greatly to the general prosperity, and 
add millions annually to the wealth of the 
State. 

The first thing for any one to do who desire3 
to show the products of his farm or workshop 
is to send to I. N. Hoag, Secretary, Sacramen- 
to, for a copy of the new promium list. It has 
been issued by the State printing office in ex- 
cellent style, and contains a full enumeration 
of awards, rules for competition, etc. There 
are over $20,000 offered as premiums, and the 
money, so far as our examination goes, seems 
better apportioned than it has ever been before. 
There is also provision for fair awards to worthy 
articles which may not be named in the list, so 
that anything good and valuable should be 
brought forward. 

There will be especial encouragement to ex- 
hibitors, from the fact that the Central Pacific 
Railroad Company will carry all articles and 
animals exhibited at the fair, over its respect- 
ive routes, free of charge, under the following 
rules : Charges will be collected for transporta- 
tion to the fair. After exhibition, the articles, 
if consigned direct to original shipping point, 
and the ownership has not changed, will be re- 
turned free; and the charges paid for transpor- 
tation to the fair will be refunded by the rail- 
road agent at destination, upon presentation of 
the Secretary's certificate of exhibition and 
surrender of the expense bill for freight charges 
paid at Sacramento. The same company will 
issue excursion tickets to all parties going to 
the fair and returning, at about half price. 



For the accommodation of families and par- 
ties desiring to camp out during the fair, the 
board have secured ample grounds for that pur- 
pose within easy access to the pavilion and the 
park. By availing themselves of this oppor- 
tunity, the attendance at the State fair may 
be made a pleasant camping tour by parties at 
a distance, at small expense. Our climate is 
most favorable for the introduction of this cus- 
tom while attending our State fairs. 

The managers of this year's fair seem to be 
making extra efforts for the success of the ex- 
hibition, and we trust they will attain it. On 
another page of this issue we print the speed 
programme of this year's fair. 



QJee^es \hd Replies. 



Lime for Smut. 

Editors Prkss :— I send you for inspection a head of 
wheat. You will find a part of it good while the balance 
is smutted. Soma years ago I found a head just the re- 
verse; that is, the lower part good while the top was 
smutted. I called the attention of a neighbor to it; we 
examined it and came to the conclusion that bluestone 
could not prevent smut. I then said I would bluestone 
no more, but have used lime (a fertilizer) all the time, 
and will still do so. The part of this head that is smutted 
stood facing the southwest. The field from which I took 
this head is Sonora club; that is the name it goes by here. 
We regard bluestone as a heavy and useless expense. — C. 
A. Pbabody, Solano Co. 

The efficacy of bluestone application to seed 
wheat to kill the spores of the smut fungus, is 
declared by too wide a range of experiment and 
experience to be doubted, but whether some 
other treatment would not accomplish the de- 
sired result, is a proper subject for inquiry. 
Our correspondent's experience with the use of 
lime is interesting. Lime has long been re- 
garded as a smut antidote. Some of the oldest 
recipes for killing smut before sowing the seed 
contain lime as one of the ingredients. It is 
true also that the application of lime to some 
soils will act as a fertilizer. Most of these old 
recipes, which contained lime, brine, etc., have 
been laid aside for the bluestone treatment, 
which has generally been found most effective. 
The subject introduced by our correspondent is 
open for remark, and the experience of all is in- 
vited. 

Beggar Lice. 
Editors Press: — In you issue of April 3d, 
3'ou acknowledge the receipt of a package of the 
seed of "Sweet Beggar Lice." One of the 
plagues, which in coming from Kansas to Cali- 
fornia, I thought I had left behind me, was this 
same "beggar lice." Chiefest of all the bur 
family except in size, it contrives by multiplying 
its numbers to spread its terrors over an area 
greater than all the rest put together. It so in- 
sidiously buries itself, body and fangs, in any- 
thing it touches, that only a knife can scrape it 
loose— in its green state leaving as much of 
itself as it takes away; in its dry, holding its 
own and robbing the texture from which it is 
loosed of both good looks and strength. What- 
ever the enveloping fabric, whether of wool, 
silk or cotton, from head to heels the beggar bur 
can maintain its hold on man, woman or beast, 
and make of each a — spectacle ! — C. I. H. 
Nichols, Pomo, Cal. 



The Wool Trade. — Concerning the improve- 
ment in wool which was felt in this market 
about two weeks ago and resulted in consider- 
able sales, Walter Brown & Co., of Boston say: 
'The favorable movement is, in a measure, due 
to an improved tone in the dry goods market, 
which has prevailed for the past three weeks; 
this is not so evident in the now business trans- 
acted, as in the completion of orders taken some 
months ago which it was feared, when the dull 
period set in, would in many instances be repu- 
diated by the purchasers, Manufacturers can 
now continue their productions for the next 
few months, with more surety of being able to 
obtain a fair profit on the cost of their cloths. 
The developments of the past week are not suf- 
ficient to justify any positive assertion regard- 
ing the future, but they would lead us to be- 
lieve that wools are now as low as they are 
likely to be for some time to come. We can 
hardly expect any rapid advance from present 
selling prices, in view of the large stocks al- 
ready seeking an outlet in the sea-board mar- 
kets, and the bulk of the new clip still back in 
the interiors, but we can reasonably look for a 
steady market with a good healthy trade; and 
in the event of an increased demand from con- 
sumers, possibly a gradual hardening in values 
during the next 30 or 60 days. With this view 
it would appear safe for local buyers to operate 
on the present basis of values, with a confidence 
of obtaining a reasonable profit on their pur- 



Daily Journal of Commerce. "-An interest- 
ingevent in the history of commercial journalism 
in this city is the appearance, during the pres- 
ent week, of the first issue of the Daily Journal 
of Commerce. The new Journal is from the 
well-known establishment which has published 
the weekly of the same name for a number of 
years. The great trade of this city calls for a 
daily record of market values, the movements 
of merchandise and produce by ship and rail, 
and other matters which enter into correct judg- 
ments on trade questions. Into this field the 
new Daily Journal of Commerce will enter, and 
it should receive the support and encourage- 
ment of the mercantile interest. 



July 17, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



41 



Great Need of Penitentiary Reform. 

The shocking condition of the penitentiary 
system of California has been often exposed to 
the public attention by the press, and occasion- 
ally by some thoughtful philanthropist. It has 
been shown time and again that the utter lack 
of system and the entire want of discipline in 
our penitentiary had fatally perverted and de- 
feated the objects of its institution. Thus far 
the matter has been unheeded. It would appear 
that not even the practical sense of the tax-payer 
had been aroused to the potentious evil. That 
our citizens can sit apathetically in the presence 
of such a monstrous perversion of the clear in- 
tent of the penal institutions of the State is 
indeed remarkable. Sensible, hard-headed men, 
who directly pay the swelling taxes, do not 
apparently give the subject a random thought, 
or, if they do, are satisfied by indulging in a lit- 
tle querulous grumbling. This is a grave mis- 
take, whether considered on the score of human- 
ity or economy. It has been remarked that to 
spare deserved and just punishment is to encour- 
age iniquity. There is small cause for wonder 
that our prisons are full to overflowing, and that 
there is a constant cry for more room and more 
cells, when the certainty that the punishment 
will be merely nominal, the restraint barely irk- 
some, and the food and lodging substantial and 
comfortable, tempts the knave and the ruffian 
to risk the violation of the law. 

How utterly bad our penitentiary system is — 
a system which has been fitly characterized as a 
sort of "criminal university" — has been lately 
shown with painful clearness by no less an 
authority than a member of our judiciary. 
Judge Freelon, of the Superior Court, pre- 
sided at the trial of the San Quentin murder 
case, in which both the slayer and the slain 
were convicts. The only witnesses of the crime 
were convicts, and in the course of the trial the 
inner life of the prison was laid bare. Its enor- 
mities so impressed the Judge, who has been on 
the bench for years, that he deemed it to be his 
duty to give emphatic utterance to some of the 
thoughts which the history of the case sug- 



"Our State penitentiary does not," he re- 
marks, "accomplish any one of the ends for which 
it is supposed prisons are built and maintained. 
First, it does not reform, or tend to reform. 
Just the contrary. The prison is a school of 
vice of every degree, the most debased and dan- 
gerous. There is a hierarchy of crime there, 
and the man who has committed, is committing, 
or plotting to commit, the most and the worst 
crimes, is the most admired and respected. The 
man who has some good instincts left is left out 
of fashionable prison society. The man or boy 
who gets there through some accident or misfor- 
tune soon learns that to be respectable is to be 
bad, and if he really be not bad by nature he 
must affect to be so. Again, this prison is no 
punishment for the professional criminal class. 
They are, as respects food, society, lodging, 
dress and amusement, much better off than they 
are hunting a living ou the Barbary Coast. This 
is a little world of itself, has its own code of 
morals and manners, and the prisoners seem 
proud of the number of terms they have served." 
And such a flagitious system cannot be other 
than productive of evil. Judge Freelon concludes 
his terrible analysis by expressing the opinion 
that "the State should provide for a better 
classification of prisoners, for more enforced la- 
bor and more solitary confinement, so that even 
professional criminals would look at imprison- 
ment as being some punishment, and conse- 
quently something tending to deter them from 
the commission of new crimes." 

These are grave matters for the consideration 
of all good citizens — for the heads of families 
and the holders of property, and all the well- 
wishers of the State. The penitentiary at San 
Quentin is a standing menace to life and prop- 
erty; a perpetual danger to the young and inex- 
perienced. It is doubtful if all the reeking 
slums of our cities produce criminals so rapidly 
and so fully equipped for vice as our State Peni- 
tentiary. But hitherto the glaring evils of the 
institution — than which the Sacramento Record- 
Union declares "no worse prison can be found 
probably on the earth" — have been exposed in 
vain. The supreme necessity for immediate 
and radical reform has been repeatedly made 
apparent; but it would appear that prison re- 
form and prison discipline have come to be re- 
garded in this State as sentimental absurdities. 
Other States have for years by intelligent legis- 
lation and faithful supervision, aided by private 
associations for promoting prison reform and 
discipline, sought to introduce the largest re- 
form in their penal methods; and their efforts 
have achieved results that are cheering both to 
the humanitarian and the economist. They 
have shown that they could curb the vicious 
and induce some of them to reform; and that it 
was cheaper to do so than to permit the crimi- 
nal class to grow in size and efficiency and to 
build costly prisons for their temporary with- 
drawal and accommodation. We cannot too 
soon or too faithfully act on the suggestion 
of Judge Freelon and make at least an attempt 
to establish a scientific system of classification 
and discipline for the government of our State 
penitentiary — a system that shall be at once 
certain and rigid and yet humane. Such a rig- 
orous system, in which there should be no sense- 
less cruelty, would constantly exercise a whole- 
some restraint and gradually lead to the reform 
now and then of^a convict. — Scientific Press. 



International Sheep and Wool Show. 

We have already announced an international 
sheep and wool show to be held in the Centen- 
nial Exposition building, Philadelphia, under 
the auspices of the Pennsylvania State Agricul- 
tural Society. Some of our California breeders 
of thoroughbred sheep have talked with us 
about the advisability of exhibiting. There 
seemed some doubt whether California sheep 
could be entered, from the fact that we have in 
this State no sheep register — consequently our 
sheep are not recorded as provided in the rules 
of the exhibition. From a new list of rules and 
premium list which we have just received, we 
infer that anything directly descended from 
sheep recorded at the East, and whose breed- 
ing has been true, would be admitted. The 
rule is as follows: 

A certificate of authentic pedigree must be filed with 
the secretary, setting forth that the sheep entered for 
competition are regularly recorded in a sheep-breeder's 
register, recognized as such in one or more of the States, 
or by a foreign association of sheep breeders, or that they 
are qualified for entry therein, by descent and beyond dis- 
pute, where such registry exists. If registered, a copy of 
said certificate must be filed with the secretary for the use 
of the jury of awards; if unregistered, satisfactory proof 
of their eligibility to registration must be furnished at the 
time of entry. 

Competition is open to the people of all nations. No 
entry fee is required except for the sweepstakes prizes, 
when a fee equal to ten per cent, of the prize must accom- 
pany the entry in all cases. The Books of Entry will be 
open at the office in Philadelphia, on Tuesday, July Gth. 
All sheep must be entered on the books of the secretary 
on or before the 31st day of August. Pens for the recep- 
tion of sheep will be in readiness on Saturday, September 



First Locomotives in America. 

It is about 50 years since the locomotive was 
introduced in the U. S. There is now living in 
San Francisco one of the veteran railroad men of 
the country, who is absolutely familiar with the 
interesting incidents of the early history of the 
railroad and the locomotive engine in this coun- 
try, "all of which he saw and part of which he 
was." The name of this veteran is David 
Matthew, now nearly three-score-and-ten. He 
is a worthy representative of the American me- 
chanic, at once intelligent, alert and trust- 
worthy. In the course of an entertaining con- 
versation with Mr. Matthew recently, we 
learned that he was born in Scotland and ar- 
rived in this country at the tender age of seven, 
and that a few years later he was sent to the 
West Point foundry shops in New York City 
to learn the trade of machinist. It was at these 
West Point machine shops that the very first 
American locomotives were built, and where 
the first English locomotive brought to the 
country was received and set up and exhibited. 

The first locomotive engine built in America 
for actual service on a railroad was called the 
"Best Friend," and was constructed for the 
Charleston and Augusta railroad company. 
This pioneer locomotive (which is the subject of 
our accurate and handsome illustration) was 
built at the West Point foundry machine shops 
in New York City, and the work of fitting it 
up fell to the lot of Mr. Matthew. Immediately 
after the engine was completed it was placed on 
the company's road, and the first experiment 
with a train was made November 2, 1830, N. 
W. Darrell acting as engineer. 




THE "BEST FRIEND " — THE FIRST AMERICAN BUILT LOCOMOTIVE. 



18th, noon. Before that time no sheep will be permitted 
to enter the grounds. All animals must be within the 
gates on Monday, September 20th, in order that they may 
be arranged for immediate examination by the juries. 

We give herewith the list of premiums for 
Merino sheep. Middle and long-wooled sheep 
have proportionately liberal awards: 

First. Second. Third. 

Ram over three years $100.00 $50.00 $-25. 00 

Ram two years 75.00 40.00 20.00 

Ram one year 60.00 25.00 15.00 

Ram lamb 30.00 20.00 10.00 

Three ewes over three years 75.00 50.00 25.00 

Three ewes two years 50.00 35.00 20.00 

Three ewes one year 30.00 25.00 15.00 

Ewe Iamb 20.00 15.00 10.00 

Stock ram and ten of his get 125.00 75.00 50.00 

Stock ram and lambs 125.00 75.00 50.00 

Ram, three ewes two years, three 
ewes one year, and three ewe 

lamba 125.00 75.00 50.00 

Grand Sweepstakes. — Best pen to consist of two 

rams and fourteen ewes; all to be line bred — of 

one breed $150.00 

Sweepstakes.— Two rams and ten ewes over one 

year 200 00 

This show will doubtless call out the best 
Eastern sheep; and even if California flock- 
owners do not feel like taking their sheep to a 
show, they may find it profitable to attend 
themselves to mark the world's progress in the 
specialty of wool-producing. 

The Largest Hailstones. — It has hitherto 
been supposed that the repcrt of the Bombay 
Gazette, quoted in London Nature, of a hail- 
storm occurring last March at Dharwar, 
during which hailstones fell that measured 
9 or 10 inches in circumference, ^ras the most 
remarkable case on record. It has since ap- 
peared, however, on the authority of the Iowa 
Weather Service Bulletin, that during the month 
of April, 1880, thunder-storms occurred in that 
State, during which hailstones fell measuring 
12 inches in circumference. 

American plows and other agricultural im- 
plements are being shipped from Tucson into 
Sonora, 



Some few days previous to the above date, or 
about the 20th of October, in accordance with a 
notice given in the Charleston papers, a public 
trial was made with this locomotive, without 
any cars attached, at which trial Mr. W. B. 
Ewer, one of the proprietors of this paper, was 
present. It was on this occasion that the first 
American built locomotive turned its wheels for 
the first time on a railroad track. At the trial 
on November 2d the wooden wheels of the ma- 
chine, which were constructed after the English 
practice, sprung and got off the track; but they 
were replaced by cast iron wheels, and on De- 
cember 14th and 15th the engine was again 
tried and ran at the rate of 16 to 21 miles an hour 
with five cars carrying about 50 passengers, and 
without the cars it attained a speed of 30 to 35 
miles an hour. In the Charleston Courier, 
March 12, 1831, there is an account of a later 
trial of the speed of the "Best Friend," on 
which occasion, the writer remarks, "safety 
was assured by the introduction of a barrier 
car, on which cotton was piled up as a rampart 
between the locomotive and the passenger cars. " 
The second locomotive for service built in this 
country was called the "West Point," and was 
for the same road. It was also constructed at 
the West Point machine shops. 

The first locomotive built in America for 
a northern road was called the "De Witt Clin- 
ton," and was the third American locomotive. 
It was for actual service on the Mohawk and 
Hudson railroad. This engine, like the others, 
was built at the West Point machine shops, 
and was also fitted up by Mr. Matthew; and 
when it was completed he took it to Albany, 
June 25, 1831, and made the first excursion 
with a train of cars over the road August 9, 
1831. According to Mr. Matthew's statement, 
the "De Witt Clinton" weighed 3£ tons, and 
hauled a train of 3 to 5 cars at the speed of 30 
miles an hour. It 14 ^specially noteworthy that 
both the cab and the tender of the "De Witt 
Clinton" were covered to protect the engineer 



from the weather — a "happy thought" of hones 
David Matthew, for which all American engi- 
neers at least ought to hold him in kind re- 
membrance. About the middle of August the 
English locomotive, "Robert Fulton, " built by 
the younger Stephenson, arrived and was placed 
on the Mohawk and Hudson road for service in 
the middle of the following September. 

These locomotives had been used and fairly 
tested both on the southern and northern rail- 
roads, and the necessity for a radical change in 
their construction had become evident. Very 
soon John B. Jervis devised the plan of putting 
the truck under the forward part of the engine 
to enable it to turn sharp corners easily and 
safely. The machine so constructed was called 
the "bogie" engine. The first of these engines 
ever built was for the Mohawk and Hudson 
road, and was called the "Experiment." It 
was put on the road and ran by Matthew, who 
says it was as "fleet as a greyhound." The 
"Experiment" had been built to burn anthracite 
coal solely; after a while it was rebuilt and 
adapted to the use of any kind of coal, and its 
name was changed to the "Brother Jonathan." 
Shortly after these changes had been made the 
English locomotive "Robert Fulton," belonging 
to the same company was also rebuilt and fur- 
nished with the truck, and named the "John 
Bull." The "Brother Jonathan" was a remark- 
able machine for those pioneer days. Mr. Mat- 
thew says of it: "With this engine I have 
crossed the Mohawk and Hudson railroad from 
plane to plane, 14 miles, in 13 minutes, stop- 
ping once for water. I have tried her speed 
upon a level, straight line, and have run a mile 
in 45 seconds by the watch. She was the fastest 
and steadiest engine I have ever run or seen, and 
I worked her with the greatest ease. " This is 
certainly wonderful speed, and may be, as Mat- 
thew earnestly maintains it is, the fastest time 
at least on the American railroad record. 

In comparison to the splendid and efficient en- 
gine of to-day, our first locomotives, built after 
the English model mainly, were clumsy and 
crude machines. Since then our improvements 
have been manifold and extraordinary, and the 
American locomotive is now pronounced the 
most "perfect railroad tool in the world." Its 
exquisite symmetry and flexibility, and its ex- 
traordinary power must fill the mind of a vet- 
eran like Matthews — who has watched its 
growth from its infancy in this country — with 
feelings of generous admiration and pride. 

Work of the Drainage Commission. 

The Board of Drainage Commissioners has 
entered upon the discharge of the duties imposed 
upon it. As the action of the Commissioners is 
destined to affect both the welfare of communi- 
ties and the special interests of individuals, any 
plans which they may propose or adopt will 
have an absorbing importance and should re- 
ceive the fullest publicity. With this object in 
view we propose to keep our readers informed 
of every important scheme undertaken by the 
Board. 

The large debris dam to be constructed on 
the Yuba river has received the special atten- 
tion of the Commissioners who have examined 
both sides of the river, and caused plans of the 
proposed dam to be drawn. We present from 
the Yuba City Banner a brief outline of the 
plan, which shows that the dam is to be built 
from one bluff to another bluff on the opposite 
side of the river, distant some 5,000 ft., or 
nearly a mile, and the hight to be eventually 
over 40 ft. The base of the dam is to be about 
100 ft. wide, and will be composed at first of 
small stones, the size of the stones to be gradu- 
ally increased as height is attained. Heavy 
stones are to be placed on the lower side of the 
pile for the purpose of supporting it. The base 
of the dam will be so constructed as to allow the 
water to percolate through it until the inster- 
stices are gradually filled, and by that time the 
dam will be so high and built in so substantial 
a manner, and will be fortified, too, by the long, 
sloping deposit which will extend back and up 
the river, that the water can flow over the top 
without at all endangering the structure. It is 
not believed that the dam will be built to a 
greater hight than 10 ft. during the present 
season, but that hight will present a sufficient 
barrier to the descent of the debris. Immedi- 
ately above the proposed site of the dam, there 
is a valley having an area of about four square 
miles, and it is alleged that the checking of the 
water by the dam will cause all the sediment 
and debris held in suspension to spread over and 
settle in this gorge, and that a grade will form 
and extend back and up the river for six miles, 
the upper end of which may be higher than the 
dam. The process of this formation will be 
similar to that by which the elevated bed of the 
river has already been formed, that is to say, 
by the natural force of gravitation. It is esti- 
mated that when the dam is completed the river 
in a time of flood, and running across the entire 
upper surface, will not be more than one ft, 
deep, and that the pressure upon the dam from 
above, though great, will not be a source of 
danger, because the new-formed and gradually 
sloping deposit, extending for miles above, will 
act as its own support. 

Jackson Seedling Apricots. — We have re- 
ceived from Isaac H. Thomas, of Visalia, a sam- 
ple of the Jackson seedling apricots the same 
variety shown us last week by Prof. Sanders. 
Mr. Thomas says the Jackson is a seedling from 
the Moorpark. He claims it to be the largest 
apricot grown and of superior flavor. The spe- 
cimens shown were certainly noticeably fine. 



42 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[July 17, 1880. 



The New Road Law. 

[Continued from page 35.] 

struction or maintenance of any bridge, they 
may cause a portion of the expense or cost to be 
paid out of the General Road Fund, or the Gene- 
ral Fund, or levy a special bridge tax thereof not 
to exceed one-fourth of 1% on the taxable pro- 
perty of the county until the amount is raised 
and paid. When it is considered necessary to 
erect a bridge to cost more than $200 live or 
more freeholders of the road district interested 
therein, may petition to the Board, who will 
advertise the fact giving place and location, for 
two weeks, and notify the Overseer to attend 
and hear the application. Overseers must, in 
their official reports, give full accounts of all 
bridges of which they have full or partial con- 
trol, including cost of building or repairing. 
Amount expended thereon, from what source 
derived, and their present and prospective con- 
dition. The county is responsible for providing 
and maintaining bridges on all public highways, 
and the Supervisors may set apart a day semi- 
annually to consider bridge reports and com- 
plaints from officers and citizens. 

Persons encroaching on public roads, may be 
Bued in any Court by the Overseer, and if he 
neglect to abate any such encroachment, is lia- 
ble to damage at the rate of $10 per day for each 
day after receiving the notification of the Over- 
seer. Persons injuring or destroying any shade 
or ornamental trees without the sanction of the 
Overseer, is liable to a fine of $25. 

This act shall be in force »n and after its 
passage, was approved April 16th. — Sonoma 
Democrat. 

Dirt in Grain. 

Editors Press: — My letter to the Press last 
month has called forth a communication in your 
last issue over the signature "Thresherman's 
friend" in which the writer, while he has failed 
to meet any of my arguments, has succeeded in 
incorporating a very good advertisement of his 
derrick forks. His suggestion that the farmer 
should prepare the ground for the "settlings" 
during the winter, is utterly impracticable. 
The farmer cannot select the ground for the 
stacks of headings until he is ready to com- 
mence heading; and this for the following rea- 
Bons: In the lirst place should the crop be a 
light one, his "settlings" will be "fewer and 
further between" than if the crop should be a 
good one. Then again, if the grain is lodged, 
he may be compelled in order to head it to the 
best advantage, to cut in a different direction 
from that which he intended when he sowed it. 
His suggestion that the grain dealers should 
build warehouses and erect machinery for clean- 
ing grain, would entail a very heavy tax upon 
the producer, and would become a standing ex- 
cuse for poor threshing, 

Last season I had three threshing machines 
working on my ranch at the same time. Two 
of them were steam threshers using derrick 
forks and self-feeders, the other was a horse 
power fed by hand. I sold 12,000 sacks of 
grain to one man, about one-half of which wag 
threshed by the horse power. Out of that 
threshed by the steam thresher, nearly 600 
sacks were rejected as not having been properly 
threshed and cleaned, while out of that threshed 
by the horse power, not one pound was rejected. 

I have never failed to convince any thresher- 
man that the derrick fork should not be used 
for cleaning up stack bottoms. I called the 
attention of one of my threshermen to the fact 
that the self-feeder feeds matted grain too fast; 
and I so throughly convinced him of this, that 
when he came to thresh a crop on my ranch, in 
which he had an interest, he took off the self- 
feeder and fed by hand. 

Threshing machines are intended to thresh 
and clean grain ready for market, and any good 
one will do so if properly fed. Let me ask the 
derrick-forkman's — I mean the thresherman's — ■ 
friend why it is that the price of our wheat in 
Liverpool has steadily declined during the last 
few years, that is, since the introduction of the 
derrick fork and self-feeder. The quality of the 
wheat is as good as formerly, but the derrick fork 
and self-feeder have enabled the thresherman to 
tax his machine beyond its threshingand cleaning 
powers, and badly threshed and dirty grain and 
low prices are the result. F. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 



Life-Saving Stations.— The sum of $20,000 
appropriated in the Sundry Civil bill for estab- 
lishing 11 additional life-saving stations pre- 
viously authorized by Congress, became avail- 
able July 1st. Of the 11 new stations, the Pa- 
cific coast will have two; one at Point Concep- 
cion, and the other at Bolinas bay. They will 
be constructed and fitted in a similar manner to 
the stations now in use, and it is contemplated 
that they shall be in order for service before 
next winter. Some difficulty is anticipated in 
selecting a suitable site for the station at Point 
Concepcion, owing to the extra-hazardous char- 
acter of the coast; but the Life-Saving bureau 
will take unusual care in determining the site. 



If the authority of foreign scientific journals 
is to be accepted, certain water beetles have 
been found living in reservoirs containing a con- 
centrated solution of sulphate of soda; the liquid 
proved rapidly fatal to fishes. 



Railroads in Northern Mexico. 

The people of Mexico have long opposed every 
attempt to introduce the railway into their 
country, believing that its introduction would 
be followed by an extensive immigration from 
the United States, and that American occupa 
tion would eventually result in annexation 
For the same reason they have resisted the in 
novation of American ideas and capital in the 
development of their mining and other resources, 
and by their exclusiveness have greatly retarded 
commercial intercourse between the two coun 
tries. 

Lower California and a large portion of the 
mainland of northwestern Mexico is almost 
wholly mountainous and has long been famous 
for its mineral wealth. Rich silver mines have 
been worked there for centuries and still em 
ploy the same primitive methods of the times 
of the corvjuistadores, when the ore was carried 
out in large bags of rawhide on the backs of 
peons and broken up by hand before being re 
duced. The only means for transporting freight 
being on the backs of mules over rough mount 
ain trails, it is not surprising that no improve- 
ment has been made in the manner of working 
mines and reducing ores. 

Two or three railroads from the Pacific States 
and Territories into Mexico are projected and 
the line of one — the "Arizona and Mexico" — has 
been laid out. The completion of these roads 
or any one of them will be the dawn of a new 
era for Mexico. The increased facilities for 
transportation would give an impetus to mining 
enterprise, and reinforced by American expert 
ence, sagacity, capital and improved machinery, 
her annual product of gold and silver would 
soon surpass anything chronicled in her history. 
The railroad would open up undeveloped min- 
eral territory, of which there is still a large ex 
tent in Mexico, and facilitate the development 
of mines in American territory through which 
it would pass. The route of the Arizona and 
Mexico railroad is located for a distance along 
the base of mountains upon which many of the 
principal mines of Arizona are situated, includ 
ing the Tough Nut, Contention, Empire, Grand 
Central, Head Center, Tranquility, Sulphuret, 
Cincinnati, Girard, Lucky Cuss, Maimie, Owl's 
Nest, Minerva, Sultana, Bell, Randolph, Junetta, 
Sunset, True Blue, Gordon and others, so that 
each can dump their ores into cars on the track 
by the use of tramways, and have it taken 
direct to the platforms of the mills along the 
San Pedro river. An arrangement of this kind, 
enabling ore to be shipped from the mines at 
comparatively slight expense to mills situated 
in convenient localities, is what is needed in 
the wild inaccessible Mexican Cordilleras. 



California Appropriations Passed. 

At the session of Congress which closed June 
16th, Calif ornia was fairly successfulin the matter 
of appropriations, although many bills of public 
and private interests failed to go through. No- 
table among the items in the appropriation bills 
are the following: Senator Farley's amend- 
ment to the River and Harbor bill, providing 
for a survey and calling for a report on the de- 
bris question; the increased appropriation for 
the Mare Island dock, which was urged and ob- 
tained by Senator Farley and Representative 
Horace Davis, and other items equally impor- 
tant. Davis' resolution, to secure the examina- 
tion of and report on the tidal area of San Fran- 
cisco bay, was also passed by the House. The 
bills which passed.and have been approved by the 
President, are Senator Farley's and Representn- 
tive Pacheco's Catholic Bishops' bill; Repre- 
sentative Page's and Senator Booth's bill for the 
conversion of national gold banks; the bill for 
the repayment of purchase money, fees and 
commissions on void entries of public lands, and 
the bill allowing settlers who may hereafter set- 
tle on public lands, surveyed or unsurveyed, 
the same time to file a homestead application, 
and perfect the original entry as now allowed 
settlers under the pre-emption laws to put their 
claims on record, and opening to claim under 
the pre-emption and homestead laws of the first 
settlers who may hereafter settle on the same; 
and providing further that when a homestead 
or a timber-culture claimant files a relinquish- 
ment of a homestead claim, the land covered by 
it shall be open to settlement in the manner 
that it would have been though no entry under 
the homestead law had ever been made, and 
Senator Booth's and Representative Davis' bill 
to increase the pay of the Night Inspectors of 
Customs, and their bill authorizing the auditing 
of certain unpaid documents in the Indian 
Bureau. 

The following Pacific coast items appear in 
the Sundry Civil bill, as passed by Congress 
during its last day. The other appropriations 
were passed as originally reported in the esti- 
mates: For the completion of the Appraiser's 
stores in San Francisco, $35,000; completing the 
lighthouse and fog-signal at Tillamook Head, 
Or., $75,000; lighthouse at Point-no- Point, 
Washington Territory, $5,000; two assistant 
agents of the seal fisheries in Alaska, $2,900 
each; traveling expenses for agents to and from 
Alaska, $7,770; for the protection of the Gov- 
ernment's interests on the Seal Islands, $30,- 
000; completing the repairs on the' wharf and to 
continue the boring of the artesian well at the 
Benicia Arsenal, $10,000; continuation of the 
work on the dry dock at Mare Island, $112,500. 



Land Patents Issued. — The Commissioner of 
the General Land Office has forwarded to the 
Surveyor-General of California, a patent in fa 
vor of Anasto Carillo, his heirs and assigns, for 
land in the Government's half-mile-square reser 
vation for lighthouse purposes, amounting to 160 
acres within the exterior boundaries of the official 
survey of the rancho Penila de la Concepcion. 
Santa Barbara county. A Government light 
house was erected there in 1852, and in the 
patent issued to Carillo in 1863, for the rancho, 
it was excepted and excluded therefrom. Last 
April Secretary Schurz held that that action 
was unauthorized by the law, and by his direc 
tion a patent is to be issued for the entire sur- 
vey outside the reservation. The Commission 
er has also transmitted for delivery a patent for 
two tracts of land, constituting that part of the 
rancho Agua Caliente confirmed to Mariano G 
Vallejo. As patented, the survey contains an 
area of 1S64 acres, and is situated in Sonoma 
county. 

The Sun's Size. — The huge size of the sun, 
as compared with the earth, may in some de 
gree be realized by the construction of a very 
simple model. When we take a ball of three 
inches in diameter as representing the sun we 
have to place 30 ft. from it a minute ball of 
3-lOOths of an inch in diameter, representing 
the earth and its distance from the sun. 



Purchasers of Stock will fins in this Directory tub 
Names of some of tub Most Reliable Breeders. 

Our Kates. — Six lines or lees inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F. Importers 
and breeders of all varieties ol Thoroughbred Cattle, 
Sheep, Horses, and Berkshire Swine. Ail animals fully 
pedigreed. 



M. B. STURGES. Centerville, Alameda County, Cal 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle. Young 
Bulls and Heifers for sale. Correspondence solicited. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 213 Clay street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) Breed 
ers of Short Horns and their Oracles. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



E. W. WOOLSEY, Berkeley. Alameda Co., Cal. 
Importer and breeder of choice thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Sheep. 



Li. TJ. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



POULTRY. 



WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, CaL Importer 
and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Berkshire 
and Magie Poland-China Swine. 



MRS. L. J. W ATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 



A. O. R IX, Washington, Alameda County, California. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for Circular. 



MRS. L. E. McMAHAN, Dixon, Solano Co.. Cal. 
Importer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs 
fur Hatching. Send for price list. 



SWINE, 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



T. C. STARR, San Bernardino, Cal. Poland-China 
Swine and Black Cochin Chickens for sale. 



JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 



BEES. 



JOS. D. ENAS. Sunnyside, Napa, Cal. Breeds pure 
Italian Queen Bees. Imported Queens furnished. 



What is it I Everybody knows it is as 

essential to life as food itself. Yet when people arc ill 
for the very want of revitali7.ation through respiration, 
they dose themselves with drugs and bitters to the effect 
of demoralization! Ail Invalids should read . Drs. 
STARKEY k PALEN'S(Phila) Treatiae on Oxygen, 
which is sent free to all who may ask for it. The subject 
is worthy of investigation. References to physicians in 
San Francisco, who use and prescribe Compound Oxygen 
in practice. As prepared for home use (conveniently sent 
to any address) it may be obtained of H. E. MATHEWS, 
606 Montgomery street, S. F., upon the same terms as 
furnished by Dr*. Starkey & Palen, Philadelphia, Penn. 
Complete instructions with each package. 



PACIFIC WATER CURE 

— AND — 

Electric Health Institute- 

Specially adapted to the cure of chronic cases such as 
Rheumatism, Neuralgia, Paralysis, Consumption, Asthma, 
Lead or Mercury Poison, etc. 

Our mode of treatment is mostly new and peculiar, and 
relieves the patient in a short time, mostly without the 
use of drugs. 

Good rooms and board, with competent and careful 
nurses furnished in the house. 

M. P. CLAYTON, M. D., 

Proprietor. 
Northwest corner Seventh and L Sts , Sacramento, Ca 



Mining & Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 

The Mining and Scientific 
Press Patent Agency was estab- 
lished in 1 860 — the first west ot 
the Rocky Mountains. It has 
kept step with the rapid march 
of mechanical improvements. 
The records in its archives, its 
constantly increasing library, the 
accumulation of information ot 
special importance to our home 
inventors, and the experience ot 
its proprietors in an extensive and 
long continued personal practice 
in patent business, affords them 
combined advantages greater 
than any other agents can possi- 
bly offer to Pacific Coast invent- 
ors. Circulars of advice, free. 
Address; 

DEWEY & CO., 

202 Sansome St., N. E. Cor. Pine, 
San Francisco. 



CHOICE 

Irrigated Vineyard Lands. 

PLEASANT HOMES, 

Good Society and Good Schools 1 
THE WASHINGTON IRRIGATED COLONY, 

In Fresno Co. , Cal. , presents 

GREAT INDUCEMENTS 

To those Becking HOMES and PROFITABLE INVEST- 
MENTS. This Colony, situated within five miles of the 
Railrvud and County Seat, contains over 

7,000 Acres 

Of Rich Irrigable Lands, subdivided into lots with 
Streets and Avenues with ABUNDANT WATER RIGHTS 
and IRRIGATING CANALS CONSTRUCTED, and with 

Perfect Title to both Land and Water. 

Fresno County is already recognized as the best in the 
State for Vineyards; and the abundant facilities tor Irri- 
gation affords 

Complete Protection from Phylloxera, 

Which is already so destructive to the dry vineyards of 
the State. These lands are being sold at 

Low Prices and on Liberal Terms. 

Nearly 3,000 AcreB are already purchased, and are being 
improved by excullent families, whose numerous Alfalfa 
fields, fine cows, and FLOURISHING CHEESE FACTORY 
attest the industry and sagacity with which they provide 
a support, while they cultivate their Fruits and ample 
Vineyards. For full information apply for Circulars at 
the office of the 

WASHINGTON IRRIGATED COLONY. 

22 Montgomery St., S. F. or at the Colony. 

Wendell Easton, Treas. J. W. North, Genl Agt. 

GRANGERS' BANK 

Of California, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capital, - $1,000,000, 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $400,000. 

OFFICERS: 

O. W. COLBY President 

JOHN LEWELLING Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK McMULLEN Secretary 

DIRECTORS: 

G. W. COLBY President Butte Co 

JOHN LEWELLING, Vice-President Napa Co 

J. V. WEBSTER Alameda Co 

URIAH WOOD San Benito Co 

J. C. MERYFIELD Solano Co 

THOMAS MiCONNELL Sacramento Co 

L C. STEELE San Mateo Co 

SOLOMON JEWETT Kern Co 

C J. CRESSEY Stanislaus Co 

SENECA EWER Napa Co 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa Co 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for the 
transaction of general Banking business. 

CURREM ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted In the 
usual way. 

GOLD and SILVER deposits received. 

CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued for Gold and 8ilver. 

TERM DEPOSITS are received and interest allowed as 
follows: 6% per annum if left for 3 months; 7% per anaum if 
left for >' months; f% per annum if left for 12 months. 

EXCHANGE on the Atlantic States bought and sold. 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER, 

Cashier and Manager 

San Francisco, Oct. 15th, 1879. 



Inventors, and others interested, will receive Dswrr 

& Co.'B MiNINO AND SCIENTIFIC PRRSS PATENT AGENCY 

Circular free on application at this office. It contains 42 
>ages of hints and information about Patents, Patent 
jswa, Patent Office Regulations, and how to obtain valid 
patents. 



July 17, 1880.] 



PACIFIC BUBAL PB1< 



43 



Educational. 



THE 

BERKELEY GYMNASIUM. 

A BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL. 

Classical, Literary and Scientific. 

This institution has the patronage of the 

BEST FAMILIES OF THE COAST. 

The Fourth School Year Begins on 

MONDAY, JUXY 12th. 

For list of References and full discussion of Depart- 
ments of Education 

APPLY FOR CATALOGUE TO 
JOHN F. BURRIS, Superintendent. 

BERKELEY, CAL. 



THE DECEIT 

Classical & English School, 

1265 Franklin St., Oakland Cal. 

The Sixth Year Begins July 14th. 

This School prepares boys for the State University or 
Eastern Colleges. None of our student! has ever failed 
to pass the entrance- examination!. There are no board- 
ers, but board will be found in select private families, 
for those who may desire it. Many of our best students 
have bt en from the country. 

For Catalogues address the Principal, 

GEORGE FREDERIC DEGEN, A. M., 

Oakland, Cal. 

CALIFORNIA 

MILITARY ACADEMY 

AT OAKLAND. 

The Next Session Will Begin 

July 19th, 1880. 
Rev. DAVID McCLURE, Ph. D., Principal. 

Oakland, Cal. 



WASHINGTON COLLEGE. 



The next Term of this well-known Institution, than 
which there is none better in the State or on this coast, 
will commence on 

Thursday, July 89th, 1880. 

Catalogues can be had at Bancroft's Publishing House, 
721 Market St., San Francisco, or at Hardy's Bookstore, 
959 Broadway, Oakland. For other particulars address 

S. S. HARMON, Principal, 

Washington Corners, Alameda Co. 



MISS COCHRANE'S SCHOOL 

FOR YOUNG LADIES AND CHILDREN, 

No. 1036 Valencia St., S. F. 

The next session will open August 4, 18S0. Boarding 
Pupils limited to Ten. For terms apply to 

M. B. COCHRANE, Principal. 

Mrs. Colgate Baker's 
BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL 

For Young Xiadies, 

AND KINDERGARTEN FOR CHILDREN, 

860 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco. 

MRS. POSTON'S SEMINARY, 

Oak St., bat. Tenth & Eleventh, Oakland. 

THE NEXT SCHOOL YEAR BEGINS 

Wednesday. Jnly 28th, 1880- 

E. C. POSTON, Principal. 
GOLD KIM GATE ACADEMY. 

Oakland, Cal. 

A First-class Boarding and Day School will begin its next 
term July 27, 1880. For information visit the Freiniaes or 
apply to Rev. H. E. JEWETT, M. A., Principal. 



TO SEEDSMEN. 
Yellow Danvers Onion Seed 

From selected stock, crop 1880, Raised and for sal» in 
Quantities to •uit by JOS. HALE, 

Stockton, Cal. 



FRUIT AND GRAIN FARM FOR SALE, 

Near Sacramento, Cal. 

Eighty acres of choice laud, two miles from city limits; 
half mile east upper Stockton road; 800 Fruit trees, one acre 
Grapevines, two acres Blackberries. Sixty-rive acres in Grain 
will be sold with or without crop. Good House and Out 
"Buildings. Farm well fenced; five Windmills and Horse 
Power; Fish Pond; three-quarters of a mile from good 
School. This property will be sold cheap. Terms cash. 
Apply at the ranch. J. K. HOUSTON. 



60 



Elegant Perfumed Cards, Chromo, Motto, Lily, Etc. 
IBs. Gift with eaob pack. H M. Smith, CUntonville. Ct. 



Stock Notices. 



E. W. WOOLSEY & SON, 

Importers and Breeders of THOROUGHBRED 




#■141* KM 

SPANISH MERINO SHEEP. 

We are breeding from FIRST PREMIUM stock of Ver- 
mont and California. Unsurpassed in quality and condi- 
tion. Purchasers are invited to examine. We are cultivating 
the style of wool pre-eminently required on this coast. 

Berkeley, Alameda County, Cal. 

HALF-BREED JERSEY 

HEIFERS FOR SALE. 

From First-Clasa 

AMERICAN DAIRY COWS. 

Deliverable at 837 Howard Street, San Francisco, or at 
San Bruno Station S. P. R. R. 

PRICES : 

One Week Old 8 5.00 

One Month Old 10.00 

Two Months Old 15.00 

Three Months Old 20.00 

Or at 50 cents less at JERSEY FARM, San Bruno. 

R. G. SNEATH. 

RAMS FOR SALE. 

300 THOROUGHBRED 

And Graded 

SPANISH MERINO 

*4 Rams For Sale. 

^W^ffi*WHI^^K^>is£*«SAte^^ i >*#» ^•^^Kw^^9Ai(^^^ r Bred from the first impor- 
MM& tdtion of Spanish Merino 
KiP** Sheep to California, in 1854. 
Prices to suit the times. Residence, one mile north of 
VcConnel'S Station, Western Pacific Division 0. P. R. R. 
P. O. address, MRS. E. McCONNELL WILSON, 
Elk Grove, Sacramento Co., Cal. 

ANGORA GOATS. 

FIVE HUNDRED HEAD of GRADED ANGORAS 
from | to 1516, for sale for cash or exchange for cattle. 

Apply to D. P. NEWSON, 

Arroyo Grande, Cat. 

Dr. A. de Labrousse, 
VETERINARY SURGEON'. 

(Graduate of Alfort's College, Paris.) 

Blisters, Ointments, Blood Purifying and Re- 
storative Powders and Medicines for Horses, 
Cattle, Hogs and Sheep, sent on application. 
Cure guaranteed. Address. givingfull particulars 
INFIRMARY and LABORATORY, 1125 Market St., S. F 





COPP'S 

AMERICAN SETTLERS' GUIDE. 

Public Land Sy9tem Explained; How to tell Township 
and Section Corners; How to Homestead and Pre-empt 
land; How to Enter land under Timber Culture, Desert, 
Townsite and other Laws. Sent by mail postpaid for 50 
cents. DBWEY & CO., 

202 Sansome St., S. F. 



Mission Rock Dock and Grain Warehouse. 

San Francisco, Cal. 
40,000 tons capacity. Storage at lowest rates. 
CHAS. H. SINCLAIR, Supt. 
CALIFORNIA DRY DOCK CO. - - Proprietors. 
Office— 318 California Street, Room 3. 



JOHN JENNINGS. 
Hooper's South End Grain Warehouses, 

Cor. Japan and Townsend Sts., S. P. 
First-class Fire-proof Brick Building. Capacity, 10,000 
tons. Goods taken from the Dock and the Cars of the C. P. 
R. R. and S. P. R. R. free of charge. Storage at Current 
Rates. Advances and Insurance effected. 



LAND 



Good land that will raise a crop every 
year. Over 14,000 acres for sale in lots te 
suit. Climate healthy. No drouths, bad 
floods, nor malaria. Wood and water 
convenient. U. S. Title, perfect. Send stamp for illus- 
trated circular, to EDWARD FRISBIE, Proprietor of 
Reading Ranch, Anderson, Shasta County, Cal. 



Lands for Sale and to Let. 



Rare Opportunity 

— FOR A — 

COLOIsTT 

— OR — 

Farming Enterprise ! 

A tract of land, comprising 20,000 acres, lying in Town 
ship 16, south, range 19 and 20 east, in 

FRESNO COUNTY, 

Is offered in whole or in part, as a very desirable location 
for a Colony or extensive farming enterprise. 

This land is in the immediate vicinity of several Colo- 
nies, which are already in successful progress. 

Work for bringing water upon the land has already 
been commenced, and the land is so situated that it can 
be irrigated at very little outlay. It is also convenient for 
Railroad transportation. 

Terms Reasonable. 

For further particulars inquire of FRANKLIN D. 
COTTLE, No. 932 Howard Street, San Francisco, or) 
COTTLE & LUCE on the premises, or at Fresno 
City, Cal. 



44 



FRUIT FARM 

FOR SALE 
Hear Sa n Jo se, Cal. 

That fine place known as the 

CHENEY FA3 

Adjoining Lick's Mill, is offered for sale. 



5? 
1 . 



Was purchased a Short time ago for 
$25,000. Is offered for $20,000 and 
will pay a Good Interest on the in- 
vestment. 



There are 118 acres of choice land — 40 acres in Straw- 
berries, 7 acres in Blackberries, 700 young Pear Trees, 
and an Old Orchard. Has several flowing wells, a large 
house of 10 rooms, marble mantels, etc. The house is 
completely finished, Brussels carpets on most of the floors; 
parlor, sitting-room and bed-room furniture all nearly 
new. 

With Stock consisting of Horses, Cattle, Hogs, Fanning 
Implements, etc., sufficient for the place, all for the price 
above named. 

Satisfactory reasons given for selling. 



Apply to 



TERMS EASY. 
J. A. Clayton, 

REAL ESTATE AGENT. 

San Jose, Cal. 



Dairy Farm^For Sale. 

Four miles west of Watsonville, in Santa Cruz county, 
Cal. One Thousand Acres of first-class Dairy Land, 
which will be sold in whole, or in part to suit purchaser, 
very cheap. The place can be divided into 10 or more 
small Farms, with 

Lasting Springs of Pure Water, 

On each 60 acres. All under fence, and 400 acres under 
cultivation. Living water, enough to irrigate nearly al 
the place. 

Plenty of Firewood. 

For particulars enquire of 

PRANK LARK IN, on the place. 



Pajaro Valley Nursery 

FOR SALE. 

Situated in the Town of Watsonville. 

WAS ESTABLISHED IN 1867. 

Contains 27 acres of land. There is about 60,000 trees 
under cultivation, embracing all the leading varieties of 
Fruits, with Shade and Ornamental Trees, 7 acres of the 
best varieties of Strawberries, Raspberries and Blackber- 
ries, together with all the necessary Tools, Buildings, 
etc. , for conducting ■ & first-class business. An abundance 
of water for Irrigation. 

The proprietor being compelled to sell for the reason 
that he is about to leave the State, offers to any one wish- 
ing to engage in a profitable and well-established business 
a very great bargain. For further particulars apply to 
JAMES WATERS, Prop., 

Watsonville, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 



Sheep Range For Sale. 

Mirimf$\ About 3,169 acres of deeded land, four cabins 
BHEBbI and corrals; plenty of good water. Has a front- 

y^^rT age of four miles on Elder Creok, and is situated 
in Tehama county, in T 25 and 26 N, R 6 W. M 
D M; will keep 6,000 Sheep. I have a (rood summer range 
which I will let go with it. For further particulars apply at 
the ranch. 

G. M. LOWREY. 

P. O. address, Red Bluff, Tehama County. California. 
March 20th. 1880. 




For Sale in large or small tracts, on easy terms, in 
the best parts of the State. 

McAPEE BROTHERS, 
302 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



THE 



BEST NEW MUSIC BOOKS. 

For High Schools. 

The Welcome Chorus. *ioo 

By W. S. Tilden. Just out. 

For Seashore or Mountains. 

Gems of English Song; 
Cluster of Gems; ^Vo^T^ 

strumental Bound Volumes of Sheet Music. All the 
same price. 

For Sunday School Conventions. 

White Robes. (*>*■.) 

By Abbey and Munoer. Very popular. 
For Choirs, Conventions, Singing Classes. 

Voice of Worship. «i)l.o.eme R9 on. 

The Temple. ($1.) By W. O. Perries. 

Examine for your Fall Classes. 

For Amateur Performers. 
Sorcerer, (81 00). Bells of CornevUle, (81.60). 
Pinafore. (50c.), and many other Operas and Cantatas. 
Any book sent, post-free, for the retail price. 

OLIVER DITS0N & CO., BOSTON. 

O. H. Ditson & Co., 843 Broadway. N. Y. 



ST. DAVID'S, 

A FIRST-CLASS LODGING HOUSE. 

CONTAINS 113 ROOMS. 

715 Howard St., near Third, San Francisco. 

This House Is especially designed as a comfortable home for 
gentlemen and ladies visiting the city from the interior. No 
dark rooms. Gas and running water in each room. The floors 
are covered with body Brussels carpet, and all of the furniture 
is made of solid black walnut. Each bed has a spring mat- 
tress, with an additional hair top mattress, making them the 
most luxurious and healthy beds in the world. Ladies wish- 
ing to cook for themselves or families, are allowed the free 
use of a large public kitchen and dining room, with dishes. 
Servants wash the dishes and keep up a constant fire from 
6 a. m. to 7 p. m. Hot and cold baths, a large parlor and read- 
ing room, containing a Grand Piano— ah free to guests. Price 
single rooms per night, 50 cts. ; per week, from $2. 50 upwards. 

R. HUGHES, Proprietor. 

At Market Street Ferry, take Omnibus line of street cars 
to corner Third and Howard. 



HEBSOVAL. 

John F. Geary, M. D. 

For the last 18 years at 632 Howard street, San Francisco, 
has 

REMOVED TO OAKLAND. 

Consulting rooms, Erie House, 1113 Broadway. 
Office hours, 1 to 5 p. si. Mornings and evenings at 
Marathon Park, Telegraph Avenue. 
Diseases of women and children a specialty for 25 years. 



Rent paid two ami a quarter years buys one. 

BEST CABINET OR PARLOR ORGANS 
IN THE WORLD; winners of highest 
jdistinction at every world's fair for 13 
AND |vbarb. Prices, $51, $57, 860, $84.3108, to 
B500 and upward. Also for easy pay- 
ments, $5 a month or $6.38 a quarter 
and upward. Catalogues free. MASON 
ft H f* ft U f* & HAMLIN ORGAN CO., 154 Tremont 
llK|.flRI\ St., Boston; 46 East 14th St. (Union 
UllUnilW Square),N. Y. ; 149 Wabash Av. , Chicago. 

Affason and Hamlin Organs. 

Wholesale and Retail Agents 

KOHLER & CHASE. 



Post Street, near Dupout, 



SAN FRANCISCO. 



SEND FOB. THE 

S1.50 

Homoeopathic Medicine Case. 

Containing 12 principal remedies, with directions for 
use. Also Veterinary cases and books. Send for cata- 
logue. Address BOERICKE & TAPEL, 
Homoeopathic Pharmacy, San Francisco. 

DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending this date, the Board of Di- 
rectors of THE GERMAN SAVINGS AND LOAN SO- 
CIETY has declared.a dividend on Term Deposits at the 
rate of six (c) per cent, per annum; and on Ordinary De- 
posits at the rate of five (5) per cent, per annum, free 
from Federal Taxes, and payable on and after the 15th 
day of July, 1880. By order. 

GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 
San Francisco, June 30, 1880. 

SUNNY SIDE APIARY. 

Pure Italian Queens and Bees, tested and untested. 
Young Queens ready April 1st. Also, Wintered-over 
Queens. Purity and safety guaranteed. Comb founda- 
tion, smokers, knives, bee-books, etc. Sample Premium 
Hive. Address with stamp, 

JOS. D. ENAS, 

Sunny Side, Napa Co., Cal. 

BROWN LEGHORN EGGS FOR SALE. 

From selected birds. Also a few choice FowIb— Brown 
Leghorns, Spangled Hamburgs and Partridge Cochins. 
All yearlings or under. 

HENR7 PETERSON, 
Near the University, Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal 



A. Aitken. 



F. N. Fish 



AITKEN &. FISH, 

Premium Pioneer Marble Works, 

617 K St., Bot. Sixth & Seventh, - SACRAMENTO, CAL. 



r-f\ Pertumea, Snowtlake. Chromo, MottoCards, name in 
OUgoldandjet 10c. O. A. Spbinu, E. Wallingford.Ct, 



44 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[July 17, 1880. 



The State Fair Races. 

The following is the programme of races 
which has been prepared by the board for the 
six days of the fair: 

First Day- Monday, Sept. 20th. 

No. 1— Running. Two-year-old stake, thrce-i|uarters of 
a mile dash; $50 each, $15 forfeit, 8150 added; second colt 
to save stake. 

Win. Lynch names Leta Psi, b. c. by Monday, dam by J. 
W. Dougherty's Arabian Horse. 

W. EL Coombs names br. c. by Shannon, dam by Lodi; 
also ch. c. by Shannon, dam by Lodi. 

D. S. Terry names Lily Ashe by Joe Daniels, (iam Ro- 
veille, by Woodburn. 

No. 2— Running. Mile heats, three in Ave. Purse, 
$1,000. Five to enter, three to start. Ten per cent, en- 
trance. Seven hundred dollars to first horse, $200 to 
second and $100 to third. Distance, 40 yards. Entries to 
close on the Saturday previous, by 12 o'clock M. 

No. 3— Pacing. Free for all. Purse, $000 Three in 
five. Five to enter, three to start. First horse, two- 
thirds; second, two-thirds of remainder; third, the bal- 
ance. 

Second Day— Tuesday. 

No. 4 — Trotting. Stake for two-year-olds; $25 to ac- 
company nomination, and is to be forfeit; $75 to be paid 
the first day of fair. If two colts start, $250 to be added; 
first colt, three-quarters; second colt, one-quarter. If 
three 9tart, $300 to be added; first colt, two-thirds; second, 
two-thirds of remainder; third colt, the balance. If four 
or more start, $350 to be added; same division of money 
No added money to be given for a walk-over, except the 
best time of the State be beaten, in which case $100 added 
money will be paid the colt beating said time. The colt 
making the walk-over shall receive all the stakes and 
forfeits. 

H. R. Covey names Fred. Crocker, b. c, black points; 
also, Maybell, b. f. , black points. 

M. W. Hicks names Flight, b. f., two white Btockings 
behind; by Buccaneer, dam by Flaxtail. 

L. J. Rose names br. f. Sweetheart, by Sultan, dam 
Minnehaha. 

J. C. Newton names Baton Rouge, b. c, white spot in 
forehead and small strip on nose; by Echo, dam by 
Howard's Membrino. 

No. 5— -Trotting, 2:40 class. Purse, $1,000. First 
horse, two-thirds; second, two-thirds of remainder; third, 
the balance. [Deitz mare oarred. J 

No. 6— Trotting. California annual stake. Pools of 
1877; $25 forfeit, $50 Jan. 1, 1880, and $50 30 days before 
the race, $400 added. Firet colt, six-tenths; second, three- 
tenths; third, one-tenth. Closed June 1, 1S79, with the 
following nominations: 

L. H. Titus names b. f. Hattie Johnson, by Echo, dam 
unknown. 

John Young names b. f. Odulia, by Echo, dam the 
Young Mare. 

F. M. Slaughter nameB b. f. , by Echo, dam Dell Mason. 
L. J. Rose names r. f. Phaciola, by Silverthread, dam 
Minnehaha. 

L. H. Baker names b. c. Phil. Sheridan, by Hercules, 
Jr., dam by Jim Hawkins. 

J. W. Knox names b. f. Princess, by Nutwood, dam 
Addie by Hamilton. 

H. R. Covey names (for Gov. Stanford) b. f. Prima 
Donna, by Mohawk Chief, dam Matis Occidentis; also, b. 
f . , by Mohawk Chief, dam Prussian Maid ; also, br. f . , by 
Mohawk Chief, dam by May Fly; alBo, br. f., by Mohawk 
Chief, dam May Flower. 

Daniel Brown names b. c. Jackson Temple, by Brown's 
Volunteer, dam Alice Daniels. 

William Bihler names , by General Danua, dam by 

Nelson. 

Charles A. Dunfee names b. f. Belle Echo, by Echo, dam 
by Belmont. 

The second money has been paid on Hattie Johnson, 
Phaciola, Prima Dorna, Bay Filly, dam May Fly, and 
Belle Echo. 

Third Day— Wednesday. 

No. 7— Trotting. 2:25 class. Purse, $1,200. First horse, 
two-thirds ; second, two-thirds of remainder ; third, the 
balance. 

No. 8— Trotting. Stake for three-year-olds or under ; 
$25 to accompany nomination, and is to be forfeit ; $75 to 
be paid the first day of the fair. If two colts start, $250 
to be added ; first colt, three-quarters ; second colt, 
one-quarter. If throe start $300 to be added ; 
first colt, two-thirds ; second, two-thirds of re- 
mainder ; third colt, the balance. No added money to 
be given for a walk-over, except the best time of the State 
be beaten, in which case $100 added money will be paid 
the colt beating said time. The colt making the walk-over 
shall receive all the stakes and forfeits. 

H. R. Covey names Ulemora, blk. f., white hind ankles. 

A. C. Deitz names b. c. Emperor, by Ralston, dam Katy 
Tricks. 

E. L. Maybry names 9. c. State of Maine, by Seal's Elmo, 
dam Kitty Clyde. 

George W. Trehern names bl. c. Resolution, by Prince 
Orange, dam Crickett. 

C. A. Dunree names gr. 9. Len Rose, by A. W. Rich- 
mond, dam Barbara. 

E. Newland names Phaciola, by Silverthread, dam Min- 
nehaha 

S. Crandall names b. c. Alex. , by Alexander. 

W. E. Morris names s. s. Upright, by Whipple's Ham- 
blctonian, dam by Gilroy Belle. 

John Wade names s. s. Honesty, by Priam, dam by 
Chieftain. 

Win. Smith names Annie Laurie, by Echo, dam by Ten 
Broeck; bright bay, white left hind foot. 

Wm. Corbitt names b. g. Slow Go, white hind legs and 
near foreleg, star and strip; also, gray roan gelding; Roan 
Irvington, strip in face. 

J. C. Newton names Belle Echo, by Echo, b. f., white 
hind heels, dam by Belmont. 

Fourth Day— Thursday. 

No.9— Trotting. Stake for 2:22 class. $25 to accompany 
nomination ; $75 to be paid the first day of the fair. If 
two start, $300 added ; two-thirds to first horse and one- 
third to second. If three start, $400 added ; and if four 
or more start, $500 added ; two-thirds to the first horse ; 
two-thirds of remainder to second, and balance to third 
horse. 

No. 10— Trotting. 2:50 class. Purse, $600. First horse, 
two-thirds ; second horse, two-thirds of remainder, and 
third horse the balance. [Deitz mare barred. J 
Fifth Day-Friday. 

No. 11— Trotting. 2:30 class. Purse, $1,200. First 
horse, two-thirds; second, two-thirds of remainder; third, 
the balance. 

No. 12— Trotting. Four-year-old or under class. Purse, 
$600. Should there be less than five entries in this race 
the purse will be reduced in proportion, but the race will 
be closed if three enter, and the purse in that case will be 
three-fifths of $600, or $300. First horse, two-thirds ; 
second, two-thirds of remainder; third, the balance.' 
ISteinway barred.] 

Sixth Day— Saturday. 

No. 13— Trotting. Free-for-all class. Purse, $1,500. 
First horse, two-thirds ; second, two-thirds of remainder- 
third, the balance. 

No. 14— Trotting. 2:40 class. Two miles and repeat. 
Purse, $1,000. First horse, two-thirds; second, two-thirds 
of remainder; third, the balance. [Deitz mare barred. J 
Special Purse. 

No. 15— Special purse of $1,000, for a race between Cap- 
tain Smith, Steiuway and Jewett. Conditions— That all 
shall start, and that any other four-year-old in the United 
States may enter; six-tenths to first horse, three-tenths to 
second, one-tenth to third. Day run to be fixed hereafter. 
Gold Medal Races. 

The board offers the society's gold modal to each or 



either of the three horses, Elaine, Santa Claus and Stein- 
way, to trot single, to rule, to harness, on such days of 
the fair as may be fixed upon, the medal to be given to 
each horse beating his or her present record. 

Grain Cleaning and Grain Cleaners. 

We observe that the recent agitation con- 
cerning the foulness of California wheat is hav- 
ing an excellent effect and it is probable that 
this year's crop will come into market in better 
condition and with a less percentage of cheat 
and other foul seeds than ever before. The 
farmers appear to be fully awake to their in- 
terest in the matter and are taking unusual 
pains to have their wheat thoroughly cleaned. 
This is very gratifying and if persisted in can- 
not fail to make California wheat bring the 
highest price in the markets of the world. 

This very desirable result is being accom- 
plished in a great degree by the large power 
grain cleaner that accompany or follow the 
threshing machines from field to field. In- 
deed, they are getting to be almost as com- 
mon as the threshing machines themselves, and 
we are very glad to see that such is the case. 

There are quite a variety of power cleaners 
in use, all of them good, but some better than 
others, of course. They are driven by steam 
or horse power in the same manner that thresh- 
ing machines are. 

We are led to these remarks by the receipt 
of a letter from the Sweepstake Plow Co., of 
San Leandro, who write us that they are manu- 
facturing a very rapid and powerful grain 
cleaner, used in Sonoma county last year. It 
is called Lyon's Automatic Grain Separator, 
and is somewhat different in construction and 
operation from other machines of its class. 

Its general appearance is something like that 
of a threshing separator. Its interior is made 
up of a great number of large screens through 
which a blast of air is sent by a fan running at 
one end. The wheat passes over no less than 
150 ft. of these screens and comes out pure 
wheat and nothing else. The fans all have 
what is known as the "end shake," that is they 
vibrate endwise of the machine. The vibration 
is very short — not more than half an inch — but 
very rapid. There are screens for removing 
barley, oats, cheat, mustard seed and white 
caps (broken kernels) and these all come out by 
themselves. 

Its capacity is from 50 to 60 tons per day, 
and it takes the grain direct from the threshing 
machine if desired, or it may be used after the 
grain is sacked, either in the field or the ware- 
house. The charge for cleaning is from 75 cts. 
to SI per ton. 

Grain was cleaned by one of these machines on 
Clark's ranch, near Santa Rosa last year, which 
was increased in value by the operation $7 per 
ton, and the screenings sold for one cent a pound. 
In some cases wheat was made merchantable 
which could not be sold at any price previous to 
being cleaned. 

Of course, the advantage of cleaning wheat is 
in proportion to its foulness, but it seldom fails 
to enhance its value S3 per ton, while the screen- 
ings are usually worth about as much as barley. 

We consider this a matter of much import- 
ance to the farming interest of this coast, and 
think those interested would do well to ex- 
amine the machine above referred to. 

An Illustrated Handbook. — We have re- 
ceived from the S. F. News Publishing Co., a 
neatly illustrated handbook of Santa Cruz and 
Monterey, compiled by Mr. Henry Meyrick. 
A hasty glance will show it to be a bright and 
pleasant as well as an extremely useful com- 
panion. Its illustrations are light and breezy 
trifles, and inspire a disposition to cheerful fun. 
All the points of local interest in either Santa 
Cruz or Monterey, indeed everything that is 
attractive in those delightful watering-places, 
are given in agreeable detail. The brief history 
of charming old Monterey, with its exquisite 
scenery and delicious climate, is a bit of good 
reading. There are, besides, maps of both 
places. Everyone desirous of finding a piece of 
lovely and sheltered bay coast, will, we are 
sure, thank the compiler of this pleasant hand- 
book. 



St. Matthew's Hall. — The next term of 
school at St. Matthew's Hall, San Mateo, be- 
gins on the 22d inst. , next Thursday, as will be 
seen by advertisement in another column. The 
last term of this well-known institution was 
the most successful in its history, and the pros- 
pects now are that the next will be even more 
so. Applications for admission are being daily 
received. During the vacation the buildings 
have been thoroughly overhauled, renovated 
and put in an attractive condition; some addi- 
tion to the school-rooms have been made and 
other extensive improvements carried out, as 
aemanded by experience and the increased re- 
quirements for such accommodations. All its 
departments are perfectly arranged, and boys 
committed to its charge will be certain that 
their moral and physical welfare will be as care- 
fully look after as their mental training. 

To Clarify Liquids. — The following compo- 
sition is said to bleach all colored liquids, and to 
render bone-black unnecessary: Albumen, 300 
parts; neutral tartrate of potash, 2 parts; alum, 
5 parts; sal ammoniac, 700. The albumen must 
of course not be coagulated. The ingredients 
are first dissolved in a little water, and then 
added to the liquid to be clarified. 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co. 'a Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of special mention : 

Breech Loading Firearm.— Wm. R. Finch, 
Eureka, CaL Patented June 22, 1880. No. 
229,035. This invention relates to certain im- 
provements in the construction of magazine fire- 
arms of that class in which a vertically-running 
breech-block is operated by a lever and serves 
as a carrier to transport the cartridge from the 
magazine to the rear open end of the barrel, 
into which it is forced by mechanism for the 
purpose. It consists in a novel construction 
and combination of a solid breech-block which 
is moved vertically in the frame at the rear of 
the barrel with a swinging arm, by which the 
cartridge is forced into the barrel, so that the 
breech-block is allowed to move up and close 
the breech. The whole is operated by a single 
lever beneath the gun, and the same action 
cocks the gun and locks the breech-block when 
closed, so that it cannot be opened. 

Pneumatic Annunciator. — David and Theo- 
dore Morris, Market St., S. F. This device 
consists in attaching to the main compression 
cylinder a peculiarly operated check -bell or tell- 
tale, which is intended to indicate any leakage 
in the line of pipe, and consequent failure of the 
signal bells to sound. This check-bell is used 
in combination with the gong or bell-ringing 
cylinders in such a manner that it will ring 
when their bells ring, but will not do so when 
they fail to do so. Peculiarly operating valves 
in the pistons of the bell-ringing cylinders con- 
trol the action of the tell-tale bell in such a 
manner that when these pistons fail to move 
properly, so as to ring the bells and actuate the 
valve, the tell-tale bell will not ring, nor will 
it when there is any leakage in the line of 
pipe. 

Baling Press. — John Cook, Healdsburg, So- 
noma Co., Cal. Patented June 8, 1880. No. 
228,515. This press consists in the employment 
of a horizontal box having a follower operated 
by a peculiar windlass or capstan and ropes and 
pulley, which are placed along the sides of the 
box; and it also consists in a novel method of 
holding and tightening the baling ropes while 
the follower is moving up, so that they are all 
ready to be tied when the bale is pressed. A 
lever is fitted to the press by which the bale 
may be ejected as soon as finished. This pres3 
is economically built and operated, and ma- 
terial is easily introduced, and bales removed 
without supplemental doors or severe labor. 

Grafting Tool. — Charles W. Hoit, Petalu- 
ma, Sonoma Co., Cal. Patented June 22, 1880. 
No. 229,040. This device consists in the em- 
ployment of a pair of pivoted handles, one of 
which is fitted to receive a curved wooden 
block or bed with an elastic surface, upon 
which the cutter acts, while the other operat- 
ing arm moves the cutter which is pivoted to 
it. The upper end of the cutter is also pivoted 
to the end of a supplemental arm which extends 
back and unites with the handle upon the op- 
posite side of the pivot, so as to produce a 
parallel motion of the cutter, which insures its 
making a straight clean cut whatever the thick- 
ness of the scion or stock to be operated upon. 

Magazine Firearm. — A. Schneider, 24 Erie 
St., S. F. Patented June 8, 1880. No. 228,- 
560. This invention relates to certain improve- 
ments in breech-loading magazine firearms, and 
it is especially adapted to be used in cases where 
the magazine extends beneath and parallel with 
the barrel of the arm. And it consists in a ver- 
tically-moving breech-block in combination with 
an operating lever, provided with means for 
giving the block an intermittent movement, 
whereby the breech-block is made to Dause 
when opposite the barrel while the cartridge is 
forced home, the operating lever moving con- 
tinuously. 

Turbine Water Wheel. — Wm. Hacheney, 
S. F. The wheel is made in a frame so as to be 
easily portable, and is intended particularly for 
running with a small bead of water, so as to 
utilize all the supply without waste of power. 
It has peculiarly-operating gates for controlling 
the admission of the water to the scrolls, and in 
a peculiar construction of the step or bearing 
for the reduction of wear. 

Horsesuoe Toe- Weight. — Wm. H. Hulings, 
Menlo Park, San Mateo Co., Cal. Patented 
June 8, 1880. No. 228,533. The shoe has a 
weight attached by means of a dovetailed shank, 
fitting in a correspondingly shaped slot in the 
shoe and secured by a screw. When this weight 
is removed the shoe becomes a plain, ordinary 
shoe, with no projection or addition to interfere 
with the horse's action. 

The Channel Tunnel. — It is announced 
that the preliminary works of the tunnel which 
is to connect England and France have had the 
most satisfactory results. The managers have 
sunk their shaft to the stratum in which they 
propose to bore the tunnel, and are now about 
to sink another shaft and lower all the ma- 
chinery for the bore. It is estimated that in 
about 18 months they will have bored at least 
-A miles under the channel, and that the work 
will be completed in four years. 



; Price of Land. 

People write to us continually asking the 
prices of land in California. Of all the difficult 
questions to give a definite answer, this iB the 
most. They seldom state any limit to the price 
they wish to give or the amount of land they 
want; whether they prefer foothill, mountain or 
coast lands. They simply say: "What is the 
price of land in California?" Now, the State is 
the largest but one in the Union, and very 
naturally land varies in price according to 
locality, from $2.50 to $1,000 an acre. But if 
we answer the question with close figures it 
does not give any definite information to the 
enquirer. 

To take up in detail and mention the prices of 
lands in the different parts of each county in 
the State, would be impossible. It is, there- 
fore, necessary for every purchaser to come and 
see for himself, and select the place suited to 
his means and his wants. Real estate agents 
will not give definite details of parcels of lands 
for sale to any but prospective purchasers. As 
a general thing the price depends on the terms 
wanted in a great measure, and the cash buyer 
can do better than the one who buys on credit. 
Again, it depends somewhat on the size of the 
tract purchased. There are so many contingen- 
cies connected with the purchase of land that it 
is impossible for any newspaper to reliably in- 
form its readers exactly what can be done. We 
can speak in general terms and general terms 
only. 

This state of affairs might be remedied if the 
people owning lands would advertise them for 
sale in papers which are read by people apt to 
purchase. And then they must give something 
more than a vague idea of the price expected. 
Half the time when immigrants arrive, they are 
dependent solely on real estate agents, and sel- 
dom see the real owner until the sale is com- 
pleted. It would, of course, be better if the 
buyer and seller could be brought together, but 
that seems impossible. 

Now, our advice to people coming here to set- 
tle is to procure a good book on California, say 
"Hittel's Resources of California," and inform 
themselves generally of the character of lands 
and climate in different counties. Then decide 
as to the kind of farming they wish to pursue. 
Then take a trip to the county selected and ex- 
amine personally the different lands for sale, 
comparing the price with that of other lands 
they may see on the way. The only possible 
method of getting what is wanted is to spend a 
month or two looking round and getting posted 
before purchasing. When this course is 
adopted, if a man is not suited it is his own 
fault. 



Patent Office Models. 

There is a common impression abroad that 
inventors no longer need prepare models to send 
with their applications for patents to Washing- 
ton, and that drawings alone will now answer 
the purpose. This is a mistake. Some weeks 
ago the Commissioner of Patents issued an order 
that models need not be filed "except when 
required by the examiner in charge. " It is this 
order which has led to the misapprehension. 

It happens, however, to be a fact that many 
of the examiners can, with difficulty, "read" 
drawings, and require the model in order to 
understand the drawings. An inventor is, 
therefore, liable to be called upon any day for 
the model in any case, and in order to be pre- 
pared to meet the call promptly, the inventor 
should send his model, through his agent, with 
the specifications and drawings. 

If the case is forwarded without models, 
there is liability of great delay, which generally 
happens when least expected. As the inventors 
furnish the models, and as they are necessary 
for making proper drawings, it is much better 
to have them, anyhow. 

After the case is filed in the Patent Office, 
and has waited its turn two or three weeks, 
when it is taken up by the examiner and he de- 
mands a model, it delays the business of pro- 
curing the patent very materially, since, instead 
of receiving definite news about the application, 
the inventor receives a notice to furnish a 
model. Inventors on this coast would be then 
greatly delayed. It will take a week each 
way for the letters, a week or more to make 
the model, and then the case must again wait 
its turn. Then it is difficult to make a model 
to agree exactly with the drawings already 
filed, and these must agree according to the 
Patent Office rule. It may be, therefore, neces- 
sary to make new drawings, which will entail 
still further delay, since the specification must 
then be altered to suit the changed drawings. 

Altogether those familiar with Patent Office 
affairs will see that it is as necessary now to 
furnish models as it was before the Commis- 
sioner's order was issued. 



Premium Harrows. — The California spring- 
tooth harrows and cultivators were awarded 
the first premium at the Oregon State fair last 
week. 

The Prince of Wales spoke of himself as a 
citizen recently at a public dinner in London, 
and was lustily cheered for it. 



July 17, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC 



BUBAL PRESS. 



45 



Anderson Springs.— These celebrated hot and cold sul- 
phur, iron and soda springs are situated in the midst of a 
pine and spruce forest, in Lake county (a distance of 19 
miles from Calistoga, and 10 miles — by an excellent road— 
from the^Great Geysers; the nearest and most accessible 
pine grove, to San Francisco and Sacramento), beside a 
living trout stream and surrounded by splendid mountain 
scenery; in the most invigorating and health-giving cli- 
mate in the State. Good attention is given to the health 
and enjoyment of all visitors. Prices are very reasonable. 
Address Anderson Springs, Lake Co., Cal. 



A Peer of the Realm. 

The peer of the realm of horticultural weeklies stands 
the Rural Press, just entering on its twentieth volume. 
As a record of our agricultural prosperity, it is a history 
complete; as a faithful guide and assistant to our various 
horticultural industries, the 19 volumes carefully pre- 
served in our library, show the ability of its talented 
editor and liberality of its proprietors, as men worthy of 
the extensive patronage it receives. We have no greater 
enconiums to offer than to wish it god-speed in its mission 
of lovo. — Pctaluma Courier. 



In the Whole History of Medicine 

No preparation has ever performed such marvelous cures, 
or maintained so wide a reputation, as Ayres' Cfierry Pec- 
toral, which is recognized as the world's remedy for all 
diseases of the throat and lungs. Its long continued 
series of wonderful cures in all climates has made it uni- 
versally known as a safe and reliable agent to employ. 
Against ordinary colds, which are the forerunners of more 
serious disorders, it acts speedily and surely, always re- 
lieving suffering, and often saving life. The protection it 
affords, by its timely use in the throat and chest disorders 
of children, makes it an invaluable remedy to be kept 
always on hand in every house. No person can afford to 
be without it, and those who have once used it never will. 
From their knowledge of its Composition and effects, 
physicians use the Cherry Pectoral extensively in their 
practice, and Clergymen recommend it. It is absolutely 
certain in its remedial effects, and will always cure where 
cures are possible. 

For Sale by all Dealers. 



Fresh attractions are Constantly added to Wood- 
ward's Gardens, among which is Prof. Gruber's great 
educator, the Zoographicon. Each department increases 
daily, and the Pavilion performances are more popular 
than ever. All new novelties find a place at this wonder- 
ful resort. Prices remain as usual. 



Sample Copies —Occasionally we send copies of this 
paper to persons who we believe would be benefited by 
subscribing for it, or willing to assist us in extending its 
circulation. We call the attention of Buch to our pros- 
pectus and terms of subscription, and request that they 
circulate the copy sent. 



It will be a special favor to us if sub- 
scribers will forward their subscriptions at 
this time. Remember our terms are $3 a 
year if paid in advance. 



Extra Copies can usually be had of each issue of the 
paper, if ordered early. Price, 10 cents, postpaid. 



Forward your subscriptions, and pay for 
the "Rural' 1 a year in advance at $3. 



The Yosemitk is strictly first class and the leading hotel 
at Stockton. Prices moderate. Jas. Caven, Propr. 



The Pacific Rural Press for ten months and our bes. 
newspaper file binder, sent postpaid for $3. 



J. G. Colmernil is requested to report to this office 
from Humboldt Co. 



Pay in Advance and get the Rural Press for $3 a year 



S. p. P^kej R^poeiY. 



Note. — Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. ETC. 

San Francisco, Wednesday, July 14, 1880. 

The trade of the past week has been generally quiet, 
and though the Eastern operations in Grain and Provis- 
ions have given abundant material for discussion, there 
has been no pronounced effect upon local values. 

The Wheat market abroad has experienced a notable ad- 
vance. The prices by cable from Liverpool are 9s 6d@9s 
7d for California No. 2; 9s 10d@10s for California No. 1. 
The Foreign Review. 

London, July 12. — The Mark Lane Express, reviewing 
the British Grain trade for the past week, says: Farm- 
ers express a great anxiety about the weather. Unseason- 
able weather never fails at this season to exercise a hard- 
ening influence on the Grain trade, and copious showers 
of the past fortnight have increased the activity in Wheat, 
because the supplies of homegrown were small. Sales are 
more readily effected at an advance of Is $ quarter. 
Farmers now hold so little Grain that holders have felt 
justified in declining to sell except at higher prices. Both 
English and French stocks of native Wheat are practically 
exhausted. The consumption of both countries has to be 
met by foreign product, for which a fair trade was experi- 
enced at advancing prices. At this moment the situation 
is decidedly critical. Stocks have been worked so low by 
the disinclination of buyers to operate for future delivery, 
that it needs only a week of wet weather to bring about 
such a state of activity as will materially change all pres- 
ent values. There is no abatement in the continental de- 
mand, and the exports the past week were nearly 36,000 
quarters. During the same time imports were only 30,000 
quarters. Red Wheat was held with extreme firmness, 
and the market closed on Friday expectant and excited, 
with stocks at the lowest and prices at the highest. Oats 
are in fair request, but unaltered. The feature of the 
week has unquestionably been the large demand for 
foreign White Wheat, such as Australian and New Zea- 
land, for the north of England and the continent. Trade 
closed very strong for these descriptions at an advance of 
a full shilling since last Monday. Sales of English Wheat 
last week were 15,753 quarters at 43s 9d, against 27,727 
quarters at 43s 4d, during the same period last year. Im- 
ports, for the week ending July 3d, were 989,964 cwts 
Wheat, and 195,832 cwts Flour. 

Eastern Grain and Provision Markets. 

New York, July 12.— The merchandise markets are gen- 
erally quiet. Breadstuffs are irregular, unsettled, and 
fairly active at better prices. Shippers are not doing 
much. Provisions are in fair demand. Pork is 10@15c 
higher. Lard is 2£c better. 



Chicaoo, July 10.— Wheat manifested great nervousness 
during the week just past, owing to conflicting reports 
about the weather, irregular foreign news, and peculiari- 
ties in receipts and shipments. The general and almost 
daily tendency has been toward higher prices, but to-day, 
under continued fine weather here and somewhat dis- 
couraging Eastern advices, there was a sudden decline all 
around, and prices closed weak at the inside. Provisions 
were buoyant, and Pork was strongly upward in tendency, 
the advance for the week being $1.50 $ bbl. This unusual 
movement is caused by the manipulation of Armour & Co., 
who hold and handle about all the present stock of Pork, 
besides what can be made for the next three months. The 
total amount in cash and futures is estimated at well on 
to half a million barrels. The strength of the firm is a 
guarantee of their ability to carry out the programme, 
which may reach a higher fitrure on a fictitious basis, 
while, if receipts of Hogs fall off as rapidly in the coming 
weeks as thus far in July, the real values will be greatly 
enhanced by the relations of demand and supply. As 
heretofore stated in these dispatches, Pork cannot be made 
at profit while Hogs are so high and provisions so low as 
they have been. When the enormous demand for fancy 
cuts slackens on the Continent, and the prices of Hogs 
suffer a marked decline here, then it may be possible to 
make Pork at figures which will break the Armour corner. 
Until that time, and it seems to be in the distance just 
now, the prospects are good, for Armour to add heavily to 
his already princely fortune! The sales for the week for 
August option were as follows: Wheat, 87093Jc ; Corn, 
35@34gc; Oats, 22j>@23ijc; Pork, $13.50; Lard, S6.77£@6.80. 
The closing cash prices were: Wheat, 91|@92c; Corn, 35Jc; 
Oats, 24§c; Pork, $13.50@13.75; Lard, $6.75(36.80. 
Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, July 10. — Wool remains very quiet, but with 
steady inquiry. Sales of California included 40,000 lbs 
Fall, at 25c ; 9,600 lbs Spring, private. The Dry Goods 
market begins to show signs of activity, and there are 
more buyers than for a long time. 

Boston, July 10.— The Wool market is comparatively 
quiet, but prices are steady and firm. Manufacturers and 
dealers are still moving cautiously, and transactions are 
quite free from excitement. There is a good demand for 
Wool within a certain limit, but beyond that limit buyers 
hesitate to go, and decline to purchase, in anticipation of 
any prospective advance. Combing and delaine fleeces 
are more inquired for, with a very firm feeling. Unwashed 
Wool is in steady demand. California Wool is in demand, 
the sales of the week comprising 487,000 lbs Spring at 25@ 
40c, and 20,000 lbs Fall at 18c. Pulled Wool is in fair 
demand. There is no movement as yet in Territory Wools. 
Sales include Ohio and Pennsylvania fleeces, XX and XXX, 
at 45@48c ; Michigan X and medium, 41@45c ; Wisconsin 
No. 2, X and No. 1, 37|@47c : combing and delaine, 44@ 
50c ; Kentucky combing, 38c ; unwashed combing, 33c ; 
Kentucky combing, 25J(»26c ; Georgia, 35<»36c ; Missouri 
fine and medium, 25@35c; Louisiana, 34£(B35c; Texas, 33c; 
Territory, 25@30c ; unwashed fleeces, "l8@36c ; scoured, 
4fH«(><!Sc; super and X pulled, 41@55c; Australia X, 3J(«7c; 
The total sales of the week were 1,500,000 lbs, of which 
1,390,100 were domestic. 

BAGS— Bags are quiet and a fraction lower, as shown 
in our price list. 

BARLEY— Barley has sold well. Old Barley has been 
taken freely for brewing and for feed. We note sales: 
556 sks choice old Brewing at 87Jc, and 2,000 do Coast 
Feed at 72Jc. 

BEANS— Beans are quiet; the old list of values still 
prevails. 

BUCKWHEAT— Buckwheat is very scarce, and is quot- 
able as high as $3@4 per ctl. Only about 150 sks have 
come into this market during the last six months. 

CORN— Corn is quiet and unchanged. Supplies seem 
abundant for present requirements. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— There is nothing new either in 
cheese or butter. 

EGGS— Prices arc just at la9t week's level. The market 
is reported rather firmer in tone. 

FRUIT— Our list shows considerable fluctuation in the 
Fruit market. 

HOPS -Some damage is reported from army worms in 
the interior valleys. There is no change in prices. 

California Hops — Phil Neis has issued his annual Hop 
Circular, which contains the following figures: Receipts 
from August 13, 1879, to date, 8,712 bales, of which 3,975 
are from Washington Territory, 3,539 from California, and 
1,198 from Oregon. The exports have been 9,311 bales, of 
which 9,070 went from California overland, 124 to the East 
Indies, 25 to Australia, 00 to New Zealand, and 32 to other 
countries. The coming crop on this coast, as far as pres- 
ent indications point, will exceed that of 1879 from 40% to 
50%. Increase of acreage is small, but yards that were 
abandoned in 1879 have been cultivated this season, the 
well-known Willow Grove plantations at San Jose beiryr 
among them. 

OATS — Oats are quiet and unchanged. 

ONIONS— Some Whi'e or Silver Skin Onions are now in 
and selling at 90c@$l $ ctl; Red Onions are 60@65c $ ctl. 

POTATOES— Potatoes are selling fairly at our quota- 
tions in the table. 

PROVISIONS— The market for Cured Meat is firm, and 
Eastern Hams are hardened by the Chicago corner, which 
is described in our telegraphic reports. 

POULTRY AND GAME— Turkeys and Geese are doing 
better this week. Venison is now in and selling at 5@9c 
$fb. 

VEGETABLES— Our list shows a lower range for most 
sorts of green stuff. 

WHEAT— There is but little doing in new Wheat. Sale a 
are as follows: 500 sks choice old, for Macaroni, at $1.57J; 
400 ctls new, to a miller, $1.50; 550 sks off grade, $1.42J; 
and 500 tons good new Shipping at private rates. 

WOOL— The trade is quiet at the prices established last 
week. 

BAGS AND BAGGING. 

[JOBBING PRIOES.l 

Wednesday m., July 14, 1880. 



Eng Standard Wheat. 92-310 J 

California Manufacture. 
Hand Sewed, 22x36.. 9J@10| 

22x40 12 @12j 

23x40 — @13 

24x40 13J@14 

Machine Swd, 22x36. 9J@10J 

Flour Sacks, halves.... 9 @10J 

Quarters 6S7 

Eighths 4 @ 4J 

Hesaian. 60 Inch — @14 



45 inch 9}<gl0, 

40 inch 9 @ 9* 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand Sewed, 3J lb..— @50 

4 lb do 52J@55 

Machine Sewed — @50 

Standard Gunnies....— @14 

Bean BagB 7 @ 7 J 

Twine, Detrick's A — @35 

A A.. -(837 
" Lonesdale, Ex. . .— @40j 
" " Stand- @36 



RETAIL GROCERIES. ETC. 



Butter, California 

Choice, tb 25 1 

Cheese 18 1 

Eastern 25 1 

Lard, Cal 18 1 

Eastern 20 1 

Flour, ex. fam, bbl8 00 - 

Corn Meal, B) 2*' 

Sugar, wh. crshd 12J 

Light Brown. ... 81 

Coffee, Green 23 1 

Tea, Fine Black... 50 1 

Finest Japan .... 55 1 

Candles, Admt'e.. 15 1 

Soap Cal 1 1 



Wednesday m., July 14, 1880. 

Rice 8 @ 12 

Yeast Pwdr. doz..l 50 @2 00 
Can'd Oysters doz2 00 @3 50 
Syrup, S F Gold'n 75 @1 02 
Dried Apples, Si.. 10 @ 14 
Ger. Prunes.... 12}@ 10 

Figs, Cal 9 ® 15 

Peaches 11 @ 10 

Oils, Kerosene 50 & 60 

Wines, Old Port. ..3 50 @5 00 

French Claret 1 00 @2 50 

Cal, doz bot 3 00 @4 50 

Whisky, O K, gal. .3 50 @5 00 
French Brandy... .4 00 @8 00 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

! WHOLES A LB. 1 

Wednesday m„ July 14. 1S80. 



BEANS A PEAS 

Bayo, ctl 95 @1 05 

Butter 1 10 @1 15 

Castor 3 25 @3 50 

Pea 1 25 @1 35 

Red 95 @1 05 

Pink 95 @1 05 

Sm'l White 1 05 ®1 15 

Lima 5 50 <»7 00 

Field Peas, b'lkeyel 25 @1 50 
do, green.. 1 10 @1 25 
BROOM CORN. 

Southern 1J@ 2 

Northern 2j@ 3: 

CHICCORY, 

California 4 @ 4 

German 6£@ 7 

DAIRY PROmrtE. ETC 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, tb 20 @ 22 

Fancy Brands — <§ 23 

Pickle Roll — @ — 

Firkin, new - @ 22J 

Western — @ — 

New York — @ — 

OHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal, tt>.... 8 @ 10 
N. Y. State — @ — 

EGOS. 

Cal. fresh, doz.... 20 @ 22 

Ducks' 17 @ 18 

Oregon 16 @ 17 

Eastern, by expr'ss. — @ 18 

Pickled here — & — 

Utah — @ — 

Bran, ton 13*00 @14 00 

Corn Meal @26 00 

Hay 6 00 @12 00 

Middlings <&lt> 00 

Oil Cake Meal... 30 00 @ 

Straw, bale 40 @ 47 J 

FLOUR. 
Extra, City Mills.. 5 25 ®5 50 
do, Co'ntry Mills.4 50 &5 00 

do, Oregon 4 50 @>4 75 

do, Walla Walla.4 50 @4 87J 

Superfine 3 50 @4 00 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qual'y, B> 6 & 

Second 5 @ 

Third 4 @ 

Mutton 3 @ 

Spring Lamb 4@ 

Pork, undressed... — @ 

Dressed 71® 

Veal 6 @ 

Milk Calves 6i@ 

do choice... 7 @ 7i 
GRAIN, ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl... 70 @ 75 
do, Brewing... 75 @ 87 

Chevalier 1 35 @1 40 

do, Coast.. 1 00 @1 15 

Buckwheat 3 00 (gi 00 

Corn. White 1 30 @1 42$ 

Yellow 1 10 @1 12* 

Small Round.. ..1 15 (31 174 

Oats 1 30 m 45 

Milling — fill 55 

Rye 65 @l 00 

Wheat. No. 1 1 52i(Sl 55 

do, No 2 1 42J01 50 

do, No. 3 — & - 

Choice Milling.. — @1 57 J 
HIDES. 

Hides, dry 17J@ 18 

Wet salted 10 @ 10} 

HONEY. ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 22J@ 25 

Honey in comb. ... 11 @ 13 

do. No 2 — <g — 

Dark — 

Extracted 5J@ 

HOPS. 

Oregon, 25 @ 

California, new ... 35 @ 

Wash. Ter 25 @ 

Old Hops 6 @ 

NIITS-Jobhlng. 

Walnuts, Cal 12 @ 

do Chile 8 <3. 

Almonds, hd Bbl tt> 8 (ft 

Soft sh'l 18 & 

Brazil 14 @ 



65 



- @ - 



50 i» 

25 @ 
- <3 



Peoans 16 @ 

Peanuts 9 (3. 

Filberts 17 @ 

ONIONS. 

Red 60 @ 

Silver Skin 90 @1 00 

POTATOES, 
Petaluma, ctl 

Tomales 

Humboldt 

Kidney 

Peachblow. 

Cuffey Cove 

Early Rose, new. . 
Half M'n Bay. new 

Alvarado, red 

Sweet 

POULTRY A GAME. 

Hens, doz 6 00@ 7 50 

Roosters 5 00@ 7 00 

Broilers 2 50(3 4 00 

Ducks, tame, doz.. 3 00® 4 50 

Mallard — @ — 

Sprig — <3 — 

Teal — @ — 

Widgeon — @ — 

Geese, pair 1 25@ 1 75 

Wild Gray, doz.. —® — 

White do — @ — 

Turkeys 16 @— 19 

do, Dressed 16 (3— 19 

Snipe. Eng — <Sb 

do, Common .... — @ 

Quail, doz — @ 

Rabbits 1 00 @ 1 25 

Hare 1 50 (3 2 00 

Venison 5 @ — 9 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, extra 

clear, lb 11 @ Hi 

Medium 11 @ Hi 

Light 12 @ \1\ 

Lard 101@ 111 

Cal. Smoked Beef 12 <g 12J 

Shoulders — @ H 

Hams, Cal 11 @ 114 

Dupee's 13 @ 13? 

None Such 13 @ 134 

Whittaker 124@ 13} 

Royal 14 & 14§ 

Palmetto — @ — 

H. Ames & Co... 134® 14 

Armour 134® 14 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa, 10 @ 12 

do, Chile 4 @ 6 

Canary 5 <a 6 

Clover, Red 14 ® 15 

White 60 @ 55 

Cotton — @ 20 

Flaxseed 24® 3 

Hemp - @ 10 

Italian Rye Grass 30 @ — 

Perennial 30 ® — 

Millet, German ... 10 @ 

do, Common . . 
Mustard, White... 



7 1 
3 @ 



Brown 14® 

Rape 3 @ 8 

Ky Blue Grass 20 @ 25 

2d quality 16® 18 

Sweet V Grass.... — @ 75 

Orchard 20 @ 25 

Red Top - @ 15 

Hungarian 8 @ 10 

Lawn 30 @ 50 

Mesquit 10 @ 12 

Timothy — @ 10 

TALLOW. 

Crude, lb 5jj @ 54 

Refined 74 @ 1i 

WOOL. ETC. 

SPRING. 

Southern and San Joaquin. 

Long, free 23 @ 24 

Short, free 21 @ 23 

Seedy 18 ® 20 

Slightly hurry ... 21 @ 23 

Burry 19 @ 20 

Northern. 

Choice, free 28 @ 32 

Burry 25 @ 27 

Oregon. Eastern . . 23 ® 25 

do Valley 28 ® 30 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



i wholbsalb. i 

Wednesday m 

FRUIT MARKET. 

Apples, basket..— 30 ®- 65 

do, box-.... 1 50 ® 1 75 
Apricots, bx.... 1 50 @ 1 75 
Bananas, bnch.. 2 50 @ 4 00 
Blackber's, chst. 5 00 ®10 00 
Cherries — 6 @- 9 

" B. Tartar'n— 10 ®— 12i 
Cherry Plums. bx - 75 ® 1 00 

Citrons, Cal., 100 ® 

Cocoanuta. 100.. 7 00 ® 8 00 
Currants, chest.. 5 50 @ 7 00 
Figs, black, bx.. 1 00 @ 1 25 
Gooseberries — — 5®— 8 
Limes. Mex 7 00 @ 8 00 

do, Cal, box. . . 1 75 @ 2 25 

do, large, box. 5 00 ® 7 00 
Lemons, Cal bx. 3 50 @ 4 00 

Sicily, box ... . 8 00 @ 9 00 

Australian @ 

Orangea, Cal bx. 3 75 @ 4 75 
do, Tahiti... 30 00 @35 00 

do, Mexican @ 

Peaches, box — 75 @ 1 50 

Pears, basket...— 60 @- 75 
Pineapplea. doz. 7 00 ® 8 00 
Raspberries, ch't 4 50 @ 6 50 
Strawber'a.ch'at. 6 00 ®10 00 

Sugar Cane, bdle @ 2 50 

DRIED FRUIT. 
Apples, sliced, tb 10 ® 11 

do, quartered. 8 @ 9 

Apricots 15 ®— 18 

Blackberries.... — ® 15 

Citron 23 @ 24 

Datea 9 ® 10 

Figs, pressed. ... 7 @ 8 

do, loose 4 @ 6 

Peaches 12 @ 13 

do pared ... 18 ®— 20 



July 14. 1880 

Peara, sliced 9 ® 10 

do, peeled... 9 @ 11 

Pluma 4 ® 5 

Pitted 15 @— 17 

Prunes 124® 13 

Raiaina, Cal, bx — @ 1 50 
do, Halves... 1 75 @ 2 00 
do. Quarters. . 2 00 ® 2 25 

Eighths 2 25 @ 2 50 

Lond'n Lay'rs bx — @ 2 00 
do. Halves. . 2 25 @ 2 50 
do, Quarters 2 50 ® 2 75 
do, Eighths. 2 75 ® 3 00 
Zante Currants.. 8 ® 10 

VEGETABLES. 
A8paragua, bx. .. — 75 ® 1 00 

Beets, ctl @ 1 00 

Beans, String...— 24@— 3 

" Fountain. @— 3 

" Wax ®— 3 

Cabbage, 100 tt>6 ®— 75 

Carrots, sk — 40 @— 50 

Cauliflower, doz— 35 ®— 40 
Chile Peppers, lb. 
Cucumbera, doz. 
Egg PlantB, Hi. . . 
Garlic, New. B). . 
Green Corn, doz. 
Green Peas, tb . . 

Lettuce, doz 

Mushrooms, lb. . 

Parsnips, fb 

Horseradish 

Rhubarb, bx.... 
Squash, Marrow 

fat, tn 

Summer box.. 

Vacaville - 40 @— 50 

Tomato, box — 75 @ 1 00 

Turnips, otl — 50 ®— 60 

White — 50 @— 60 



124@— 25 
6 ®— 8 
3 @- 4 
10 ®— 15 
24@- 2J 
10 @ 

- @ 

- ®- 1 
6 @— 8 

40 @— 50 



- @- 75 



LUMBER. 



w 

OF 



CARGO PRICES 
REDWOOD. 

Rough, M 14 

Surface 24 00 

Rustic 24 00 

do, No. 2 18 00 

Flooring 24 00 

do, No. 2 17 00 

Beaded Flooring 28 00 

Refuse 20 00 

Half-inch Siding 20 00 

Refuae 16 00 

Half-inch Surfaced 24 00 

Refuse 18 00 

Half-inch Battens 16 00 

Pickets, Rough 11 00 

Rough, Pointed 12 50 

Fancy, Pointed 18 00 

hinglea 1 75 



ednesday m., July 14. 1880. 
REDWOOD. 

RETAIL PRICE. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Ficketa, Rough 15 00 

Pointed 16 00 

Fancy 22 50 

Siding 20 50 

Surfaced & Long Beaded30 00 

Flooring 25 00 

do, No. 2 17 00 

Ruatio, No. 1 25 00 

do, No. 2 18 00 

Battena, lineal ft 

Shinglea M 2 00 

MJGET SOUND PINE 

RETAIL PRICE. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Fencing 18 00 

Laths 3 50 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sdtro & Co.] 

San Fsanoisoo, July 14, 3 p. m. 

Silver, 1 . 

Gold Babs, 890®910. Silver Barb, 10@18 V cent. Is 
aount. 

Exchange on New York, 15, on London bankers, 49}@ 
494 Commercial, 60; Paris, five franos $ dollar; Mexican 
dollars, 921@92J. 

London Consols. 98 7-16; Bonds (4%), 110J. 

Quicksilver in S. V.. by the flask. $ lb, 424@45c. 



Commission Merchants. 



DALTON & GRAY, 

Commission Merchants 

And Wholesale Dealers in all kinds of 

Country Produce, Fruits, Etc. 

404 and 406 Davis St., 
Bet. Washington and Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 

CONSIGNMENTS SOLICITED. 



CHAS. RYHNER, 

(Member of the S. F. Produce Exchange. 

GENERAL COMMISSION MERCHANT. 

— Dealer in — 

FLOUR. GRAIN, FEED AND PRODUCE. 

216 Davis Street, 
Between Clay and Commercial, - - SAN FRANCISCO. 
Consi nments of all kinds of Produce solicited. 



PAGE, MOORE & CO., 

WOOL and GRAIN 

Commission Merchants. 

NOS. 211 AND 213 CLAY STREET. 

San Francisco. 

DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce 

Rhfbrbnoii.— Tradesmen's National Bann, N. T.; Ell 
wangor & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
mento, Cal. ; A Lusk & Co. , San Francisco, Cal. 



SIMON SWEET & CO., 
Wholesale Commission Merchants, 

GRAIN, POTATOES, FRUIT, BUTTER, EGGS, POUL- 
TRY, GAME, WOOL, WOOL BAGS, HIDES, 
PELTS, BEANS, TWINE, TALLOW, etc., 
and CALIFORNIA and OREGON 
PRODUCE of ALL KINDS. 
227 & 229 Washington St., San Francisco. 
Consignments Solicited, 



JAMES B. SHEAT, 

(Member of the S. F. Produce Exchange. 

Commission Merchant and General 
Purchasing Agent. 

416 & 418 Davis Street, S. F. 

Consignments of Grain, Wool and all Country Produce so- 
licited. Also orders for purchasing Merchandise, Sacks, Im- 
plements, etc., promptly attended to. a'lTReferences— Wm. 
T Coleman & Co., The Grangers' Bank, J. W. Grace & Co., 
Lynde & Hough. 



M. VULICEVICH, 
Importer and Commission Merchant 

IS 

FOREIGN and DOMESTIC FRUIT. 

Removed from 520 & 522 Sansome St. , to 
504 Front St., S. F. 




Liberal advances on consignments. 

Wool Sacks, Twine, Shears, aud Ranch Supplies furnished 



Traveling Agents. 

We want several canvassing agents who will 
make it their business to solicit subscriptions 
and advertising for our first-class progressive 
newspapers. Men of ability and experience can 
secure good pay and permanent employment. 
Send references and state your past occupation, 
etc. , to the publishers of this paper. 



Agricultural Books. 

Orders for Agricultural and Scientific Books in general 
will be supplied through this office, at published rates. 

Bound Volumes of tub Press.— We have a few sets of 
tho back files of the Pacific Rural Press, which we will 
sell for $3 per (half-yearly) volume. In cloth and leather 
binding, $5. These volumes, complete, are scarce, and 
valuable for future reference and librar y use. 

Pav Cash In advance— $3 a year for the 
Rural Press. Cre dit rates, $4. 

General Purchasing Agent, James B. Sheat, 416 and 
IIS Davis St., S. F. 



46 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



[July 17, 1880. 



Frescott House. 




READING RANCH, 

Shasta Co., Cal. ^ 



Good Land ! 
Sure Crops ! 
HEALTHY CLIMATE ! 
Prices Low. Terms Easy. 



TITLE PERFECT. 



S. W. turner Kearny ana lYioiuyomc-ry Ave., ban Francisco. 
O. P. BECKER, Proprietor. 



*3T Free Coach to the House 



Nathaniel Curry & Bro., 

113 Sansome Street. San Francisco, 





Sole Agents'for the 



Sharps Rifle Co., of Bridgeport, Conn 



FOR CALIFORNIA, OREGON, ARIZONA, NEVADA, WASHINGTON TEIvRITORYjAND^IDAHO.} 

Also Agents for W. W. GREENER'S Celebrated Wedgefaet, Chokebore, Breech-loading DOUBLE GUNS - an 
all kinds of GUNS, RIFLES and PISTOLS made by the Leading Manufacturers of England and America 
AMMUNITION of all kinds in quantities to suit. 



RICHARDS & SNOW, 

SUCCESSORS TO BARKER & SNOW, 

IMPORTERS OF 

IRON PIPE AND PLUMBERS' STOCK, 

Sole Agents for the Yale Lock Mfg Co., 
American Tack Co., 

AND FOR THE SALE OF A MOSA'EA G AXES. 
406 & 40S MARKET ST., S. F. 



is;s 



RECORD OF SUPERIORITY 

-AWARDED 



J. H. STUOD RIDGE, 
Flrsl Ci t uinim-: 

Pen 5— Breeding Ewes $22.50 

Pen 5— Yearling Ewes 22.50 

Pen 5— Ewe Lambs 22 SO 

Pen 3— Ram Lambs S2.50 

Yearling Ram (1st and 2d) 38.60 

Two-year-old Ram 22.^0 

Ram and five of his Lambs 30.00 

Sweepstakes! 

For best Ram of any age or breed, 
and five of his Lambs 73.00 



THOROIIGIIBKEU 




HP A M>il 



1839 AWARDED 
J. H. STROBR1DGE, 

••'irsi Premium?: 

Pen 5— Breeding Ewes $22 SO 

I'en 5— Yearling Ewes 22.50 

Pen 5— Ewe Lambs 22.50 

Two-year-old Ram 22.50 

Yearling Ram 22.50 

Ram and five Lambs 30.00 

ren of 3 Ram Lambs 22.50 

Sweepstakes! 

For best Ram and five of his 

Lambs, of any age or breed 75.00 

SHEEP. 



50 hJId a 5d F« .? t " 8 Sea . S ™ 100 head ? une " or R »™- Yearlings and two-year-olds. Also 100 head Yearling Ewes and 
HHFArkpI h». T1 r u „ 1 hc, -P »re ?n. free from di»e« se . Are LONG STAPLED. WHITE WOOLEL and HEAVY 
SurinVsheen in th i', '.4l Cn 'lh UtUt,OU - better condition tnan any flock of Th.,r„ nghbrcd Spanish 

Oak ami hi rail t,£ '.nets the same as last year, Orders by mail promptly lille.l. llur Ranch is only 11 miles from 

E W Peet Agent gCa Way ° rery ,eW hoUr8 ' J H SEBOBRIDGE, Haywards. AJamedi Co Ca 




ALBERT DICKINSON, 

Dealer in Timothy, Clover, Flax, Hungarian, Millet. Red Top. 
Blue Grass, Lawn Grass, Orchard Grass, Bird.SeedSjEtc. 
■ POP CORN. 

115. 117 and 119 Klnzle Street. CHICAGO. ILLINOIS. 



The Excelsior Animal Trap 

Is Quaranteed to be the Bcs 

GOPHER TRAP 




Ever invented. The Gopher 
raises the light trigger with 
his head or dirt w ithout the 
least alarm. Ask your dealer 
for it. Agents wanted. Sent 
by mail for 81. By eJtoress, 
C. O. D.. for 89 per doz ' Ad- 
dress. G. W. JOLLY. Paiaiso 
Springs. Cal. Pat. apld for 



The New Beekeepers' Text Book. 

By A. J. Kino. The latest work on the Apiary 
embodying accounts of all the newest methods" 
pad I appliances Fully illustrated. Sent by mail, post- 
paid, for $1. DEWEY & CO., 202 Sansome Street, S. F 



DO 

with ever H00 Illustrati 



NOT FAIL to sens 

for our Price List for 
1880. Fui te any 
address epon ap- 

Slleailon. Contains 
eicrlptloBS ef every- 
thing required for 
personal or family use, 
wim iT« l.auu illustrations. We sell all 

Goods at wholesale prices In quantities t* tnli 
le purchaser. The only Institution la America 
who make this their special business. Address. 

MONTGOMERY WARD A CO., 
**7 * B2» Wabash At*., Oaleaf *, M. 



GiLsa H. Gray. j AM g g M . Havkn. 

GRAY & HAVEN, 
Attorneys and Counsellers-at-Law, 

630.CallforDla'8t, - £,£ N F .£ 1*. C IS 




The Readlns 

Ranch, in the Up- 
per Sacramento 
valley, originally 
embracing over 
20,000 acre* of 
choice grain, or- 
chard and pasture 
land, is now 
offered for 
sale at low 
1 prices and on 
■ favorable 
terms of pay- 
ment, in sub- 
divisions to 
suit purchas- 
ers. 

The ranch 
was selected 
at an early day by Major P. B. 
Reading, one of the largest pioneer 
land owners in California. It A 
£ situated on the west side of the 
Jv. Sacramento River and extends 
i^i»> over 20 miles along its bank. 

The average rainfall is about SO 
Inches per annum, and crops have never 
been known to fail from drouth. 

The climate Is healthy and desirable. 
The near proximity of high mountain 
peaks give cool nights during the 
" heated term " which occurs in our Cal- 
ifornia summers. 

Pasturage, wood and good water are 
abundant The tillage land is mostly 
level, with complete drainage. 

Figs, Grapes, Peaches, Prunes, Al- 
monds, English Walnuts, Oranges and 
other temperate and semi-tropical fruits 
can be raised with success on most of the tract without 
irrigation. Also, Alfalfa, Vegetables, Corn and all other 
cereals ordinarily grown in the State. 

Th* soil throughout tho tilled portions of the ranch 
proves to be of great depth and enduring In its good 
qualities. It Is quite free from foul growths. The virgin 
Boil among the large oak trees on the bottom land is eas- 
ily broken up and cultivated. 

The title is U. 8. patent Prices range principally from 
$5 to $30 per acre. ( 

The California and Oregon railroad traverses nearly 
the entire length of the tract There are several sec- 
tions, stations and switches, besides depots at the towns 
of Anderson and Reading, all of which are located 
within the limits of the ranch. 

The Sacramento River borders the whole tract en th* 
southeast. Its clear waters are well stocked with fish. 
Good hunting abounds in the surrounding couatry. 

Producers have a local market, which enhances the value 
of their produce. The railroad transportation route is level 
throughout to San Francisco. A portion 
of the land is auriferous and located near 
rich mines now being worked. Land 
S suitable for settlers in colonies can be 

ff obtained on good terms. 

Town lots are offered for sale In Read- 
ing, situated on the Sacramento river, at 
the present terminus of tho railroad. It 
is the converging and distributing point 
for large, prosperous mining and agricul- 
tural districts in Northern California and 
Southern Oregon. Also, lots in the town 
of Anderson, situated more centrally on 
the ranch. Lots in both these towns are 
offered at a bargain, for the purpose of 
building up the towns and facilitating 
settlement of the ranch. 

Purchasers are Invited to come and 
see the lands before buying here or 
elsewhere. Apply on the ranch, to 
the proprietor, 

EDWARD FRISBEE, 
Anderson, Shasta Co., CaJ, 
P. S. —Send postage stamp for Illus- 
trated paper containing Information 
about Shasta county and these lauds, 
and say advertised In this paper. 



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Location of Shasta County. 

Shasta County lies not far from 
midway between the two most im- 
portant ports on th* Pacifio shore, 
£ «., San Francisco and Portland, 
Oregon, and directly on the overland 
route, which in the future will be- 
, , come the grand thoroughfare from 
Sf<8i k Mexico to British Columbia. The 
< ^r>3Stov,-n of Reading, at present, and 
probably for years to come, the head 
of railroad transportation on th* 
California side of the mountains In- 
tervening below Oregon, is distant 
from San Franci9co by railroad (via 
Vallejo) 255 miles; from Sacramento 
City, 109 miles; from Marysville, 11J 
miles. 



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LAND FOR SALE OR RENT IN SUB-DIVISIONS. 



MAST.FOOS&CO. 

SPRINGFIELD, 0. 



TUBEKS OF TUB 




IRON TURBINE 

EngineS 



Strong and Durable 

WIU, NOT 
SHRINK, SWELL, 

WARP, or 
RATTLE in tbe Wind 

ALSO, THE 

BUCKEYE 

FORCE 

PUMP 

ever Freezes In 
Winter Time. 
, ->tj Send for oar 
Circular, and 
tvseanoj Price List. 

To D. E. GOLDSMITH, 
General Agent for the Pacific Coast. 

425 Sansome Street. - SAN FRANCISCO. 



YOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
Ten Cents. STEVENS BROS. , Northf ord , Conn. 



OIL PORTRAITS. 

— The Best — 

At Lussier & Hill's New Studio, 

No. 6 Eddy Street, rooms 99 and 100, 
Opposite Baldwin Hotel. 

Portraits in Oil at all prices from $15 to $1,000, to suit 
the customer. Satisfaction guaranteed in all oases. 

P. S.— Special attention is called to our Portraits from 
Photographs of deceased persons. 

Come in and see our work, everybody. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

MONEY TO LOAN ! 



$500,000 



To loan, in one sum or in amounts to suit on Wheat Lands, 
Wheat in Warehouses, and other good collaterals at cur- 
rent rates of interest. 

Savings Bank Books. 

The highest price paid for balances in The Savings and 
Loan (Clay St.,) Odd Fellows', Masonic, French, Fanners 
and Mechanics', by 

JOHN T. LITTLE. 

302 Montgomery St., rooms 1 and 2, San Francisco. 




Calvert's Carbolic 

SHEEP WASH, 

$2 per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
pu'po«es, etc. T. W. JACKSON, 
S. F., iole Agent for Pacific Coast 



Dewey & Co. {s^st, Patent Ag'ts 



July 17, 1880.] 



Til PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Agricultural Articles. 



W. H. Carson. 



John D. Winters 



WOODLAND 

Agricultural Implement Manufactory, 

Woodland, Yolo County, Cal. 




The undersigned manufactures the WINTER'S DER- 
RICK, the reputation of which is now established, having 
been in constant use for the last four years. 

Also WINTER'S HAY PRESS, the most economical 
Press now in use. Ten tons of hay from this Press can be 
put into a car. Price, $200. 

Also TOP DRAPER for Header Spout. This Draper pre- 
vents the wind from blowing the straw away and wasting 
wheat. No reaching down the Spout to assist elevation. It 
will elevate down grain as well as standing grain. Price, $30. 

WINTERS & CARSON. 



The Famous "Enterprise," 

PBRKINS' PATENT 
Self Regulating 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps * Fixtures. 

These Mills and Pumps 
reliable and always (five sat- 
isfaction. Simple, strong and 
durable in all parts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double bearings for the crank 
to work in, all turned an 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Positively self regulating 
with no coil spring or springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
Joints, levers or balls to get 
out of order, as such things 
do. Mills in use six to nine years In good order now, that 
have never cost one cent for repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands in 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infor- 
mation, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES, LIVERMORE, 
ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 

San Francisco Agency, LINPORTH, RICE 
\ & CO., 401 Market Street. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 





Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match in 
Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly mide by practical men who hare 
been long in th^business and know what is required in the 
construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. Suf- 
ficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over cradle 
knolls without changing the working position of the shares. 
It is so constructed that the wheels themselves govern the 
action of the Plow correctly. It has various points of supe- 
riority, and cau be relied upon as the best and most desira- 
ble Gang Plow in the world. 

Iron Founders, Machinists and Manufacturers of Improved 
Agricultural Implements. General Jobbing and repairing 
done in the best manner at most reasonable rates. Send for 
circular to MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton, Cal. 



HAY PRESSES. 

GOVE'S PATENT 
Centennial and Eagle Improved Presses, 

For Farmer's use. Capacity, 10 to 15 tons per day. 
Combining strength and durability. Easily moved. Will 
be sold low for the cash 

Price, $175. 

For Circulars or Orders address JOHN H. GOVE, 
Eureka Warehouse, Box 1,122, or of DAVID N. HAW- 
LEY, 201 and 203 Market St. , cor Main, S. F. 



TRADE 




MARK. 



LITTLE'S CHEMICAL FLUID. 

The New Non-Poisonous Sheep Dip and Disinfectant. 
Price reduced to $1.60 per gallon. For directions and tes- 
timonials apply to PALKNER, BELL & CO., 
Sole Agents, 430 California Street, S. P. 



50 



Per/umtd, gilt edge & ohromo Cards, inelegant case, name 
in gold, 10b. Atlantic Card Co., E. WalUngford, Ot 



The American Exchange Hotel. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., 

Is situated on Sansome street, next adjoining Bank of California, and is in the very center 

of the great city. 

Sansome Street is one of the finest and principal business streets in S. F. 




Illlliiiiiiil 

iitittfifttii 




The Hotel is situated within two blocks of the U. S. Land Office and.U. S/Survevor General's Office; also within 
two blocks of the City Hall, Supreme Court and all the District Courts; within two blocks of Jthe Postofflce and 
Custom House. All places of amusement are convenient to the Hotel. Street cars for all parts.of the city pass the 
Hotel every minute. 

THE AMERICAN EXCHANGE HOTEL 

Having been recently renovated and refurnished throughout is in every respect the BEST FAMILY HOTEL in San 
Francisco. It has Two Hundred Rooms, well \entilated and neatly furnished, and being easy of access, flre-proof 
and sunny, is decidedly the Hotel for comfort and convenience for the traveling public. 



THOS. POWELL'S ELECTRIC ELEVATOR. 




The greatest labor-saving Ma- 
chine now in use. Scatters no 
Grain out while unloading. 
Large stacks can be made. Men 
work cheap with this Machine, 
and a boy can do a man's labor. 
The time is one and a half min- 
utes to unload. A header will 
cut five acres more in a day by 
not waiting for a wagon. There 
are fewer stack bottoms in a 
field. The ground 'for stacks is 
not cut up by the wagon, and no 
Grain is lost. Several Hundred 
are now in use. Send for Cir- 
cular and Price List. Address 



g THOS. POWELL, Patentee, 



0. SHAW PLOW WORKS, 
Stockcon, Cal. 




AT WORK 



MOVING. 



Fairbanks' Scales. 

PORTARLE PLATFORM SCALES, 

SUITABLE FOR 

Weighing- Hay, Grain, Dairy Produce, Etc. 




All Sizes. 240 to 3,000 lbs. Capacity. 

FAIRBANKS & HUTCHINSON, 

417 Market street, San Francisco. 



In consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature 

ihus t 



which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 

SA UCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Ash for LEA <5r* PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester ; Crosse arid Blackwell, London, 
Cr'c, (s"c; and by Grocers and Oilmen throv~hout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS St CO.. San Francisco. 



Save Money by Using THE CALIFORNIA SPRING TOOTH HARROW. 



Bead the Following 
Testimonials: 

Sacramento, Jan. 29, 1880. 
Messrs. Batchelor, Van Qelder 
& Co.: 

Gents:— This is to certify that 
I have tried the Spring Tooth 
Harrow on summer-fallow vol- 
unteer and winter plowed land, 
and am pleased to say that it 
does better work than any 
Harrow that I have used, es- 
pecially on land that has been 
plowed for a length of time 
and has become compact. 
Respectfully yours, 

H. M. LA RUE. 

Pres. State Ag'l Society. 

San Joss, Dec. 30, 1879. 
Batchelor, Van Gelder & Co: 

Gents:— This certifies that I 
have this day purchased a 
Spring Tooth Harrow, after 
having tested it to my entire 
satisfaction; and cheerfully say 




that I consider it superior to 
any implement I have ever 
seen for thorough cultivation 
of the earth, ard that they are 
just what every man with an 
orchard, vineyard or wheat field 
needs. Yours truly, 

JOSEPH ARAM. 



I fully concur with the above. 
MARK FARNEY. 

Send for Circulars and Testi- 
monials or come to our office, 
and we will occupy your time 
for a day with similar matter. 

Batchelor, _~« 
Van Gelder & Co.", 

Manufacturers. 
902 K Street SACRAMENTO. 



STILL AHEAD I 




Three sizes— warranted to clean from 60 to 150 bushels per 
hour perfectly. 

Has taken the First Premium at California State Fair* 
from 1870 to 1880. 

THE NASH & CUTTS 
Improved Grain Cleaner 

Will not only separate mustard seed, cheat, barley, oats 
cracked wheat, etc., in a satisfactory manner, but is alike 
successful in cleaning alfalfa and flaxseed, a feat performed 
by no similar machine. Will also clean FASTER and BET- 
TER, with less TROUBLE and WORK than any other 
Cleaner now in use. 

Reasons Why Farmers Prefer Our 
Cleaner to any Other. 

1st. THE IMPROVED NASH & CUTTS GRAIN 
CLEANER Is built solely for cleaning California-raised 
Gr ain or Seed. 

2d. Being located here, we know what is wanted much 
better than Eastern manufacturers. 

3d. As the Factory is in Sacramento, extras can be or- 
dered without delay, requiring only the Number and Date 
of the Cleaner. 

Farmers and Dealers are particularly cautioned against 
spurious imitations. Be sure that the one you buy bears this 
Trade Mark: "THE IMPKOVED NASH & CUTTS GRAIN 
CLEANER." All others are frauds. See that it is manu- 
factured by "H. D. NASH & CO., Sacramento, Cal. 

We mention the above for the protection of our customers 
who want the GENUINE. Every Cleaner fully warranted. 

Prices at Factory— No. 1, $33; No. 2, $40; No. 3, $55. For 
further particulars address 

H. D. NASH & CO.. 

906 K Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

Sole manufacturers of "The Improved Nash & Cutts Grain 
Cleaner" on the Pacific coast. 

£8* We also make a Cleaner to attach to Threshing Ma- 
chines that will clean ALL any Machine can thresh. 

Baker & Hamilton, General Agents, San Francisco and 
Sacramento, Cal. 



Windmills ! 
HORSE ROWERS I 
TANKS AND PUMPS 

Built and repaired at 
No. 51 Beale Street, S. F 

Send for circulars. 
F. W. KROGH & CO 

(Successors to W. I. Tcstin.) 





M. COOKE. 



R. J. COOKE 



PIONEER BOX FACTORY, 

Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 
ALL KINDS OF 

Fruit and Packing Boxes Made to Order, 

AND IN SHOOKS. 

tS~ Communications Promptly Attended to. "TOi 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cooki & Grroory 

Jackson's Agricultural Machine Works 

AND FOUNDRY, 

6th and Bluxome Sts.. near S. P. R. R., San Francisco. 

Manufacturer of Feeders and 
Elevators, with recently invented 
Spreader. Horse Forks for Head- 
ings or Hay. Folding Derricks. 
Uoadley Straw-Burner and Auto- 
matic Cut-off Governor for Por- 
table Engine. Separator Shoes 
and Repairs. WINDMILLS for 
Stockmen and Gardeners. Buy 
and sell second-hand Threshers 
and Engines. Machine Castings 
af specialty. Address 

BYRON JACKSON, PropV. 




IMPROVED MACHINES 



FOR LAYING 



Asbestine Sub-Irrigation Pipe 

For sale at Davisville, Yolo County, Cal. 
Apply to L. A. GOULD. 



AMERICAN ^gg 

MACHINE AND MODEL WORKS. 

Experimental and Fine Special Machinery, Planing, 
Gear Cutting, Patterns, Models for Inventors, etc. 
Printing Press and General Machine Repairing. 
Punches, Dies, Taps, Reamers, etc., made and repaired 

I. A. HEALD. Proprietor. 

514 Commercial Street, above Sansome, San Francisco. 



SADDLES, c/> 
HARNESS, ^ 
LEATHER, ! 



^ W. DAVIS, 

| 410 Market St., S. F. 
(Manufacturer and Dealer in 

ALL GOODS in this line. 
/ £3TSend for Catalogue. 



60 



Ohromo, perfumed, Soowflake & Lace cardi, name on all 
10o.' Game Authors, l&e. Lyman SCo., Clinton vllle, 0> 



48 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[July 17, 1880. 



A. T. DEWEY. 



W. B. EWEK. 



GEO. H. STRONG. 



pR BSS PAT^ 



ESTABLISHED IN 
1860. 



202 SANSOME STEEET, 




O 



ABLE, FAITHFUL AND 
REASONABLE. 



The Leadinof U. 



S. Patent Agency of the West. 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Send for Circular of Hints to Inventors. 



WIRE 



Baling 
Fencing 
Telegraph 
Telephone 
Galvanized — 

Barbed Fence Wire. 

All kinds of Wire — Iron, steel, 
Bessemer, spring, copper, brass 
and galvanized — on hand 
or Made to Order. 

A. S. HALLIDIE 

Wire Mills. 
Office, No. 6 California St. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

WIRE ROPE and CORDAGE 

Of every kind on hand or Made to Order 




BUY LAND 



Where you can get a crop every year; 
where you will make something every 
season; where you are sure of having a crop 
when prices are high; where you have a 
healthy place to live; where you can raise 
semi-tropical as well as other fruits; where 
you can raise a diversity of grain and vege- 
tables and get a good price for them. Go 
and see the old Reading Grant (in the 
upper Sacramento Valley), and you will 
find such land for sale in sub-divisions to 
suit purchasers — at reasonable rates and 
on easy erms. Send stamp for map and 
circular to Edward Frisbie, proprietor, 
(on the Grant), Anderson, Shasta Co., Cal. 

Pocket Map of California and Nevada. 

Compiled from the latest authentic sources, by Chas. 
Drayton Gibbs, C. E. This map comprises information 
obtained from the U. S. Coast and Land, Whitney's State 
Geological, and Railroad Surveys; and from the results of 
explorations made by R. S. Williamson, U. S. A., Henry 
Degroot, C. D. Gibbs and others. The scale is 18 miles to 
1 inch. It rives the Judicial and U. S. Land Districts. 
It distinguishes the Townships and their subdivisions' the 
County Scats; The Military Posts; the Railroads built'and 
proposed, and the limits of some of them; the occurrence 
of gold, silver, copper, quicksilver, tin, coal and oil. It 
has a section showing the bight! of the principal moun- 
tains. The boundaries are clear and unmistakable and 
the print good. 1878. Sold by DEWEY & CO. Price, 
postpaid, J2; to subscribers of this journal, until further 
notice, 31. 



50 



New Style Cards. Lithographed in bright colors, 10c. 
BO Ag'ts. Samples 10c. Conn. Card Co. Northford, Ct. 



This paper is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South loth 
St., Philadelphia & 59 Gold St., N. Y. Agent 
for Pacific Coast-Joseph H. Dorety, 527 
Commercial St, S. F. 



E. DETRICK. 



J. H. NICHOLSON 



K DETRICK <& CO., 

SOLE PROPRIETORS AND MANUFACTURERS OF THE CELEBRATED 

DETRICK "E W" 22x36 GRAIN BAG. 



CALCUTTA, DUNDEE and PACIFIC JUTE HAND-SEWED BAGS always on hand. 
OUR No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 SECOND-HAND GRAIN BAGS selected and graded with care. 



rH^UTTntT^HP 3, 4 and 6-ply for Grain Bags, 6 and 8-ply for Potato Gunnies, 3-ply bxtra fink for Flour 
X TT Jim JCd9» Bags, made expressly for our trade and QUALITY GUARANTEED. 

FLOUR BAGS printed to order without extra ciurob. POTATO GUNNIES, Wool, Bean, Ore and 

Salt and Seamless Cotton Bags. 

Sole agents west of the Rocky Mountains for Russell Manufacturing Company's 

Patent Solid Cotton Belting, 

tS" CHEAPER THAN LEATHER OR RUBBER, AND BETTER THAN EITHER, -ffij 

119, 121 and 124 Clay St., and 118 and 120 Commercial St , San Francisco 



ST. MATTHEW'S HALL, 



SAN MATEO, CAL. 



A Classical and Solitary 

SCHOOL FOR BOYS. 



The next term commences 

Thursday, July, 22d, 1880. 

For information address the Principal, 
REV. ALFRED LEE BREWER, M. A. 



Pumping Engine For Sale. 

NEW UPRIGHT 
WILCOX ENGINE. 

14-inch Cylinder, 6-inch Stroke. About S-Horse Power. 
Will raise 3,000 gallons per hour. Was used to dig the 
well at Chronicle ollice. Never used otherwise, and is in 



perfect order. 

PRICE, $300. 

Mr. Wilcox sold similar engines at 8800 each. I have 
taken this engine as an attorney fee, and will sell it for 
this price and WARRANT it. Address 

MANUEL EYRE, 

Law Office, No. 630 Clay St., room 25, S. F. 



Fig-.l 



FILEHOLDFR 



A sample File- 
M holder sent post 
" paid, from this 
- office on receipt 
of 50 cents. 




Five sizes are made to suit the dimensions of different 
parers, viz. i 18, 22, 26, 30 and 34 inches, inside measure 

For Sale by DEWEY & CO., 

No. 202 Sansome St., S. F. 



The Pacific Rural Press 

Is a Large and Handsomely Illustrated Agricul 
tuial Home Journal; Original, Instructive and 
Attractive; Its varied contents, ably written 
and condensed, render it popular with its 
readers, We endeavor to make it a credit to 
the field it occupies, and to every intelligent 
circle it enters. Entihkly fkkk fhom Politics, 
its columns are filled with cheerful words of 
encouragement for our Pacific industries and 
instruction for the people. It extends Informa- 
tion of the growing wants and necessities of our 
rapidly increasing and progressing agriculture. 
You can read it with pleasure, for present and 
future profit; you can send it with satisfaction 
to your friends anywhere. Its editorials are 
earnest and its contents reliable, No ques- 
tionable advertisements darken its pages. 
It is a journal for rural homes throughout 
the coast. It is a handsome home print, 
without a rival on this half of the Continent, 
Few, if any, Pacific coast farmers can afford to 
do without it. Subscription, in advance, $3 a 
year. DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 

No. 202 Sansome St., S. F. 



MARBLE WORKS. 

Monuments and Headstones 

— IN— 

Marble and Scotch Granite. 
MANTELS AND GRATES. 

MARBLE AND ENCAUSTIC TILES. 

43'Designs sent on applying for them. "^8 

w. k. Mccormick. 

827 Market St., between Fourth and Fifth. 



Pay Cash in advance— $3 a year for the 
Rural Preaa. Credit rates, $4, 



Everybody is Buying It. 
COPP'S 

AMERICAN SETTLER S GUIDE. 

A Popular Exposition of Our Public Land 
System. 

PKICE On Fine Paper and in Substantial 
Cloth ISinriinK, $1. Kdltion, 50 cents. 

How to tell Township and Section Corners. How to 
Homestead and pre empt Land. How to Enter Land under 
the Timber Culture Law. How to Enter Land under the 
Desert Laud Law. Towuaite Law, Timber and Stone Law, 
Suliu.- L;iw, etc Every Settler, every Land Atturney, every 
Ileal Estate Dealer should have this new book. No other 
work can compare with it. Recommended by the Land Of. 
licialH at Washington. FULL, CLEAR and EXPLICIT. 
Latest RuliuK. Instructions and Forms from the General 
Land Office. 

Edited b\ HENRY N. COPP, Washington, D. C. 

Send 50 cents to the oftice of this paper and get a copy of 
this popular book. 



Engraving.; 



Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
ing", Electro typing and Stereotyp- 
ing done at the office of the Mining 
and SeiHNTiFic Prkss, San Francisco, at favorable rate* 



Contents of Pamphlet on Public Lands of 
California, U. S. Land Laws, Map of 
California and Nevada, Etc. 

Map of California and Nevada ; The Public 

Lands; The Land Districts; Table of Rainfall in Cafifor- 
nia; Counties and Their Products; Statistics of the State 
at Large. 

Instructions ol the U. S. Land Commis- 
sioners.— Different Classes of Public Lands; How Lands 
may be Acquired; Fees of Land Office at Location; Agri- 
cultural College Scrip; Pre-emptions; Extending the 
Homestead Privilege; But One Homestead Allowed; Proof 
of Actual Settlement Necessary; Adjoining Farm Home- 
steads; Lands for Soldiers and Sailors; Lands for Indians; 
Fees of Land Office and Commissions; Laws to Promote 
Timber Culture; Concerning Appeals; Returns of the Reg- 
ister and Receiver; Concerning Mining Claims; Second 
Pre-emption Renefit. 

Abstract from the U. S. Statutes.— The Law 
Concerning Pre-emption; Concerning Homesteads; Amend- 
atory Act Concerning Timber; Miscellaneous Provisions; 
Additional Surveys; Land for Pre-emption; List of Cali- 
fornia Post Offices, Price, post paid, 50 eta. 

Published and sold bv DEWEY & CO., S. F 



LAND IN FRESNO. 

6nnfl ACRES adjoining the town and the 
, UUU Central Colony. Choice, easily irrigated, canal 
already on the land. For sale in quantities to suit. Ap- 
ply to the undersigned, or to THOMAS E. HUGHES, in 
Fresno. Also, 36,000 acres in Kern countv. 

E. JANSSEN, 210 California St., S. F. 



MME. ZEITSKA'S 
French, German and English Institute 

FOK YOUNG LADIES. 

Number of Boarding Pupils Limited. 

To Commence August 7th, 1880. 

For Circulars Address 
MME. B. ZEITZSKA, 922 Post St., S. F. 



TO FARMERS. 

A young man 18 yea's old wishes a place on a (arm, 
where he can learn general farming. Has had one year's 
experience. The farmer must have a family. Will gin 
the best of references. Wages no object. Address 
A. A. ROSE, 
827 Twentieth St. , San Francisco. 




PRICES REDUCED I 

Muller's Optical Depot, 

135 Montgomery St, near Bush. 

^SPECIALTY FOR 30 YEARS. ESTABLISHED 
SAN FRANCISCO, 1863 

CountBf/ Orders Attended to. 



Volume XX.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 24, 1880. 



Number 4 



The Growth of Cereals. 

It is apparent that there is now manifested 
among our grain growers a wider disposition to 
experiment with different varieties of cereals 
with a view of obtaining good sorts than ever 
before. Almost every neighborhood has one or 
two men who are growing new wheats obtained 
from here and there over the world, or are de- 
veloping grain by selecting the best heads of 
their own growing. These, coupled with the ex- 
tensive work now in progress on the University 
experimental grounds, all encourage the hope 
that we shall ere long have seed grain far better 
than that now generally sown. 

This being the fact, it is evident that all en- 
gaged in this valuable work of cereal develop- 
ment may advance their work greatly by a more 
general comparison of experiences and results 
than has been had hitherto. Now and then one 
of our correspondents gives us a hint of what he 
or his neighbors are doing, or brings us samples 
of the new varieties which are being grown. We 
should like to have this department of our pub- 
lication greatly extended and the co-operation 
of all experimenters secured, so that good varie- 
ties may be speedily heralded and failures made 
known for the guidance of others. In this way 
all would work with a knowledge of what oth- 
ers are achieving, and the influence of each one's 
work would be greatly extended. Therefore we 
invite reports from all our readers as to the be- 
havior of all new grains they have grown this 
year, with full particulars of manner of growth, 
action during winds or drouth, action under ir- 
rigation, yield, etc. , etc. This will give us en- 
tertaining matter for the consideration of grain 
growers after harvest, and this is the time to 
gather the points. 

This subject is securing attention from others 
interested in the subject. We notice that 
correspondent of the Stockton Independent makes 
quite pertinent suggestions, as follows: "The 
question of suitable varieties of wheat for cer- 
tain localities, soils and climates is one on which 
we observe a great discrepancy of opinion in all 
parts of the State, and in the same localities. 
Considering the great prominence of the cereal 
crop as a source of income to the State, we 
think it a subject which has been greatly neg- 
lected. We have Viticultural Commissions and 
Mineralogical Bureaus. Mining is an old and 
well established branch of industry, the source 
of large income and deserving of all support and 
encouragement. Viticulture is yet to be the 
pride of the State, and should assuredly be fos- 
tered. Yet neither rank in point of money 
value to-day with wheat. Why should we not 
have a commissionjon cereals? Here is a mine 
of information in the experience of the last 15 
years that only needs working to secure the 
most profitable results. Notwithstanding the 
dogmatic belief of most wheat farmers in the in- 
fallibility of his present methods of wheat-rais- 
ing, we know that a scientific and practical in- 
quiry into wheat culture, under the heads of va- 
rieties, summer-fallow, winter-sowing, imple- 
ments of cultivation, seeding and harvesting in 
the various localities, soils and climates in this 
State, would yield results whose practical value 
would be welcome and available to all. We 
know we have made progress in even the last 
five years. This is apparent to all. It has 
come about through experience and a knowledge 
of the conditions requisite to success with differ- 
ent localities, soils and varieties. Propo and 
Pride of Butte are valuable additions to our list 
of varieties. Summer-fallowing has in a great 
degree removed the slippery element of chance. 
Improved harvesters, feeders, and threshers 
have facilitated" and cheapened the securing of 
grain. Calculate the value of grain in the last 
10 years by improved processes and varieties 
and a logical deduction of facts from experience, 
we have an approximate basis by which to esti- 
mate the value of a cereal commission in a much 
shorter space of time." 

Whether there should be a cereal commission 
or not, as the writer above suggests, will be a 
proper subject for consideration when the legis- 
lature meets. But something valuable can be 
done at once both by writing down results for 
publication and by preparing samples of prom- 
ising grains for exhibition at this fall's fairs. 



We are pleased to hear that it is the design of 
the College of Agriculture to prepare for the 
Mechanios' fair next month full samples of 
heads and threshed grain of the scores of new 
cereals, the seed of which was obtained from 
Europe last fall. This will make a show 
which it would pay a grain erower to cross a 
State to see. It will furnish a nucleus for a 
splendid exhibit of new grains, and we shall be 
pleased to receive from all our readers samples 
of their own growing to be placed adjacent to 
the University collection. Let us have a cereal 
exhibit which will surprise those who are all the 
time dinging at farmers for not making efforts 
to improve their products and who are prating 
such nonsense simply because they do not know 
what is going on. There is a wonderful impulse 
toward improvement in all our grain-growing 



Hillside Cultures. 

Our illustration presents a scene"in the Bohea 
tea district, of China. We introduce it as il- 
lustrative of the system of hillside culture, 
which prevails in that part of the world. Now 
that the utilization of our elevated lands is be- 
J ng urged on the ground of their cheapness, and 
their adaptation to certain growths of fruit, it is 
interesting to note an illustration of actual work 
on similar elevations. All are more or less fam- 
iliar with the cultivation of hillsides in Europe 
for the production of grapes, olives and other 
fruits, and it is interesting to face the other way 
and behold hillside ranches in China. The time 
will doubtless come when our own hillsides, 




SCENE IN THE BOHEA TEA DISTRICT OP CHINA. 



regions. Let us show it and at the same time 
aid all who are making it, by showing the best 
each has already done in his own experimenta- 
tion. Samples and descriptions sent to the edi- 
tor of the Rural Press will be properly cared 
for and placed on exhibition. 

Fine Wheat.— -The best sample of wheat we 
have seen so far this year was brought us by 
Mr. Applegarth from the ranch of S. S. Drake 
nearVallejo. It is of the Snownake variety, the 
kernels very large, plump as a partridge and the 
heads long and well rilled. It is easy to believe 
that some acres of such wheat will go 60 bush- 
els and the average of 200 acres, we are assured, 
will be over 40 bushels per acre. From the 
look of the sample we think the figures are 
within the facts. Such wheat should be sown, 
every kernel of it. It is too fine to grind up until 
everyone is supplied with such seed. 



with their peerless climate andjpure'air, and their 
fitness for certain uses, will be peopled with an 
industrious and intelligent population. It is an 
end to be hoped for, and the tendency in that 
direction at the present time is worthy of all 
encouragement. 



Horticultural Society Meeting. — The 
July meeting of the State Horticultural Society 
will be held on Friday of next week, July 30th, 
at 232 Sutter St. in this city. The fruit sub- 
ject will be the growing of peaches and plums. 
Dr. Strentzel of Martinez, has been invited to 
open the discussion. The culture of flowers for 
perfumes will be introduced by Mr. G. P. Rix- 
ford. It is to be hoped that a full attendance 
of members may be haa at the July meeting, as 
there are some arrangements to be made for the 
fair of the Mechanics' Institute to begin Au- 
gust 10th. 



A Loss to Agriculture. 

There was a young man recently killed by 
accident in Napa county, whose death we 
count a loss to agriculture. We need not 
speak his name, that is the cherished heritage of 
his bereaved parents and mourning friends. But 
there are features of his course, brief as it has 
been, which are a treasure to the rising genera- 
tion of young men, and should not be withheld 
from general knowledge. 

He was city bred and had pursued with 
credit the higher paths of education. His father 
occupied a leading position in a learned profes- 
sion. He too had thought to drift naturally into 
a profession, as other'tyoungmen.of his acquaint- 
ance were drifting. It was at such a time that 
one of our leading farmers met the young man and 
had some conversation with him. "You have 
the best the schools can do for you, now what 
do you propose to do." "I think I shall study 
for a profession," was the reply. "But why do 
so," asked the farmer "the professions are al- 
ready filled, with the best educated young men. 
Agriculture has need of such. No profession of- 
fers wider opportunity for the exercise of culti- 
vated powers; none deals with ideas and mate- 
rials which court fuller investigation; none 
outholds to a young man a better chance to de- 
velop his manhood, to quicken his mental pow- 
ers, educate his observation; none offers a more 
laudable success to one who will merit it. " 

Such was the sense of the conversation. The 
same lesson was doubtless enforced by others; 
but that matters not. The idea was implanted; 
it took root in the mind of the young man, and 
his course was shaped toward a practical engage- 
ment in agriculture. His father's dairy ranch, 
then in the charge of a hired manager, afforded 
him the chance for agricultural enlistment. 
How did he proceed ? Did he take to the sad- 
dle at once, and count himself fitted to direct 
the enterprise ? No; he recognized the fact 
that there were methods and materials before 
him with which he was not practically familiar. 
There was a herd of cows to handle properly, 
and there was cheese to be made of the milk. 
With his father's approval this young man went 
to the place where the best cheese is made; he 
donned the factory clothes; he stood at the 
weighing cans; he held the thermometer in the 
heating vat; he waited for the action of the ren- 
net; he pushed the curd knives and bared hia 
arm to contact with the curd. The lifting of 
the curd, the pressing, the curing — in short, all 
the countless operations which result in the 
manufacture of a good cheese he learned by per- 
forming each; and after a few months of practi- 
cal work and a wide observation of others' 
methods, he returned to his father's ranch, and 
began what all expected would be a successful 
career as an agriculturist, because the young 
man had showed a disposition to learn, and a 
diligence to perform, which are at the founda- 
tion of success in agriculture. 

He had little more than entered upon his life 
work when the summons came for him to go 
hence, and in his death agriculture has lost the 
example which we fully believe his life would 
have yielded — an example of a young man of 
richest endowments won from a profession to 
the farm. 

Some other young man must begin as ho began 
and carry the praiseworthy course farther. 
And there are others whom we know to be al- 
ready on the road, but there is still room. The 
grandest industry of all offers scope for the en- 
listment of an innumerable host of young men 
to exercise their quickest and deepest thoughts, 
and their readiest ingenuity and skill. But 
they must lay hold with no halfway devotion; 
with no impulse of whim or caprice. The zeal, 
the diligence, the perseverance of the young 
man whose death we sincerely deplore, must be 
an example to them. As such an example his 
memory is a legacy to a world of young men. 



Ash or Hickory for Tool Handles. — A 
correspondent of the Wheelwright and Black- 
smith wishes to know the relative value of 
"maiden ash" and hickory for tool handles, and 
also what "maiden ash" is. That journal, 
in reply, says that "maiden ash" is an ash 
sapling that has never been lopped; it is no 
better than hickory. 



50 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[July 24, 1880. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions ol correspondents.— Eds 



Los Angeles County Notes. 

Editors Press: — Other pens than mine have 
well represented this part of the State for some 
time. "Agricultural Notes," too, have been 
well timed from Los Angeles county. Our 
editors here of lato admit that man is mortal; 
and too, that our seasons are quite uncertain — 
a fact that has long been known elsewhere in 
this world of ours. This year, with us, wheat 
is a better crop than barley, an unusual occur- 
rence. However, according to my experience of 
several jears here, one season is no criterion to 
judge another by. 

The "desert winds that reach even many 
miles out at sea," which W. B. E. made men- 
tion of in one of his " Letters from Southern 
California" — oh ! those poison winds ! — it was 
those winds that blew my mule team and my 
bank account away into the memories of the 
things that once were. It wa3 the wind (not a 
lack of rain) that last season cut my apiary of 
157 hives off without a pound of honey, and 
their number down to 13. Your northers of 
upper California are bad enough ; but "stand 
from under" when the breath from Arizona and 
Death valley gets over among our grain fields 
and beehives. 

New Vineyards, 
Set out on land that has been hard-panned by 
excessive irrigation, have done rather poorly in 
Nietos. One party has lost about a third, another 
one-half. Indeed, one party failed in an attempt 
to make a siDgle vine grow on a plot of eight 
acres. (N. B. fie don't read the Uural, either.) 

Experience keeps a dear school, but -, etc. 

Let them travel the same road that thousands 
have gone before. Plod away in the mysteries 
of an untried region without a chart, or even a 
finger board to guide the stranger. The Rural 
is as essential to the agriculturist in California 
as a chart of our coast is to a coasting vessel, 
putting in and out of our various little ports. 
Navigation is hazardous between Portland and 
San Francisco ; so is business in southern Cali- 
fornia. Only look out for the rock on which 
others have stranded, study well your maps and 
charts, and go ahead. 

On an average, this new Italy is showing signs 
for the better. Our land grabbers are squealing 
on account of the sturdy plowmen letting them 
alone. This is my sort of " communism: " 
Hands off ; let them alone. They will soon 
squeal. Soon they will hunt up the sturdy 
laboring man, and offer him a live-and-let-live 
bargain. The land association nearest me has 
rented hundreds of acres this year for small 
grain, at 50 cents per acre, and that, too, con- 
tingent on a crop being harvested. 

Our farmers are truly awake to the necessity 
of obtaining a variety of wheat adapted to this 
peculiar region. Many varieties are being tested 
here this year. On moist, cold land Odessa seems 
to do well, if sowed very early ; sowed late, it 
acts like a winter wheat. In Nietos, Odessa, 
unless irrigated, this season, is a failure. If 
irrigated, Odessa makes very heavy heads on a 
slender stalk, and don't stand up very well. 
A variety called here, " Nicaragua," a red, 
coarse-looking, bearded variety, seems to pros- 
pect well. I have been experimenting with the 
Defiance wheat this year. In the ItrjRAL of 
June 2Gth, the article on '* Defiance Wheat " 
(as shown by Mr. G. W. T. Carter, of Contra 
Costa), covers my experienco perfectly. As to 
the rust-proof varieties, this year has not put 
that to the test, as the season has been very 
propitious toward rust. 

Our dairy finally has succeeded in command- 
ing our own markets ; our poultry, ditto. But 
Chicago and St. Louis are still pouring into our 
land the products of their pork packeries. My 
neighbor, Mr. Geo. Cole, who has mined in Ari- 
zona for years, tells me that Los Angeles bacon 
is a by-word in Arizona. In buying bacon there 
the miner will say to the merchant: "Come 
now, none of your pumpkin-fed sow from Los 
Angeles. I want solid Chicago or St. Louis 
meat." Speedy & Co., of Los Angeles City, 
are doing well, and lifting that prejudice slowly, 
but Chicago sells ham every day at their very 
door, in Los Angeles City. 

Geo. Kay Miller. 
Los Nietos, July 13, 1880. 



Artificial Vanilla. — The production 01 any 
well-known substance artificially by the* syn- 
thetical chemist, is generally viewed by the 
public with opposition, until convinced that it 
is identical with the natural product. A Ger- 
man paper produces an indorsement of artificial 
vanilline by Prof. Meidinger, who says it pos- 
sesses undeniable advantages over natural van- 
illa. The latter loses its aroma, is unequal, 
and the natural bean only contains 2% of val- 
uable material, with 98% of worthless or even 
injurious material, of which the removal is 
troublesome and tedious, before the pure flavor 
can be obtained. In Germany the vanilline is 
mixed with sugar, and put in packages of dif- 
ferent strength for different purposes. That 
for chocolate manufacturers is 70 times as strong 
as good vanilla; that for family use is put up in 
packages equal to one bean, and sold at nine 
cents each; that for liquor manufacturers 2% 
of vanilline. Dr. Meidinger speaks very highly 
of this artificial vanilline, which he pronounces 
perfectly wholesome. 



Conditions of Success. 

Editors Press: — I have been asked to give 
some notes on "chicken culture" through your 
columns; and as I am of an accommodating 
turn of mind, I proceed at once to tell some 
things that I have learned by dear experience. 
In the first place "eternal vigilance" is quite as 
much the price of success in California as any 
place I know of. It is often said that disease 
among fowls was unknown until we had "fancy 
breeds." That may be; but the cause of dis- 
ease is not that the fowls are "fancy" or other- 
wise, but because of the infringement of some 
law of chicken health, and the penalty is sure. 

Twenty or 30 years ago, if my memory is 
good, few people kept more than ono breed of 
chickens, and wintered over but few. During 
the summer they ranged wherever their sweet 
will prompted them, and they earned their liv- 
ing, not perhaps by the "sweat of their brows," 
but by scratching for it. Now I see many 
yards where fowls are confined month after 
month, where the ground is so hard and dry 
and smooth that I would defy the biggest 
Brahma or Cochin ever raised to make an im- 
pression on it. So the hens stand round and 
mope and pine for liberty, nothing to do, no 
place to dust in, nothing to vary the monotony 
but the two meals, and too often they are 
thrown down into the dirt. It is no wonder 
that they forget to lay eggs, or that the chicks 
are puny. 

The most successful breeders do not have all 
fair weather, but with a reasonable amount of 
care they can have a fair measure of success. 
There are a few common rules which may help 
some discouraged amateurs: 

Where but one variety is kept, and they are 
allowed free range, they will do well enough 
without much attention; but if one has the 
"fever" badly and wishes to keep a number of 
kinds in limited space, they will require extra 
care and attention. I have a small yard 
(100x50 ft.) sown to alfalfa. Opening into this 
are four yards (25x30 ft.), each furnished with 
a small house capable of holding 20 fowls, nests, 
feed troughs, etc. Each yard is let out on this 
alfalfa two or three hours every day. They are 
always eager to get out, and easily put back 
when their time is up. If some such plan can 
not be carried out, then they must have cab- 
bage, beets, or other green food, given every day 
to insure good health. L. J. W. 

San Jose, Cal. 



Growing Seedling Grapevines. 

Editors Press: — The fear of phylloxera, al- 
ready the ruin of some old vineyards in our 
State, though happily limited to a narrow belt 
of country, has led to many projects for insur- 
ing new plantations from the possibility of in- 
jury. There has been some grafting done in 
our vicinity, and one neighbor has bought sev- 
eral pounds of seeds of native grape, intending 
to graft the finer varieties of foreign grapes 
upon them. Mr. John Ellis, of the University, 
in a paper in the California Horticulturist, 
showed the probable results of an experiment 
which is costly to begin with, the growth of 
native seedlings being comparatively slow, and, 
as shown by Mr. Ellis, not hopeful as to results. 

I find preserved in our Agricultural Scrap 
Book, an article translated by Father Accolti, 
of the Santa Clara College, from the Agricul- 
tural Journal of Benevento, Italy, under date of 
March 8, 1871, detailing the success which has 
attended Mr. Dominic Perones, method of sow- 
ing the vine upon the vine. 

He gathers the finest berries of tile grape he 
wishes to propagate, and preserve* them in a 
cool place until the time when the sap flows 
freely in the vines, in spring. He then 
makes a small hole with a gimlet in the lower 
part of the stock of the vine he wishes to 
change, and inserts one of the seeds of the pre- 
served berries into it. He says "that seed 
(which has been kept alive for months by the 
moisture contained in the berry) being immerged 
in a liquid homogeneous and connatural now 
germinates, and the sap hardened by the con- 
tact with the air envelops the small root of the 
little new plants, which identities itself with 
the main stock, and grows up with the other 
branches." Meanwhile the mother vine con- 
tinues to bear fruit. After two years the new 
offshoot is pruned. The third year it begins to 
bear grapes. The renovation is thus completed 
without any sacrifice, and by this treatment, if 
the seeds are inserted very low down on the 
stock, a native nlock may be obtained luivimj roots 
of its own, for the native cane would soon send 
out rootlets, while the original vineyard would 
be preserved intact. We shall try this upon a 
few vines another year, simply as an experi- 
ment, sowing Diana or Isabella upon Muscat of 
Alexandria. J. C. C. 

Pasadena, Los Angeles Co. 



TJJe Field. 



The Importance of Good Seed. 

Editors Press:— Being a constant reader of 
your most excellent paper and having gained 
many valuable hints therefrom, I feel it my 
duty to offer my mite for the good of all. My 
observations throughout the country lead me to 
say that farmers are too careless about the seed 
they sow. Allow me to diverge a little, and 
take up my favorite occupation to illustrate. 

I took last April two stands of bees equal in 
every respect ; both had old black queens. I 
killed the queen of one, and gave them eggs 
from a fine Italian, from which they raised a 
young queen that began to lay in due time. I 
let the other have their old queen, treating both 
hives the same in all other respects. Now, the 
result at the end of three months, is this: The 
one I gave the eggs to is a fine hive of Italians, 
and has given me 50 pounds honey more than 
the other. See the result of that little cg#. 
The secret is simply this — tjood seed. 

I was really delighted the other day while in- 
vestigating a large crop of the finest Proper 
wheat I have ever had the pleasure of seeing, 
grown by Wm. H. Souther, on the Newhall 
tract. I asked Mr. Souther how he obtained 
such a perfect crop of wheat. The answer 
came: " My ground was clean, and I sowed the 
best of seed." No doubt this seed cost a little 
more than common grain, but Mr. Souther feels 
well paid for all it cost him to procure the best 
of seed. If any of your readers doubt the 
quality of this wheat, they can see it for them- 
selves at H. M. Newhall's, San Francisco, where 
samples are on exhibition. Let ub all be careful 
to sow good seed in our hearts as well as in our 
grounds. J. Moffatt. 

Ventura Co., Cal. 

Traction Engines on Hawaiian Sugar 
Plantations. 

Mr. Williams, manager of the Kohala planta- 
tion, writes the following account of experience 
with three English traction engines; one of 10- 
horse power and two of 8-horse power each. 
He says: 

To-day is the fourth week that I have not 
had a bullock team hauling cane. Two engines 
with four cars to each engine (2 small and 2 
large) were hauling from one field 1A miles away, 
• J trips a day; and one field near by, 9 trips a 
day, all ratoou cane, and are taking 23 claritiers 
a day (with cattle we could only get cane 
enough for 21 a day). To get in this amount of 
cane would take 15 of our cane wagons, with 
five yoke of cattle to each team. We go right 
into the field close to the cane, just as we do 
with cattle, and can dump the cane closer to the 
cane carrier than we can with cattle. 

Have been keeping account of coal used on 
each engine for three weeks full work every 
day, and find we have used about 51 or 52 tubs 
a week on each engine. A tub weighs on an 
average 80 lbs. of coal, so 4,l(i0 lbs., say to esti- 
mate 2 tons to each engine per week. I get in 
this amount of cane with 10 less men than if I 
had teams on. We have a driver (white man) 
and a native helper on each engine, and one 
native to walk alongside of the load and pick 
up cane that falls off, and help connect and dis- 
connect in field and in mill. 

Each engine has four wagons, two arc loading 
in the field while the other two are being hauled 
in. There is no waiting in the morning till you 
get the cattle in and yoked up; the native helper 
gets his 20 cents overtime in the morning for 
getting up steam before the whistle blows to go 
to work. 

Directly the mill starts, the engine starts out 
to the field; the wagons are left loaded in field 
over night. She takes out her two empty 
wagons and brings in the full ones, dump them, 
and if it is breakfast time, they go to cat. They 
leave the engine standing alongside the road, it 
is all right, no steam will blow oil'. We fetch 
in every trip equal to 4 of our large bullock 
wagons, (but this is with one large and one 
small wagon); with all English wagons we fetch 
in equal to 5 of our large bullock wagons at a 
trip. The other week we had two English 
wagons left loaded in the field at night; it rained 
heavily for the next two or three days, and be- 
ing afraid the cane might sour, sent out some 
teams to unload them and fetch in the cane; it 
was as much as they could do to get the two 
onto five of our bullock wagons. As they did 
not know at the time they loaded the engine 
wagons, we call it a fair test. This is on ratoon 
cane, if on plant cane we can load more, as the 
ratoons are shorter than plant, so cannot keep 
as much cane on a load. Some two years ago, 
to give Mr. Watson exact figures, I weighed 10 
wagons of ratoon and it made 52,350 lbs. cane; 
so I calculate that with all large wagons we haui 
in at each trip 10i tons of ratoons, and 11 tons 
weight of plant cane. 

On one road where we are hauling, we come 
up a hill with a rise of I ft. to 11 ft. 3 inches; 
coming up a hill they put on slow speed at 
about 2k or 3 miles an hour; on level ground 
they put on their fast speed at 5i or 6 miles per 
hour. The changing speed is done in half a 
minute, stop and change a pin in or out. 

At mill the engine itself pulls off the load. 
We lay three ropes in bottom of wagon, made 
fast on side to bolts inside before loading. 



These ropes are about 50 ft. long each. When 
they get to mill we let down one side of wagon, 
throw the three ropes over the load and make 
them fast; we have a snatch block and tackle 
made fast to cane carrier, hook the tackle onto 
the ropes, lead the end of tackle to engine; it 
unhooks from the wagons and walks off with 
the fall, pulling off all the cane. Before we got 
hold of this method, we used to have to stop the 
mill and put on 30 hands to pull on the ropes 
to pull the load off. 

As far as I can estimate at present, charging 
$5 per day for driver, the cost of native helpers, 
loaders in the fields, coal, oil, etc., 10% on cost 
of engines, and aUowing for wear and tear, 
what costs us at the rate of $90 per day with 
cattlo, we haul in with traction engines for $60 
a day. In the $90 for cattle, the rent of pasture 
lands and miles of fencing and keeping it not in- 
cluded, which is a large item, when a great deal 
of your pasturage will do for cane. You cannot 
work the engines in wet, showery weather, and 
they will have to be worked up into a system. 
They more than come up to my expectations. 
In^ fine weather, when it is hot ana dry, and 
your cattle play out, is the time for the engines 
and the time to push your grinding. 



Beginnings in Beekeeping. 

Editors Press:— "Beginnings in Beekeep. 
ing" do not come along very fast of late, you 
may think. I do not know when the last was 
sent,- but do know that these long, busy days 
without any evenings and everything to do, 
with sunflowers, cockle bnrs and every other 
kind of weed trying to take possession of the 
land and pump out all the moisture needed for 
the trees, while the fruit has to be marketed 
and bees overhauled to keep out the worms, be- 
sides the misfortune of having to build hives 
etc., that should have been built last winter — 
had the means to buy timber been at hand — is 
not the best preparation for letter writing. To 
make the matter worse, while laborers struck 
for $2 per day where it is a question if the 
farmer can afford to pay §1, the bees also con- 
cluded to strike about a month ago, since which 
time very little honey has been gathered in this 
county. Our largest apiarian says while bis 
bees have been giving him no honey, they were 
so determined to turn robbers that he did not 
dare to leave them to go to work in the harvest 
fields, which he wanted to do to make a living. 

Why the bees have produced no honey is a 
mystery, as the flowers have continued to 
bloom, and we could discover no reason why 
they did not secrete the sweet liquid; but this 
failure of the honey crop is only another lesson 
for the farmer, to remind him: First — Not to 
go in debt, depending upon his uncertain crops 
to bring him out. Second — Have some variety, 
so if one thing fails, another may help him 
through. Third- -Produce, as far as possible, 
everything needed at home, instead of* going 
into debt to merchants and middlemen for 
them. And this reminds me of a subject that 
has somewhat (but should more thoroughly) 
agitate the mind of the enterprising farmer. 
We need some cheap and effective drying ma- 
china to save the waste of fruits, etc. We 
need something as handy as a drnm stove, that 
will do to warm the house in winter and dry 
fruit in summer, not in large quantities, but 50 
or 100 lbs. at a time, just to save the surplus 
that would otherwise go to waste; and said ma- 
chine should not cost more than a good stove, 
say $50. I was in to see the Flummer machine 
to-day, but it will not answer the purpose: 
1st, it costs too much, $200; 2d, it is nothing 
but a drier and is too large, and is permanent. 
Perhaps something like the Stewart cook-stove, 
with a large oven extending some three ft. 
above the stove, might answer, with suitable 
ventilators, etc., to carry off the moisture into 
the pipe. Something of the kind would save 
thousands every year, and be profitable to the 
inventor, if he did not want such a royalty that 
they could not be sold cheap enough to get them 
into every fruit raiser's family. The machine 
that is needed must be small, handy and cheap, 
even if it should have to use more fnel and make 
more labor than a larger one. I have no doubt 
the machine conld be got up and sold as cheap 
as cook-stoves. 

What a curious freak fruit has taken this 
year. Last season the Beatrice peach led off on 
the 5th of June and Alexander was ready June 
10th, Tilliston, June 20th; but this season 
Alexander ripened from June 20th to 30th; 
Beatrice, July 1st until now; and Tilliston just 
ready to gather to day, the 12th of July. 
Peaches were ahead of apricots here this year, 
while last year apricots were ahead. 

'July 13th. — My boy reports to-day the bees 
are working on the buckeye blossoms. They 
have haa no sweet in them until very lately — 1 
could taste a little. The general outlook is a 
small yield of honey this season, as we have the 
same unfavorable reports from Los Angeles; so 
it will be as well for those who have, not to be 
in a hurry to sell. We hoped to put up con- 
siderable fruit with honey, and if a little ex- 
periment in preserving grapes with honey, with- 
out cooking, succeeds as weU on a larger scale 
as it did last year with a small quantity, it will 
open quite a market for our extracted honey. 

Isaac B. Rumford. 
Bakorsfield, Kern Co., July 10th. 



July 24, 1880.] 



Future Gardens of California. 

The garden of the future in the coming Cali- 
fornia for those who truly love flowers will need 
for its development a varied surface of hill-slope 
and ravine, such as can easily be found in San 
Mateo, Marin, Alameda, Contra Costa, or So- 
noma. From 5 to 20 acres of such land will be 
required. Near the house there might be a 
trim garden, and perhaps a small conservatory, 
but over the rest of the territory mountain 
plants of every land are to be coaxed into a 
sense of possession and security. The growth 
of our handsomest native shrubs, annuals and 
herbaceous perennials, should be also encour- 
aged. There will be a constant succession of 
bloom upon such a homestead. Early bulbs 
and shrubs will begin first upon the warmer 
slopes, and, as summer advances, the northern 
ridges and the deep ravines will have their turn. 
In the whole year no day will be without its 
own peculiar charm; each hour, almost, will 
witness some new flowers unfolding. Many of 
the best shrubs, which, in less favored climates, 
need constant attention and expensive green- 
house treatment, can here be gro^vn almost as 
readily as apple trees. Then, too, the immense 
variety of hardy bulbs now within the reach of 
the ordinary purse is an endless source of enjoy- 
ment. Crocuses, tulips, lilies, jonquils, daffo- 
dils, and gladioli, are only a beginning. One 
might have over 20 different species of the lovely 
anemones, and in dozens of distinct shades and 
colors. The ranunculus does well here, and the 
bulbs of Peru and Chile are perfectly at home 
on our hillsides. 

Although, as we have hinted, a tract of var- 
ied surface, embracing about 20 acres, is best 
adapted to this sort of a wild garden, yet the 
happy possessor of a half acre need not utterly 
despair, for he can use the same principles in a 
lesser degree, and graceful Nature will come to 
his aid with her benign and gentle friendship. 
He may plant vines along the fences, and make 
piles of rock which shall seem to have a reason 
for their existence. He may choose only those 
plants which are at home in that region, and 
give them such care that they will take sturdy 
possession, in a liberal mood, even as they do 
on the hillsides. With such surrounding, the 
roots of the home itself run deeper, and bind 
more firmly, year after year. And, in all sim- 
plicity, it is fair and pure homes that Califor- 
nia, or indeed, any land worth the loving, needs 
now, and will forever need. — Chas. H. Shinn in 
August Calif ornian. 

Medicinal Plants in California. — When 
the first Americans came to these shores they 
found that the Spanish and Mexicans were in 
the habit of depending largely, in case of sick- 
ness, upon simple extracts of native shrubs, 
herbs and roots. Some of the cures they per- 
formed bordered on the marvelous, and a knowl- 
edge of Yerba Santa, Yerba Langrado, Cascara 
S^grada, and a number of other medicinal 
plants, soon extended to the Americans, and 
found a place in the Materia Medica of civilized 
countries. The lists of leading druggists now 
contain regular quotations of several species, 
and shipments Horn this coast are increasing. 
The business, to far, is done by contract, 
Eastern firms, or parties on this coast, letting 
contracts to persons to furnish a given amount 
at a fixed price, there being as yet no sale in 
open market for these products. The price is, 
contractors say, very fluctuating. Grindelia 
Robusta grows near the coast, in blackish masses, 
and is not very plentiful; Grindelia Squarrosa 
grows on the uplands and great valleys, where 
it is called tar-weed by some, and is trouble- 
some in the fields. Cascara Segrada grows on 
hillsides and uplands in great thickets. — Cali- 
fornia Horticulturist. 



Orange Disease in Louisiana. — An orange 
grower writes to a Louisiana exchange as fol- 
lows: Our orange trees are doing badly. On 
this lower coast at least 10% of the young trees 
annually die. A disease, which we call sore 
skin, begins at the base of the trunks and in a 
short time turns the bark and leaves yellow, 
and the tree soon dies unless the disease is dis- 
covered in season and the affected part cut out. 
The wound thus caused will heal over in a year 
or two, but the very next season the tree may 
be attacked on the opposite side, and dies in 
spite of all that can be done. To avoid this 
serious evil, we are budding upon sour stocks 
with great success. The sour orange never has 
sore skin, and if an orchard is budded in this 
manner each tree will be of the same age and 
every space will be filled; the expense of fre- 
quent replanting is avoided and, when in bear- 
ing, there are no unproductive portions of the 
orchard. Budded trees bear much sooner than 
seedlings, and the fruit holds on much better I 
have had them bear in two years from the time 
of budding. 

A Hint for Preserving Valuable Buds. — 
The Home and Society department of Scribner's 
Monthly, for Feb., 1880, contains a valuable 
excerpt from an unpublished report of the U. S. 
Consul at Florence, to the State Department 
upon the chestnut as food. The process of 
grafting by rings is given in detail. The author 
says: "A method of preserving the grafting 
buds, so that they may be good even after a 
year, is to place them in tin tubes filled with honey, 
and then hermetically sealed." For short dis- 
tances and time, water is used instead of honey. 



THE PACIFIC 



It has occurred to me that this would be an ex- 
cellent way of preserving and transplanting buds 
and cions of all our best fruits. — J. C. C, Pasa- 
dena. 



Tl-fi Syock Yw 1 " 



The Census and Meat Production, 

The census office is preparing to deal with 
the great meat-producing industry of this 
country in a valuable way. We learn from an 
interesting article in the New York Evening 
Post that Gen. Walker, Supt. of the Census, 
has appointed Mr. Clarence Gordon as an ex- 
pert to gather all facts of importance in regard 
to the production, transportation and export of 
meat, including that of sheep and swine as well 
as of cattle. He began his task on the first of 
last August, and expects to be able to make his 
report to Gen. Walker in about a year from the 
present time. With five assistants, who are 
now at work in various parts of the country, 
he had already gathered an immense mass of in- 
formation, having covered Texas, the Indian 
Territory, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Colo- 
rado, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada and Florida — 
the latter being really a grazing State, though 
this was not generally understood. He added 
that it had been his duty to organize the work 
in each State, and that his assistants had then 
attended to the minor details. About the mid- 
dle of July he will start for an official tour 
through Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Washington 
Territory, Oregon and California, from which 
he will return, probably, by way of Arizona and 
New Mexico. 

In regard to the character of his investigations 
Mr. Gordon said that he aimed to trace the 
whole system of meat production in this coun- 
try from the time when the animals were on 
the hoof to the moment when the flesh was 
ready for cooking either here or abroad. An 
interesting feature of the examination was in 
regard to the origin of the grazing business in 
each State and Territory — whence the cattle 
were derived, and why their breeding and pas- 
turage had attracted the special attention of 
settlers. In some cases in the far West the 
work of stock-raising had grown to huge propor- 
tions from the fact that it had been necessary 
for some of the early trains of immigrants to 
abandon a part of their cattle, who were after- 
ward found to be thriving in a semi- wild state 
on the herbage supplied by the prairies. 

During the last few years the improvements 
in every branch of meat production have been 
extraordinary. On the average a steer now 
weighs as much at three years of age as one 
formerly did at four years. The work of 
fattening hogs is now so well understood that 
the animals are usually killed when 10 months 
old, whereas the expense of their keep used to 
last for several years before they were ready for 
the market. The quality of the pork has im- 
proved also. Then many advances have been 
made in the business of sheep raising, for mut- 
ton in some regions and for wool in others. 

Along with the examination of the different 
methods practised by graziers, etc., a careful 
study is made by the special agent and his assist- 
ant of the comparative facilities for stock rais- 
ing in different parts of the country — the charac- 
ter and abundance of grasses, the supply and 
quality of water, the climate in summer and 
winter, the occurrence of drouths, and the 
amount of stock already kept in the various 
districts. In regard to herbage, it is found that 
forage plants which are very nutritious in cer- 
tain places are less so in others, owing to the 
effect of climate, etc. Efforts will be made to 
ascertain the true value of different kinds of 
forage, and also to learn whether certain plants 
reputed poisonous are so in reality, or whether 
their ill name has been caused by the physical 
condition of certain animals at the time of eat- 
ing the same. Special attention has been or 
will be paid to comparatively unsettled regions, 
concerning which the present supply of informa- 
tion is very meager, such as the northwestern 
part of Nevada, southern Montana, the north- 
eastern part of Wyoming and the "pan handle" 
of Texas. 

The exports from this country to Europe of 
live cattle and canned or preserved meats are 
enormous, and are constantly increasing. A 
single firm in Chicago is said to have supplied 
all the canned meats consumed by the English 
army in the Zulu war. American meat is sent to 
almost every part of the world, and the methods 
of preserving it are undergoing constant im- 
provement. The refrigerating process for keep- 
ing meat fresh is of great importance, and the 
shipment of live cattle to England is another 
prominentfeatureof the export trade. The meth- 
ods of transporting cattle by rail and in vessels, 
the percentage of losses, etc. , are among the ob- 
jects which engage the attention of Mr. Gordon 
and his assistants. 

As the large graziers are constantly on the 
outlook for fresh feeding grounds it is believed 
that the statistics of the forthcoming report in 
regard to herbage, water, climate, etc., will be 
of much value to persons already engaged in the 
business of stock raising, as well as to those who 
are thinking of embarking in the occupation. 
The enormous drives of cattle and sheep to new. 
grazing grounds, sometimes in another State or 
Territory, and the manner in which they are 
conducted, form an interesting subject for exam- 
ination. The correct enumeration of the cattle, 



BUBAL PRESS. 



sheep, etc., in the different States is of course a 
difficult task, but Mr. Gordon thinks that the 
figures will far surpass in accuracy anything of 
the sort ever attempted before. There is a good 
system of agricultural statistics in Colorado, in 
Nebraska and in the organized parts of Kansas, 
but otherwise in the Western States the county 
returns, etc., are generally very incomplete. 
In all cases the local statistics are carefully 
revised by the special agent and his deputies. 

Mr Gordon said that Montana would receive 
very close attention, as it possessed many in- 
ducements for settlers, and bade fair to be a 
great grazing center. The country there was 
excellent for raising both cattle and sheep. In 
this connection he referred to the report that 
Lord Dunmore had obtained 80,000 acres of 
land in Montana, and had bought 30,000 head 
of Texas cattle as the nucleus of a herd to be 
improved by imported bulls, with the intention 
of sending meat directly to the London market. 
New Mexico was spoken of as an excellent 
sheep region, where some persons owned flocks 
of 100,000 each, and where even the Navajo In- 
dians kept great numbers. 

While the construction of new railroads has 
stimulated stock-raising by opening markets to 
the graziers, and the foreign demand has had a 
very important effect on the business, the devel- 
opment of mines in the West, by attracting 
great numbers of miners and others to the camps 
and new settlements, has created a local demand 
for meats, which has also aided to increase pro- 
duction. 



Methods on Jersey Farm. 

R. G. Sneath, well known to our readers as 
the proprietor of Jersey Farm in San Mateo Co., 
has written a pamphlet giving much information 
concerning his policies and methods of milk 
production, with the design of giving city milk 
consumers an idea of the advantage of using 
country milk rather than the milk produced on 
the narrow enclosures within the city limits. 
Our readers do not need instruction as to the 
superiority of country milk, but from advanced 
sheets of Mr. Sneath's pamphlet we can draw 
paragraphs of interest on the general subject of 
milk production. 

The Ranch and the Stock. 

Mr. Sneath purchased about 2,700 acres of 
fine grass land, lying about four miles south of 
the city limits, and reaching nearly from the 
bay of San Francisco to the ocean. He has 
seeded about 1,400 acres into rye grass and 
orchard grass that are perennial, which now 
support about 1,000 head of stock; and when 
the whole place is cultivated, which he expects 
to do immediately, it will keep in fine condition 
about 2,000 head. 

About 600 cows are in milk the year through, 
and the remainder dry in pasture. Pure Jersey 
bulls are alone in use, and the place is named 
after the large herd of Jerseys, which is its chief 
feature. Over 1, 000 calves are dropped annually, 
and those from the best cows alone are raised. 
The bull calves not pure and heifer calves from 
poor milkers go to the butcher. The calves 
raised make fine milkers, gentle, and good beef 
cattle; when they come from crosses with graded 
Short Horns or good American cows; and when 
raised, they take the place of inferior cows that 
are set apart for beef, and thus a continual se- 
lection and perfection raises the standard of ex- 
cellence in the remaining cattle that must in 
time secure to Jersey Farm a noted breed of 
stock of its own Jersey blood. A great many 
young half-breed Jersey heifer calves are now 
being sold to dairymen and farmers who wish 
to improve their stock, at $5 each when dropped, 
and 16 cents per day for any age thereafter, 
hundreds being on hand of various ages. 

The dairy is now perhaps the largest one of 
its kind in the United States, or in the world, 
and when its lands are all cultivated and fully 
stocked with such a production of improved ani- 
mals as are now being raised, the proprietor 
may well feel that he is engaged in an enter- 
prise that has no equal in its magnitude or meri- 
torious claims. 

Springs of pure water in every field supply 
large troughs, to which the stock have easy 
access, and large reservoirs have been con- 
structed at an elevation of some 300 ft. to irri- 
gate hundreds of acres of land, furnish motive 
power to grind the grain, cut the hay, wash the 
cans, and sluice the barns, besides raising all 
the fish needed as food for the table. 

Care and Peed. 

Each barn has a foreman and a man for every 
string of 30 cows. Three hours are allowed for 
milking, or six minutes to the cow, and these 
men do nothing but milk, feed their cows, clean 
the barns after each milking, and wasli their 
utensils. Two men are required with dump- 
carts to clean up around the barns and stables 
daily, and haul to the dump. From 2,000 to 
3,000 two-horse wagon loads of compost is made 
yearly and applied to the pastures in the early 
winter. Twelve and one-half tons of green rye 
grass per acre is not an uncommon yield for the 
first crop, and ' three tons of hay is about the 
average yield of good land; while a fine green 
pasturage is kept up on dry land by irrigation 
throughout the dry season, and on moist land 
without irrigation. 



A tabulated form is used at each dairy barn, 
and all the details of barn and farm booked 
daily and footed monthly, such as : Number of 
fresh cows put in and dry cows put out daily; 
total number of cows milked; the quantity of 
milk given, morning and evening; the average 
quantity given by each, and the percentage of 
cream the milk furnishes; also the quantity and 
quality of each kind of grain or ground feed 
given; the quantity and quality of the hay; 
the condition of the grass pasture; the state of 
the weather; the quantity of salt used; and 
everything is noted for each day that is pre- 
sumed to have any effect on the quantity or 
quality of the milk. The food is changed fre- 
quently, and experiments are being made con- 
tinually; and the proprietor can now, by look- 
ing over his tables, ascertain the cause of any 
shrinkage in quantity or quality of his milk. 
Bad and sudden changes of weather will cause 
the greatest temporary shrinkage in quantity; 
and each kind of food has its effect, either for 
good or bad, and freezing weather dries up the 
cows rapidly. 

It has been found that grass, grain, and clean, 
well-cured grain hay, or that from cultivated 
grasses, makes the sweetest, heaviest and most 
perfect milk. Beets and carrots make thin milk, 
potatoes and slops ruin its flavor and make thin 
milk; grass or hay and bran alone make thin 
milk also, although wholesome. The natural 
grasses of the country — that are mostly weeds — 
do not make good milk, butter or cheese. Grain 
is the main dependence, with good grass and 
hay, in making a rich milk; and even when the 
cows on Jersey Farm are up to their knees in the 
very best cultivated grasses, they get not less 
than 5 lbs. of ground feed daily, and from that 
to 15 lbs. as the dry season progresses. The 
latter amount, with 15 lbs. of hay to each ani- 
mal daily, is called heavy feeding and necessary 
to produce a full flow of milk in the dry season. 
Cost of Milk. 
It requires the keeping of about 2 cows to 
insure one in milk the year through. The cows 
in the barn will not average over 2 gallons of 
milk daily for the year. Some cows will give 
from 5 to 6 gallons, while the strippers are only 
giving one gallon each for the day. In the gras« 
season the average is 2| gallons per cow daily, 
and in the dry season from If to 2 gallons. It 
can thus be seen that if food costs one cent per 
pound, which is frequently the case, and 30 lbs. 
fed, and only 2 gallons obtained by keeping 2 
cows — one supposed to be on dry pasture — that 
the milk would cost 15 cents per gallon simply 
for the feed of one cow. The other expenses 
are difficult to estimate, but must nearly double 
the cost of feed alone. The item of the milkers' 
wages being about 3 cents per gallon, and the 
wastage and cost of delivery, the wages of gen- 
eral employees, the use of the farm, the loss of 
animals, loss in collections, wear and tear of 
wagons, harness and implements of all kinds, 
with many accidents, runs up the cost fearfully, 
and with a high cost for feed, the milkman is 
almost sure to be bankrupted, unless he can 
escape by water. 

The proprietor of Jersey Farm frequently 
keeps a year's supply of feed in advance that he 
may be insured against high prices and charge 
a uniform price for milk, and it is only because 
of an abundant capital, much forethought, with 
a vigorous and economical prosecution of the 
business, a large experience and personal ac- 
quaintance, that he has been enabled to prove 
that his theory and plans can be made financi- 
ally successful. Hundreds of farmers in the vi- 
cinity of San Francisco have tried the same 
thing but have been unsuccessful, and they will 
continue to be so, as long as slop milk is permit- 
ted to be sold, and consumers are careless as to 
what they use. 

Swill milk can be made for about one-half the 
cost of pure country milk from grass, grain and 
hay, and it will be made and sold and good 
country milk driven out of market so long as 
citizens continue to use the inferior article. 
Mr. Sneath has gradually developed a complete 
and economical system that will insure a reason- 
able profit in the business in ordinary seasons, 
and yet allow the proprietor to continue to 
carry out his cherished idea of making a purer 
and richer milk than was ever offered before, 
and yet make a living profit at the current rates 
for milk. The Jersey Farm standard is J2£%, 
and the average of cream in the milk supplied 
the city of Boston the past year as reported by 
Henry Faxon, milk inspector for 20 years, was 
from 8% to 10%, while the average price of milk 
was from 10% to 15% higher in Boston than in 
San Francisco, and he says in his last annual re- 
port that if the citizens of Boston could be sup- 
plied direct from the farmer without the inter- 
vention of middle-men (and their water) with 
pure rich milk, that the consumption would be 
far greater. 

Curious Fact. — If a small bit of camphor is 
laid upon water, it begins turning and moving 
about with great rapidity. If a few grains of 
lycopodium or other light powder have been 
previously scattered on the water, they are drawn 
toward the camphor by eddies in an inverse 
direction. These phenomena were observed in 
1748 by Romieu. Cassamajor has, says Le* 
Mondes, resumed the study of the question and 
adopted the views of Romiou. He instances 
the following crucial experiment: At the same 
time that the bits of camphor are thrown upon 
the water, insert a glass rod which has been 
rubbed with flannel; the motion immediately 
stops. If the electricity is removed from the 
rod by rubbing it with tinfoil, it lose* its power 
of checking the eddies. 



52 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July 24, 1880. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents.— Ens 



California Farmers' Mutual Fire Insuranoe 
Association. 

Editors Press: — As you give space in your 
columns to the opponents of the company I have 
the honor to represent, to air their imagined 
grievances, and combine their forces against us, 
I have felt justified in asking a like indulgence, 
that truth may be seen and fair play had. 

I have hitherto refrained from trespassing 
upon you in this matter, from no doubt of your 
fairness in according to both sides a hearing, 
but, simply in the hope that our family quarrel 
might be kept out of print: "dirty linen 
should be washed at home." Longer to re- 
main silent while our traducers use the loud 
voice of the Press, seems like admitting the 
justice of the complaint against us, which we 
in no sense do. 

In all controversies there is a tendency to get 
confused the facts and issues really involved with 
fancied conditions and circumstances, the creat- 
ures of heated passions and excited imaginations. 
An occasional halt and review is desirable, that 
it may be seen what are existing conditions, 
what progress has been made, what the conflict 
is, and how the parties stand. Let us do this 
now. 

When the Grange movement was starting on 
its progress of reform, among evils sought to be 
abated was the high rates of insurance charged 
on farm buildings. 

The law did not permit mutual beneficial as- 
sociations for insurance against loss by fire, such 
as had been put into operation in life insurance, 
but all fire insurance had to be confined to the 
established rules by organization of regular in- 
surance companies, with paid up capital of a 
prescribed amount, conducted under the super- 
vision of the State Insurance Commissioner. The 
rate to be charged, however, each company 
could put at what it chose, as any other person 
or corporation might set his own price on his 
services or merchandise. 

This company was formed and inaugurated 
avowedly for the purpose of giving to farmers in- 
surance at cost price. There could be no profit 
to the company on the so-called "mutual plan'' 
of insurance; there never has been any attempt 
whatever to make any profit out of it in any 
way. By complying with the law and organiz- 
ing as an ordinary insurance company, this cor- 
poration was in position to do a general insur- 
ance business. It had a right to do so; no pol- 
icy holder could be injured by its so doing; every 
thing was fair and open, and the so-called "flat" 
plan was also inaugurated, on and by which the 
company conducted business. The whole differ- 
ence between the two plans was that by the first 
mentioned system, insurance was given at cost, 
and the other at a profit. 

Those insured on the cost-price plan agreed 
to pay the cost in this way. All of that class 
were to be kept separate; the entire cost and 
expenses of those insured on that plan were 
kept apart and the insured were to pay their 
relative amounts due thereon to make, and keep 
maile up this cost, to the company. An estimate, 
as a starter merely, was made of how much 
would be requisite for five years; this bad to be 
made in the dark and upon something on which 
no data was had; this estimated amount was 
two per cent, for five years. If it was too much, 
the excess was to be refunded; if too little, 
more was to be called for. 

The cost-price plan became immediately popu- 
lar, and a large number of policies were issued; 
as the company had no profits to look for in the 
premises it was not especially earnest to receive 
this deposit money until it should be needed, 
and gave, when desired, liberal credit on prom- 
issory notes for this two per cent, deposit. 

Insurance is a peculiar business in that it 
always looks its best on the commencement; the 
general theory of it is "pay in advance," and 
hence, to persons unlearned in it, there is no 
difficulty in being deceived into a belief that a 
condition of great success is being attained when 
such is not the fact. This insurance was no ex- 
ception to the rule. One general plan, applic- 
able to all farm property, did not always work 
well. Expenses, to effectuate a scheme which 
became cumbersome, were considerable; losses 
were incurred and paid with promptness. Not- 
withstanding all these disadvantages, the scheme, 
on the whole, was a success and fanners got 
their insurance at less than the prevailing 
rates. 

After about four years it was found that this 
2% deposit was not enough to cover cost of in- 
surance; that the cost-price plan was in debt to 
the corporation, and the directors of the com- 
pany made a call on the contract for 1% more, 
as an additional deposit thereon, and also de- 
manded payment of all the deposit notes above 
mentioned. Up to this time the insured on this 
cost-price plan were friendly, loud in their 
praises of the company, its officers, stockholders 
and directors. When called upon to pay their 
notes, or comply with their engagements on the 
contract, many of these recipients of the kind- 
ness of the said stockholders and directors, be- 
came equally loud in their vituperation of them, 
exhausting the vocabulary of all the vile terms 
of reproach applicable to State prison convicts, 
refused to pay anything and commenced an in- 
junction suit to restrain the company from en- 
forcing this call on the contract. In this in- 
junction suit a temporary stay was granted, 



and on hearing set aside. An amended com- 
plaint was sworn to and filed, containing 
charges of fraud and great wickedness; on this 
a second, temporary, injunction was ordered, 
provided a bond for $2,500 was filed within a 
specified time. 

Sufficient faith in the truth of these charges, 
to sustain them by a bond, rested not in those 
who preferred them. No bond was filed and the 
injunction never issued. In the argument on 
this case, "Carter vs. California Farmers' 
Mutual Fire Insurance Association," the court 
intimated a doubt of the strict legality of the 
mode in which the rail on the contract was 
made; the presiding Judge, Daingerfield, being 
of the opinion that it should not have been in 
gross, a specified, equal percentage, but rather 
that the calls of the agreement were that each 
should pay the precise sum he owed. The di- 
rectors always saw that point, but, as to make 
such call necessitated much computation, ex- 
pensive clerical labor, which might be avoided, 
and would perhaps require several distinct calls 
and notices, they preferred to proceed, as in the 
first deposit, on a specified percentage, equal to 
all, and then carrying out the original plan, re- 
fund to those who had overpaid, making but 
one computation. Practically the directors' 
plan was the cheaper one for raising money, 
paying debts and ending the scheme; but, as 
strict construction had been forced on them, 
they conformed to the judge's views, abandoned 
their old call and made a new one wherein the 
only ascertained fault was corrected. 

The plaintiff in the suit, acting under advice 
of his attorneys, Messrs. Fox and Kellogg, paid 
this call and had his policy canceled. Some of 
the persons who had given notes for part, or all, 
of their first 2% deposit, took advantage of this 
controversy, refused to pay, were sued, banded 
together for defense, employed good lawyers and 
were beaten; appealed to the Superior Court, 
and on full hearing were again beaten. 

On the trial of these suits, to earn their fees, 
the attorneys found some technical defects in 
the original articles of incorporation of the com- 
pany. The court, after impartial hearing, de- 
cided that these defects were unimportant. 
That had the buildings burned, the company 
could not have avoided payment of loss, because 
the incorporation papers were not in precise ac- 
cordance with the requirements of the law, and 
the notes of course should be paid. These are the 
facts and the true history of the case. Lawyers 
on both sides have made good fees and are the 
only persons benefited. 

In his letter, one of your correspondents 
charges that the company, or its officers, have 
forfeited their claim to truth and veracity in 
their circular over a year ago, when they 
stated that suits would be commenced without 
further notice, and did not so commence suits. 
This is but a side issue; and in fact even that 
complaint is ill-founded. We kept our word 
and brought about 200 suits. These suits, 
against many individuals living far apart and 
distant from here, necessitated great outlay, 
and 200 ought to be enough. These costs, ex- 
pense of attorneys and all others will have to 
be paid, if not by the several defendants, by 
the mass of persons insured on this cost-price 
plan, as a part of the expenses of that plan, 
and throughout the whole of this opposition to 
the company, the anomaly is presented of these 
men fighting themselves and piling up costs 
and expenses which in any event they must 

pay- 
One more matter I desire to speak of — the 
abuse heaped upon the stockholders and direc- 
tors who comprise this company. It is safe to 
call a corporation liar, swindler, thief. Is it 
safe to apply such epithets to the men who 
comprise the company? See who they are: 
Dr. Thos. Flint, of San Benito, is President. 
The Directors are, with the above-named, as 
follows: G. W. Colby, Nord, Butte county; 
G. P. Kellogg, Salinas, Monterey county; 
A. D. Logan, Colusa; I. C. Steele, San 
Mateo county; J. C. Merryfield, Dixon; and 
the writer. The remaining stockholders are: 
Uriah Wood, San Benito county; A. W. 
Thompson, Petaluma; C. J. Cressey, Modesto; 
E. W. Steele, San Luis Obispo. Now which 
one of these men is to be called these harsh 
names and to be described as swindler and 
thief ? There is no body of men in the State 
who stand higher in public estimation, or whose 
private life is more pure. Carefully I have 
stated their names and place of residence. And 
now I ask their several neighbors and acquaint- 
ances if they can conscientiously say they be- 
lieve either of them guilty of wrong-doing, or 
think him a thief or liar ? 

This abuse is outrageous, unbefitting Chris- 
tian gentlemen and good Patrons. It ought 
never to have been begnn; it should cease at 
once. These gentlemen hold high positions in 
our Oranges. Many of them are directors in 
the (Grangers' Business Association and Bank, 
and of the latter the President is a member of 
the Board of Directors of this insurance com- 
pany, and has been Buch throughout its term of 
existence. How can these men who merit 
honor and confidence in all else be utterly bad 
as comprising this company ? It is all foolish- 
ness and temper which can achieve no good re- 
sult. I. O. Gardner, 
Vice-President and Manager Cal. Fanners' Mu- 
tual Fire Insurance Association. 
[We print the foregoing as a matter of news 
in reference to the issue which has been raised 
in our columns between the company and its 
customers. Many will be doubtless glad to 
know what the company has to say in its own 
behalf. — Eds. Press.] 



W. M. Spilman's Appointments. 

Secretary Amos Adams gives notice of a 
change in the appointments of the W. M., so 
that farmers generally may be through with 
pressing harvest work. The new list is as fol- 
lows: 

Petaluma, August 10, 1880. 

Two Rock, August 11, 1880. 

Santa Rosa, August 12, 1880. 

Healdsburg, August 14, 1880. 

Potter Valley, August 17, 1880. 



CALIFORNIA. 

AMADOR 

Silk Culture. — Dispatch, July 1 7 : We have 
in our office a small bunch of mustard stalks on 
which are deposited about 200 cocoons or balls 
of fine looking silk, from worms raised on the 
ranch of Mrs. G. A. Garbarini, near Slabtown. 
Mrs. G. is now quite extensively engaged in 
raising worms for the purpose of Belling the 
eggs, and she says they will thrive here as well 
as in any part of the world. 
BUTTE. 

Grain Yield. — Register, July 1G: We have 
seen, within the past week, farmers from every 
section of the county, and they report the grain 
turn-out far beyond the expectations of the 
farmers themselves. Fields which their most 
sanguine expectations led them to estimate at 
25 bushels per acre are turning out from 35 to 
40 bushels. And these encouraging reports are 
not confined to any particular locality; the 
whole county seems to be yielding in the same 
proportion. And what adds still more to the 
happiness of the farmers is the fact that the 
threshing in almost every instance Bhows the 
grain to be first quality, instead of being shriv- 
eled as it was expected, four weeks ago, that it 
would be. The agreeable disappointment of the 
farmers in the yield of their crops is illustrated 
to us by the fact that we have not yet found a 
farmer whose first estimate of the number of 
bags he would require, did not fall short of his 
actual needs. To many of our farmers this re- 
sult of their year's work means more than the 
mere pleasure of adding unexpected dollars to 
their bank account; it means the preservation 
of the home of their families from sale by the 
Sheriff. 

CONTRA COSTA. 

Grain Burned. — Antioch Ledger, July 17: 
We are informed that a stack of wheat belong- 
ing to Mr. Frank McCabe, near Point of Tim- 
ber, was burned Tuesday night. Threshing for 
the day had finished, and the workmen were at 
supper when the fire was discovered. The fire 
is supposed to have caught from the engine. 
Seventy sacks of wheat had been threshed, 40 
of which, together with the remainder of the 
unthreshed stack, the separator and wheat 
cleaner, were totally destroyed. The loss in 
grain is, we learn $450, but is insured. The loss 
to Mr. Sharp, owner of the separator, is placed 
at §15,000. 

Alfalfa. — In passing up the valley by rail 
recently, we noticed a field of alfalfa containing 
25 acres beloneing to the Taylor Bros., which, 
in contrast with the dry brown plains, appeared 
an oasis in a desert. The second crop of alfalfa 
was in blossom and being cut for hay. The 
yield was large and the profits from the two or 
three clippings will yield the owners a handsome 
revenue. Messrs. Plumley, Berlinger, Cople, 
Preston and others, we are informed have been 
equally successful in growing alfalfa, and no 
doubt it will be more extensively sown as the 
evidence of its thrift is better appreciated. 
EL DORADO. 

Soap Root Fiber. — Georgetown Gazette, July 
1 6 : About 400 tons of soap root fiber have 
been gathered in the vicinity of Tunnel Hill by 
Chinese within the past four years, and shipped 
to San Francisco. It is put in bales of about 
350 lbs. each. We understand that the China- 
men get $50 a ton for gathering the fiber. 

A CnERRY Paradise. — Splendid, large de- 
licious cherries are plentiful, and are being de- 
livered to buyers at 40 cents per gallon. Hun- 
dreds of gallons of this fruit are being canned 
at the various cherry orchards hereabouts. 
This rogion is the natural home of the cherry. 
KERN. 

Artichokes for H00.3. — Cali/ornian : The 
Jerusalem artichoke is being introduced with 
success in Kern county as food for hogs. On 
the Liverraore ranch, C. L. Connor has planted 
some 15 acres this year, and Messrs. Pierpont 
& Hall have a tract of nearly the same size. 
They are also grown on the plains at the Poso 
ranch. It is said to require but little water in 
the alluvial soil of the island, and produces 
abundantly. When the crop is matured, hogs 
are turned in and allowed to do the harvesting. 
They root out the succulent tubers, leaving the 
ground in a mellow condition. As they cannot 
poBsibly take all the crop, it is only necessary 
in the spring to harrow down the land to pre- 
pare it for the next season, no further seeding 
being required. Hogs eat them eagerly and 
fatten on them. Chufas are also cultivated on 
the island for the same purpose, andare treated 
in much the same way. 
LOS ANGELES. 

Boys Farming. — Express, July 17: The two 
sons of Hon. Charles Maclay have set a fine ex- 
ample to the young men of the county. They 
rented a tract of land from him in the San Fran- 
cisco valley. The tract forms a sort of inside 



valley, hugging the foothills, and extending 
some distance lengthwise with the road. They 
plowed and put in themselves 200 acres of wheat, 
which now presents as fine a stand of grain 
throughout as there is in the whole valley. 
The boys have done all the work themselves, 
and will, when their crop is harvested, realize 
from it a net return of about $2,000 each. The 
old gentleman is justly proud of this handsome 
achievement of his boys, and pointed out their 
field to us with manifest satisfaction. 

MENDOCINO. 

Wool Raising — Ukiah Press, July 16: Those 
wool raisers who accepted our opinion and held 
on to their clip are reaping a benefit of 3J cents 
per lb. Several came in and asked us what to 
do, when 284 WM offering early in the market. 
We simply told them we would hold if we had 
it, as it was not commanding its value. The 
world's markets were bare, with decreased pro- 
duction all over the wool-growing countries, and 
on that we founded our opinion. The result is 
justifying predictions. Choice Humboldt and 
Mendocino is now quoted at 33 in San Francisco, 
with market active and firm. Donohoe was of- 
fered 32^ for his wool some days since by a lo- 
cal buyer. If our wool does not yet reach 35, 
we are only mistaken a little. 

Camping at the Fair. — We understand that 
several families from the coast will unite in a 
grand camping expedition at our county fair 
next October, Messrs. Stickney, Coombs, Mor- 
gan, Severance, Byrnes, Nelson, and several 
others have signified an intention to be present 
at that time, and make the occasion one of out- 
door life and amusement. Mr. Willits has 
placed his large field, with abundance of wood, 
water, shade and feed, at the disposal of parties 
desiring their use, and none should stand back 
for fear of lack of room or hotel bills. 

MERCED. 

Editors Press: — The number of wheat stacks 
visible around here present a pleasant appear- 
ance, and the grain is a great deal better than 
expected. Harvest wages range generally from 
$2 up, but $2 is the rule unless for extra work. 
Hands are scarce. I was asked by a neighbor 
to get him a harvest hand. Though a good 
many unemployed were around town, I found it 
difficult to get one, even under the most favora- 
ble circumstances, for a harvest hand, the place 
being a good one. A neighbor whom I chanced 
to meet and brought along with me expressed 
himself so disgusted that "he no longer had any 
sympathy for the so-called Workingmen of Cali- 
fornia." I may add I have tried the Texas 
Millet grass and Prickly Comfrey and others, 
and I find the latter the better. The cattle 
seem to eat it readily, and it grows without irri- 
gation, which the other requires, but I propose 
testing further before saying more on either. 
For a moneyed man there are iiae openings here 
in new enterprises; fruit drying and growing, 
and saving of other farm products than this 
everlasting wheat so perpetually. No one will 
question but a mixed system of farming would 
pay better. Water could be stored here in the 
hills if not available from .the Merced or San 
Joaquin rivers for irrigation. But time will ac- 
complish much.— M. J. O'B., Merced. 

MONTEREY. 

Salinas Valley Harvest. — Democrat, July 
17: Harvesting has been in progress for nearly 
three weeks in the upper^ part of the valley. 
From conversation had with various farmers 
from that section, the invariable report is that 
the crop, although very much short, is turning 
out better and makes a better showing as to 
quality than was expected a month or so ago. 
We have the aame to report for the crops in the 
vicinity of Salinas, both wheat and barley as far 
as threshed turning out far beyond the expecta- 
tions of the farmers. Local grain-buyers say 
that the barley is of a very bright cast, while 
the wheat is unusually dark in color. Castro- 
ville reports more than an average crop, and as 
that section Beldom or never fails, a large quan- 
tity of grain will be shipped from that point. 
About Blanco the little barley that was sown 
this year promises a fair yield, that will be 
barely enough for home consumption. The 
wheat and English mustard crop will at fair 
prices be quite remunerative to those who were 
so fortunate as to seed their land to those crops. 
Notwithstanding the gloomy outlook a few 
weeks back, the amount of grain shipped from 
the Salinas valley this year will be considerably 
larger than any year since the harvest pf 1876. 

Pajaro Peaches. — Salinas Index, July 15: 
Pajaro peaches will be few and far between this 
season, at least on the Monterey county side, 
the writer, during a two weeks' tramp through 
the township, seeing less than a dozen peach 
trees with fruit on, and hearing everywhere the 
same complaint, that when the leaves curled 
and fell off the fruit withered and fell also. 
Many of the trees appeared dead, though a 
large proportion had started new leaves before 
the sickly ones dropped, and the remainder, 
though looking so black, are starting fresh 
leaves. The only trees notioed unaffected by 
the curl-leaf were a few late cling-stones on 
damp ground, and a few other varieties on dry, 
sandy soil that had not been cultivated at all 
this season. The writer's impression is that 
peaches and apricots need light dry soils, and 
that the best location for both in the fog belt 
will be found on the sand hills instead of in 
the valley lands. While on fruit notes it may 
not be amiss to say that fruit generally grown 
on the sand hills is of a very superior quality, 
the apples being fully equal to any Eastern 
grown in crispness and flavor. In a few years 
when the many trees now planted come into 



f 



July 24, 1 8 80 J 



Til PACIFIC 1U11L PRESS. - 53 



bearing, sand-hill apples will have quotations 
of their own in the market. < 
SACRAMENTO. 

First Fruit Eastward. — Bee, July 17: The 
first fruit which has been sent ljp the East from 
California this season was forwarded to-day. It 
was a car-load of Bartlett pears and plums, con- 
signed to dealers in Chicago, and was from the 
house of M. T. Brewer & Co., of this city. 
SANTA CRUZ. 

Pajaro Nurseries. — Watsonville Pajaro- 
nian, July 16 : Last Friday afternoon we paid 
a visit to the Pajaro Nursery, owned and man- 
aged by James Waters. The soil is naturally 
adapted to nursery purposes, and the ground 
has just enough grade to make irrigation per- 
fect. All parts of the nursery can be easily 
watered now, and the supply of water is large. 
The nursery is young — three years old — but is 
well stocked. Mr. Waters has made it his 
principle to obtain the best and newest varie- 
ties of all trees, plants and shrubs. He has 
made a feature of the Japanese persimmon, and 
has sent large shipments of trees East, and the 
success has been gratifying. He has hundreds 
of these trees now on hand, many of them bear- 
ing fruit. The thousands of young apple and 
peach trees, comprising every known variety, 
are a prominent portion of the nursery. The 
large strawberry field, containing 16 standard 
varieties, some of them new to this State, is a 
marked feature. We saw strawberries picked 
there that were as long as a man's finger, and 
eight inches in circumference. Among the best 
varieties are the Columbian, Crescent Seedling, 
Great American, Sharpless and Monarch. The 
raspberry tract is also large, and contains every 
known variety, from the almost white Arnold's 
Orange to the black cap. This crop is very 
large this season, and Mr. Waters makes heavy 
daily shipments of this rich berry. His black- 
berry section is also large, and contains the best 
and newest varieties. 
SAN MATEO. 

Harvest. — Journal, July 17: Harvesting is 
well commenced throughout the country. 
Hands are very scarce, and for the first time in 
years can it positively be well said now, that 
if there is one idle man in the State it is en- 
tirely his own fault. Wages are really higher 
than farmers can afford to pay. Many farmers 
are endeavoring to do as much of their harvest- 
ing as possible themselves, on economical 
grounds. This will make havest time somewhat 
longer, with questions of doubtful economy, by 
reason of waste of grain, to be considered. 
SIERRA. 

Farm Notes. — Loyal ton Cor. Reno Gazette: 
The grasshoppers are doing some injury in some 
places, but they are late and the hay will be cut 
before they can do much harm. If they attack 
a field of hay now, the mowers begin at once, 
and if both begin the same day the mowers get 
the better of them. So far the hoppers are too 
much domesticated to suit the ranchers of the 
valley. During the last three years they were 
on the move as soon as they could hop, but not 
so this year. So far, they have done their prin- 
cipal damage where they were hatched. They 
have no wings yet. The grain here at Loyalton 
(and this is all there is in the valley) is heading 
out but it is very short, and will only be a mid- 
dling crop, as it has had no rain since it was 
sown. Haying hands are scarce. The May 
flies are all gone. Butter being low, the dairy- 
men are not in very good spirits, notwithstand- 
ing the hoppers are not doing much damage so 
far. The long, cold, hard winter left nearly all 
the dairymen in debt, as hay was scarce and 
high priced, and most of them had to buy hay 
or drive their cattle out of the valley the last 
winter. The cattle running on the plains here are 
fat and sleek, and show no signs of the hard win- 
ter just past. 
SONOMA. 

Vinicultural Club. — Index, July 17: The 
meeting of vine-growers and wine-makers, held 
on Saturday, July 10th, resulted in the organi- 
zation of the ' 'Sonoma Vinicultural Club. " The 
following officers were elected, to serve during 
the ensuing year : President, Julius Dresel; 
Vice-President, Wm. McPherson Hill; Sec'y, 
Robt. A. Poppe; Treas., 0. W. Craig; Finance 
Committee — A. F. Haraszthy, S. H. Shaw, E. 
H. Morton. A great interest was manifested in 
the organization, and 32 members signed the 
roll. Messrs. Julius Dresel, A. F. Haraszthy 
and R. A. Poppe were appointed a committee 
to receive the speakers and visitors who will be 
present on the 23d and 24th inst., on the occa- 
sion of the meeting of the State Viticultural 
Commission. 

Hops. — Healdsburg Flag, July 15: Hops will 
all be ready for picking Sept. 1st; some at Al- 
derson's are now an inch and a half long and 
will be ripe in 10 days. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

Another Combined Harvester. — J. S. Kerr, 
of Lockeford, who for several years has success- 
fully operated threshing machines in this 
county, has just completed a mammoth thresher 
and separator, embodying improvements which 
his long experience in the business has con- 
vinced him necessary. His object is the more 
speedy completion of the work and less waste. 
In most machines heretofore used, a portion of 
the grain is lost by passing out of the separator 
with the straw. The new machine of Mr. Kerr 
is constructed with the special purpose of rem- 
edying this defect. The number of teeth in the 
cylinder and concave is increased in order to 
prevent the possibility of a single head of grain 
passing through without being threshed. When 
the straw and grain pass the cylinder it falls 



upon a straw carrier, made of wooden slats, 
which carries along the coarser straw, allowing 
the grain and chaff to fall through these slats 
upon a grain carrier, which revolves underneath 
the straw carrier, and is carried past the first 
set of fans when the chaff is blown away, allow- 
ing the grain to be carried to the spout, from 
which the sacks are filled. In most machines 
now in use there is but one set of fans for blow- 
ing out the chaff, but in the machine constructed 
by Mr. Kerr, there are three sets, and the straw 
and chaff are carried successfully past the three 
sets, each set having its grain and straw car- 
riers. The attachment to the machine of two 
extra sets of fans of course increases the length 
of the separator, it being 30 ft. from the cylin- 
der to the point where the chaff and straw 
leaves the machine. It is claimed that these 
several improvements will secure all the grain 
and thereby add materially to the profits of the 
farmer. Mr. Kerr has had his machine built at 
his farm under his own immediate supervis- 
ion. A new engine, of 30-horse power, has 
been procured from the East to drive this mam- 
moth machine, and it is expected within the 
next week it will be in operation in some of the 
extensive wheat fields in that portion of the 
county. Farmers of that locality are awaiting 
a trial of this machine with considerable anx- 
iety. 

The Agricultural Society. — The necessary 
documents have been forwarded to Sacramento 
for the organization of the Agricultural Society 
under the act of the last Legislature. The fol- 
lowing names were suggested to the Governor 
for appointment as Directors: L. U. Shippee, 
J. Shepherd, R. C. Sargent, J. A. Louftit, H. 
JV. Weaver, Fred Arnold, J. Moore, John H. 
O'Brien. All the foregoing, except Mr. O'Brien, 
were members of the Board of Directors of the 
old society. 

The Largest Crop Yet. — Herald: J. W. 
Kerrick, a successful farmer and influential citi- 
zen from the vicinity of Collegeville, brings in 
a splendid report of the yield of wheat in his 
neighborhood and also from the country further 
south, toward the Stanislaus river. In the 
neighborhood of Collegeville the summer-fallow 
wheat is yielding from 30 to 35 bushels an acre, 
and the berry is plump and fair, though not so 
large as it is some years. Many fields that were 
thought, at the time of the drying winds, to 
have been seriously injured, are found to have 
been but slightly injured. It is found that on the 
west and north sides of the fields where the 
wind had a clean sweep at the wheat, the yield 
was somewhat decreased, but this evil effect of 
the wind was not noticed in the middle portions 
of many fields. Mr. Kerrick yesterday visited 
one of his fields located near the Stanislaus 
river, where great injury was supposed to have 
been caused. In that section he found the grain 
yielding 20 bushels an acre. He says that in 
his neighborhood there is more wheat this year 
than he ever saw there before in any one year. 

Crops at New Hope. — Ross C. Sargent was 
in town yesterday from New Hope. He states 
that the wheat in that locality is turning out all 
that can be desired. The water on the over- 
flowed land is gradually receding, and prep- 
arations are making for repairing the injures 
received by the flood. 

The Roberts Island Levees. — Herald: The 
directors of the Glasgow-California Land Co., 
are not at all discouraged because of the disas- 
ter that befell their enterprise, the reclamation 
of the lower division of Roberts island. Yes- 
terday they cabled instructions to their mana- 
ger, J. W. Ferris, to provide a suitable dredger 
to take sand and heavy material from the bot- 
tom of the river channel, and repair and 
strengthen the levees wherever they may be 
broken or deemed too light and insecure. One 
of the difficulties experienced in leveeing the isl- 
ands has been to find material of sufficient 
weight to make the levees strong enough after 
they are constructed. This will be obviated by 
taking the sandy sediment from the river chan 
nel. Notwithstanding the disaster that over- 
took the lower division this season, there will 
in all probability be as large if not a larger area 
of grain sown there this year than there was 
last. The water inside the levees there has 
fallen five inches. It is being drained out by 
floodgates. The river is also falling gradually, 
George W. Hurey, a farmer on Roberts island 
has just cut 50 acres of barley, which will yield 
80 bushels to the acre. It is stated by farmers 
of the island that in some localities the yield 
will go as high as 95 and 100 bushels to the acre. 

The Buhach Mill. — There has been erected 
on the north side of Lissenden & Norris' agri 
cultural implement manufacturing establish- 
ment, a mill to pulverize the flowers of the bu- 
hach plant into tine powder for use in destroy 
ing insects. The machinery is similar to that of 
a flouring mill of small capacity. There is only 
one run of stones, and the motive power to pro 
pel the mill is obtained from the steam boilers 
in the adjoining manufactory. The average 
quantity of the powder now produced daily is 
about 250 pounds. The material is ground as 
fine as flour, and the powder is put up in pack 
ages in tin as rapidly as it is ground. The pack- 
ages were put up by boys, six or eight of whom 
are constantly employed for that purpose. The 
packages vary in size. There are no flies to be 
seen in the establishment. The buhach plantation 
is in Merced county, and the yield this j T ear 
will be comparatively limited, owing to the fact 
that the plants were only set out a few months 
ago, and have not, therefore, attained a large 
growth. 
SUTTER. 

Reclaimed Land. — Banner, July 16: We 
made a trip into district No. 70 on Saturday 



last, going over a large portion of it, and were 
pleased to see the signs of almost universal pros- 
perity presented. The people in this district 
deserve great credit. Confident that they had 
the most productive land in the State, if they 
could protect it from overflow, they went to an 
enormous expense, reaching as high as $6 an 
acre, for levee purposes, and in spite of failures, 
have stuck to it, and this year held the waters 
back, and in consequence they have a crop of 
grain that will not be surpassed. Everywhere the 
grain is heavy and plump, in no case going be- 
low 30 bushels, and in one case at least, Ira 
Woods', one piece is estimated at 60 bushels to 
the acre. 

The Drainage Commissioners. — The Sacra- 
mento Bee, of Wednesday, says: The State 
Board of Drainage Commissioners, consisting of 
W. F. Knox, Niles Searles and W. H. Parks, 
accompanied by State Engineer Hall, returned 
last night from Wheatland and vicinity. The 
Commissioners made a pretty thorough investi- 
gation of Bear river and a portion of the Feather, 
and interviewed the residents thereabouts as to 
the condition of the lands and the work neces- 
sary to be done. The Board held a brief meet- 
ing to-day at its office and authorized Mr. Knox 
to make an examination of the river and levees 
about Sacramento and report thereon at a 
future meeting. There appears to be some 
hitch in the matter of securing funds with which 
to prosecute immediately the work decided up- 
on, and the Commissioners are endeavoring to 
come to a satisfactory understanding in regard 
thereto with the State Controller; Messrs. 
Parkes and Searles returned to their respective 
homes this afternoon. 
TEHAMA. 

Big Yield. — Tocsin, July 17: James Cope- 
land cut and threshed off 125 acres, near Vina, 
last week, 2,045 sacks of wheat, the sacks aver- 
aging 140 lbs. This is a big yield, making an 
average of 48 bushels to the acre. The land 
had been summer-fallowed. 

Grain Spreader. — A new and very useful 
invention, which we had occasion to see in 
operation on the separator of Simpson & Schultz, 
is the Bailey grain spreader, having an eccen- 
tric or vibrating motion, which plays over the 
grain-carrier, spreading the grain out so that it 
is impossible for too much to get in the separa- 
tor. It also does away with the work of two 
men. 

VENTURA. 

White Russian Wheat. — Free Press, July 
10: Last week we published a statement to 
the effect that the White Russian wheat sown 
in this county was rusting and was "a failure." 
From a dozen different sources comes to us the 
information that we were mistaken. On the 
Ojai, the Colonio, the Saticoy and other ranches 
farmers have this wheat, and no sign of rust 
appears thereon. We therefore think that Mr, 
Chrisman was misled as to the seed used to 
grow the rusted sample shown us. In fact, we 
learn that the seed of the rusted wheat shown 
us was procured from Los Angeles, whereas the 
genuine White Russian seed was procured from 
Oregon, most of it through the firm of Chaffee 
& Gilbert. Mr. Alexander has handed us a 
sample of the White Russian grown on the 
Dixie Thompson place, perhaps the foggiest 
location in the county, which is very plump 
and heavy and entirely free from rust. We 
therefore now state, on information at present 
before us, that, so far, the Odessa and White 
Russian have proved themselves to be rust 
proof wheats. 
YUBA. 

The Army Worm. — Appeal: Mr. Reman has 
a large field of potatoes on the Par Wall ranch, 
near the Brown's Valley grade and about two 
miles east of the city, which is being devoured 
by army worms. This the first "corps" ever 
noticed on the north side of the Yuba. A few 
years ago a large "corps" attempted to cross on 
the railroad bridge, but moving trains slaugh 
tered them on every charge. 

WASHINGTON. 

California Short Horns at the North. — 
Walla Walla Union: Mr. M. Fisk, who lives 
in Walla Walla county, only a short distance 
from Walla Walla, was in the city last week. 
He is the owner of some very fine Short Horn 
and Durham cattle, which he had on exhibition 
at the State fair. This stock was recently pur 
chased by Mr. Flsk from Col. Younger, who 
owns an extensive ranch near San Jose, Califor- 
nia, and was brought to this State just before 
the fair. The stock consists of the following: 
Rosa Nell, a very handsomely formed cow, six 
years old, weight 1,845 pounds. This animal 
has taken the first premium at every fair at 
which she has been exhibited since she was one 
year old. Dolly, five years old, weighs 1,750 
pounds; has taken many premiums along with 
Rosa Nell. Red Thorndale, a magnificent bull 
(certainly one of the finest animals ever brought 
to Portland), weight 2,400 pounds. This bull 
belongs to Col. Younger, who, it is said, would 
not part with him for $5,000. Rosa Nell 
the Second, is a splendid looking cow, six years 
old, and weighs 1,750 pounds. She has been 
awarded many premiums. Hester Ann, another 
splendid animal, is six years old and weighs 
1,700 pounds. In addition to the above, Mr. 
Fisk is the owner of a yearling heifer, weighing 
900 pounds; a bull calf eight months old (sired 
by Red Thorndale); a two-year-old heifer who 
was her second calf; one yearling heifer and two 
fine yearling bulls, each weighing 1,000 pounds 
This fine stock will be shipped up the Columbia 
next Monday. They attracted much attention 
at the State fair and were greatly admired. 



News in Brief. 

Chastine Cox, who murdered Mrs. Hull in 
1879, was hanged at New York, July 16th. 

At Manchester and other towns in New 
Hampshire there was a lively earthquake July 
20th. 

Some extensive sulphur beds are being opened 
up at Cove creek, and shipments will soon be 
made. 

The French government has ordered an agri- 
cultural course in every primary school in the 
country. 

Mr. Bradlaugh has been pronounced by a 
leading English judge to be one of the best law- 
yers in England. 

A Winnemucca (Nev. ) man says that plowing 
ground and turning sheep on it destroys the 
grasshopper eggs. 

Complete editions of Bulwer and Scott are 
sold on the Nassau street, N. Y., second-hand 
book stalls for $1.50. 

Garden concerts and public dancing are pat- 
ronized in Berlin by high government officials 
and society leaders. 

Most of the cities in Virginia have fallen 
short of public expectation in the census, Rich- 
mond having 75,000. 

Big Cottonwood lakes, Utah, are now to be 
seen in their greatest beauty, and tourists are 
gathering around them. 

Texas gives this year its largest yield of 
wool, 1,300,000 bales of cotton, and an unusu- 
ally large crop of corn. 

The French Chamber of Deputies voted a 
credit of of 9,000,000 francs for the construction 
of the Sahara railway. 

The Mormons are taking possession of San 
Luis Valley, southern Colorado, and have built 
a town called Manasseh. 

The Coast Mail says that lately a dog went 
into the surf between Port Orford and Ellens- 
burg and caught a fur seal. 

A Russian priest was fined and banished for 
stating, from the pulpit, that the entire nobility 
of Russia is tainted with Nihilism. 

At a public meeting in London a protest was 
entered against the erection in Westminster Ab- 
bey of a statue of the Prince Imperial. 

A robin has built its nest in a railroad switch, 
near a New Hampshire station, directly under 
the signal light, where 25 trains pass every 
day. 

At San Antonia, Texas, July 20th, Gen. 
Trevino and Miss Ord, daughter of Gen. Ord, 
were married in church in the presence of 2,000 
people. 

In point of wealth the Elberon colony, Long 
Branch, is almost equal to Newport. It is said 
that six members represent thirty millions of 
dollars. 

The wheat crop of Napa county is larger 
than was anticipated, and the grape crop is ex- 
pected to be the largest ever harvested in the 
valley. 

The necessity of raising the grade of the wa- 
ter front of Portland Or., is being discussed in 
consequence of the late overflow by the Wil- 
lamette river. 

Oxford tutors are described as less revered 
by their pupils than formerly, but more in har- 
mony with them and better companions than 
they used to be. 

The New York employment agencies report 
that there has been no such demand for labor, 
both skilled and unskilled, for numbers of years 
as there is now. 

Bulls must be kept tied up this summer, 
otherwise the country will be dangerous for 
people who carry the Turkey-red calico parasols 
now so much affected. 

There are in New York city 85 Episcopal 
churches and chapels, the number having 
doubled in 25 years, and 24,000 children in the 
Episcopal Sunday-schools. 

Coaching has been revived at Newport in all 
its original glory, there being several members 
of the coaching club there. A grand parade of 
the drags is promised in August. 

A New Orleans lady procured, a year ago, 
over 2,000 silk-worm eggs, from which she 
raised 2,000 cocoons, and from these she has 
obtained more than 80,000 eggs. 

A new style of "society youth" has appeared 
at the seaside. He allows his hair to grow long, 
brushes it behind his ears, and refuses to talk 
upon any topic but decorative art. 

The St. Petersburg Society of Naturalists has 
given 1,000 rubles each to the two exploring ex- 
peditions which go this summer to Lapland and 
the Mourman coast of the White sea. 

The report that the Russian government will 
shortly prohibit the exportation of corn is semi- 
officially contradicted. Statements in regard to 
the failure of the crops are greatly exaggerated. 

Now that pockets are out of fashion in ladies 
dresses, bags of various kinds are coming in 
vogue, and one may expect to see before long 
some lady carrying a bag like that of the Widow 
Bedott. 

A Chicago man makes a living by finding 
lost articles. He goes to public gardens, parks, 
etc., every morning before daylight, and looks 
for anything which persons may have dropped 
during the previous evening. 

Mlle. Grevy, daughter of the French Presi- 
dent, has received from one of the Siamese 
Ambassadors in Paris, as a gift, a dress of a pe- 
culiar make and material always reserved for 
royal wear in his native country. 

At Phoenix, Arizona, watermelons are com- 
ing in in large quantities. In a few days sweet 
potatoes will be in the market, and peaches, 
grapes and figs will be plentiful by the 1st of 
August, all raised within a few miles of Phoenix, 



54 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



[July 24, 1880 




The Old Home. 

Little house lost in the heart of the lindens, 
What would I not give to behold you once more! 

To inhale oace again the sweet breath ol your roses 
And the Btarry clematis that climbed 'rouud yourd»or— 

To see the neat windows thrown w ide to the sunshine; 

The porch where we sat at the close of the day, 
Where the wear}' foot trav'ler was welcome to rest him, 

And the beggar was never sent empty away; 

The wainscotted walls, and the low-raftered ceilings 
To hear the loud tick of the clock on the stair; 

And to kiss the dear face bending over the Bible 
That always was laid by my grandfather's chair! 

O bright little garden beside the plantation, 
Where the tall fleur-de-lis their blue banners unfurled, 

And the lawn was alive with the thrusliesand blackbirds, 
I would you were all 1 had known of the world ! 

My sweet pink pea-clusters! My rare honeysuckles! 

My prim polyanthuses all of a row! 
In a garden of dreams I still pass and caress you, 

But your beautiful selves are forever laid low — 

For your walls, little house, long ago have been leveled; 

Alien feet your smooth borders, O garden have trod; 
And those whom I loved are at rest from their labors, 

Reposing in peace in the bosom of God! 



Rags, Sacks, and Bottles. 

He wore a broad-rimmed hat, and his hair 
was long and his whiskers bushy. He was a 
small man, and drove a mule that was also 
small, and so old that the memory of its youth 
must have been the merest shadow. The wheels 
of the little old cart were so loose on the axles 
that they would get themselves into the most 
unaccountable positions, sometimes lurching so 
far to one side or the other that wreck seemed 
inevitable. On such occasions, which were al- 
ways unexpected, the little man had to lean the 
other way. 

" Rags, sacks, an' bot-tels 1 " 

Whoa, Beauty ! Wonder what this gentle- 
man wants. Want to sell some rags, sir ? No ? 
Could I ride with him ? No use stoppin' a fel- 
low—a business man — fer sech a question ez 
thet. In dead earnest ? Well, well, well, well ! 
Ef thet didn't beat him all holler. A fine, 
dreased-up gentleman a-ridin' through the Btreets 
in sich a fake ez thet there cyart — why, the 
boys 'ud guy me me out'n my senses. 

"Rags, sacks, an' bot-tels ! " 

Well, jump in, then, ef I tvoukl like to hev a 
lift. Mebbe I was tired o' walking. 

"Rags, sacks, an' bot-tels !" 

He had a curious assortment of wares in the 
cart; under his feet, under the board that served 
for a seat, everywhere, mixed and mingled ; 
gunny-sacks rilled with strange things ; a box 
for bottles, and cups with the handles knocked 
off ; fragments of looking-glass ; dainty old 
shoes run back at the heels and burst at the 
toes (he imparted to me in strict confidence the 
name of the young lady who had worn them— 
a great society belle) ; riff-raff and scum of 
finery, flimsiness and poverty — a very curiosity 
shop of exhausted economy and impatient ex- 
travagance gone to waste. 

"Rags, sacks, an' bot-tels ! " 

It was the most doleful chant I ever heard. 
It employed but two notes, which he always 
struck with exact precision. There was no refer- 
ence to a tuning-fork, nor clearing the throat, 
nor testing the vocal organs by running up and 
down the scale. The burden of the chant was 
on the key-note, the only variation being the 
dropping to the fourth on the first syllable of 
" bottles," and then resuming the old position 
in the scale on the last syllable. This gave the 
word a strange sound, and I did not recognize 
it; so I inquired its meaning. 

"Bottles," he replied, looking surprised and 
somewhat contemptuous. 

There were ale bottles and whisky bottles, a 
bottle the baby had used, bottles from the Rhine 
and Bordeaux, square bottles and round bottles, 
long bottles and short bottles, bottles of every 
nationality and pedigree, lean bottles and fat 
bottles, bottles with druggists' labels and bottles 
without labels, dirty bottles and clean bottles — 
a ragged and hungry army of bottles that had 
been through many struggles, and that were 
destined for many more; bottles of strong prin- 
ciples, and bottles whose characters were so 
frail that they would crumble under the least 
touch of calumny or adversity — the fag end of 
all the disreputable bottles in creation. 

" Rags, sacks, an' bot-tels ! " 

I noticed his keen little eyes carefully and 
rapidly scanning upper-story windows, throwing 
a quick 'glance into alleys leading into back 
yards; and the comprehensive look with which 
he regarded a clothes-line, with its burden flut- 
tering in the wind, conveyed whole volumes of 
analytical discrimination. 

Whoa, Beauty 1 He had caught a signal from 
a back stair, given by an untidily dressed, though 
good-looking matron. Beauty came so suddenly 
to a dead halt that the cart wheels, which had 
been running peacefully along at a considerable 
inclination to one side, lurched over to the 
other, as if they wanted to rest themselves by 
standing on the other leg, and threw me vio- 
lently against the little man, 



"The streets," he said, in an apologetic tone, 
"is skimpety like, an' yer can't jess calkilate 
when you're a-running' a-foul of a rut." 

The good soul ! It was the crazy old cart 
that was at fault; but he would hide its infirm- 
ities, even at the expense of truth. 

"Will yer set in the cyart," he said, "an' hoi' 
Beauty 'gainst I come back ? She's mostly purty 
gentle, an' moutn't ran away ; but she gets 
lively'n strong at times, an' hez notions of her 
own, jess like a woman." 

Beauty run away ! Why, I have no idea such 
a thought had found place under her thick old 
skull for a quarter of a century. 

As I awaited the return of the little man, my 
attention fell upon the patient and decrepit dis- 
guise of anatomy that stood so quiet in the 
patched and spliced shafts of the cart; and I 
could not help thinking that Beauty was made 
entirely of rags, sacks and bottles. Her brown 
hide, patched and torn, and covered with the 
tilth of the stable where she had lain, looked 
more like a sack than anything I had seen be- 
fore. I was sure her ears were the dilapidated 
shoes of some broken down song-and-dance 
man, whose trumpery had gone to the rag- 
picker. I speculated considerably on what the 
old sack was stuffed with, and was forced to 
the conclusion that the great prominences all 
over her emaciated body were bottles; that the 
jagged ridge along the back was propped up by 
soda-water bottles, with the necks broken off; 
and there was no doubt in my mind that the 
lumps at the hips were Dutch bottles that were 
cracked, and fit for no other use. What kind of 
rags was Beauty stuffed .with ? A problem. But 
I thought the poor old stomach contained only 
rags that the junk dealer had refused — such as 
half-wool stockings, worn out at the heels and 
toes; old red-flannel rags, and rags that were 
mildewed and rotten; rags that had been rags 
for three generations, and sold because a stitch 
would no longer hold them together. Ah! but 
what kind of a soul had Beauty ? Was it, too, 
made of rags, sacks and bottles ? — or was it 
woven of tine white thread ? I think not the 
latter, but rather that it was composed of rags 
that had served for blisters, poultices and oint- 
ments; rags from which all life and color had 
faded, leaving them blank, but white, for all 
that; rags that had felt all the privations to 
which rags can be subjected, that had been 
torn and tattered by the winds, left uncleansed 
all their natural lives, and that the rats and 
mice had eventually stuffed away in damp and 
dismal places to make nests of ; rags that had 
served as handkerchiefs to conceal a sigh, or 
brush- away a tear. There were sacks in the 
soul, too — empty dreams of emptier oat-sacks; 
and bottles in which flowers had been put and 
left to wither when the water dried up. 

"Rags, sacks an' bot-tels!" 

The little man came out of the gate, lugging 
a sack full of rags and bottles. He deposited 
his burden in the cart, opened the sack, peered 
into it, buried his arm in its contents, and 
fetched up an empty bottle. This he deposited 
in the box, and repeated the operation until he 
had taken out all the bottles, leaving only the 
rags. 

"Are rags dear ?" I asked. 

"Oh," he replied, with a shrug, "a business 
man can't growl about trifles, you know. Them 
rags'll weigh 'bout 10 pounds." 

"How much did they cost you ?" 

"Well, yer see, people wants all the money 
they kin git. Them people in there's mighty 
close." And he added, with a knowing look, 
"There's queer stories about 'em. An' then, 
times is purty close. They wanted 25 cents for 
'em, an' kinder stuck to it like; but I warn't on 
the buy thet strong, an' when I got 'em down 
to 15 cents, I tuck 'em." 

As we jogged down the street, he continued 
his cry: 

"Rags, sacks an' bot-tels 1" 

The house from which we had just made the 
purchase was apparently that of well-to-do peo- 
ple. There was neatly trimmed shrubbery in 
the garden, a smooth grass-plat and flowers. 
The handle of the door-bell was silver-plated. 
My fancy clung to that house, with its slovenly 
matron, stood upon the door-step, on which 
was a mat bearing the word "Welcome," turned 
the handle and entered. Then I found a rug at 
every door, but they were all woven of rags. 
There were rag carpets everywhere. Under- 
neath the spotless white bed-spreads were quilts 
made of odd bits of cloth and rags from unim- 
aginable sources. I was so disheartened in the 
search for something new and fresh and whole, 
that was hidden from outer sight, that I went 
down into the hearts of these people to find, 
perchance, a single thing that was not torn 
and tattered and empty; but a great night-mare 
there confronted me. It was a scare-crow, 
dressed in rags that it had worn so long they 
were falling off by piecemeal, exposing a frame 
that was warped and awry; that was split 
where the nails had been driven into it, and that 
was tied up with odds and ends of strings and 
leather thongs cut from old boot legs. Terri- 
fied with the spectacle, I hid myself in the in- 
nermost closet of that slovenly matron's (the 
mother's) heart, and there I was blinded by 
cobwebs and choked by dust. I stumbled upon 
a heap of ashes in a very dark corner. They 
enveloped me in a cloud. I was suffocating 
and gasping for breath, when I was borne down 
into the ashes by a heap of rags, sacks and bot- 
tles that fell from above and crushed me with 
the weight of a mountain. Struggling madly, I 
fought my way out. I gained the top of the 
mountain and clambered down the side. I fell 
over something as I turned to leave. The dark- 
ness was oppressive, the dust suffocating. I 



felt at my feet in the utter blackness, and 
found, grinning, and ghastly, all dry, and 
parched, and shriveled, and whitened — a skele- 
ton. 

"Rags, sacks an' bot-tels !" 

We aid a driving trade that day. All the 
rags, sacks, and bottles in the town seemed to 
flock to us as to a haven of rest; for they must 
have known that a great future was opening up 
before them, in which purified and transformed, 
they would come to occupy higher positions in 
life, and serve nobler purposes. But we drove 
terribly hard bargains, and sometimes exhibited 
a meagerness of soul that was contemptible. It 
must be understood that we could not avoid 
this; for did we not have at home five or six lit- 
tle empty, tow-head bottles, that had to be 
filled so often? Did we not have five or six lit- 
tle bundles of rags that would shiver, and that 
had to be kept warm? And we loved them, 
even if people did say we were mean and hard- 
hearted; even if dogs did growl at us; even if we 
were cursed, and kicked, and driven out of back 
yards, drenched with dirty water the kitchen- 
maid had thrown upon us. But this occurred 
only once, and then there happened to be a sil- 
ver spoon in the bottom of the dish-pan. It 
struck us scornfully, and fell to the ground, and 
we very slyly and very quietly put it in our 
pocket. 

"Rags, sacks, an' bot-tels!" 

The day's work was finally done, and the lit- 
tle man turned Beauty's head homeward. His 
business-like look went out, giving place to one 
of sadness and anxiety. 

"My little girl is very sick," he said. 

"Ah I" 

"Yes, very sick. Most afeared she won't live 
long." 

1 accompanied him home. His house was a 
miserable hovel, with neither floor nor chimney. 
The furniture consisted of a broken table, an 
old chair, and a quantity of rags spread in the 
corner for a bed. The little man approached 
the bed, and, with womanly tenderness, stooped 
down and kissed a little bundle of rags almost 
buried in the pile. 

"How is my little Mag?" 

A wan, thin face smiled and a weak voice re- 
plied, as two emaciated little arms sought his 
neck: 

"Oh, papa, I'm to glad you've come. Give 
me some water, papa." 

The little man held up her head, and she 
eagerly swallowed some water from a broken 
bottle. 

"I've been so lonesome, papa — so lonesome. 
They all went away and left me, and a great 
big rat got on the bed." 

"Where is the mother?" I asked. 

"Dead," he replied. 

I approached the little sufferer, took her tiny 
hands in mine, and found them cold. I kissed 
her forehead and lips, and found them hot. An 
indefinable horror was stealing over me, as if I 
stood in the presence of something invisible 
that was repulsive to nature. 

"Papa," she said, "did you bring me any 
pretty rags?" 

"Lots of 'em, Mag, lots of 'em. Whole heaps 
of 'em." 

"Let me see 'em, papa. And — and will you 
make me a pretty rag doll?" she asked me, hesi- 
tatingly. "Papa can't make 'cm as pretty as I 
can, and I am so weak I can't make 'em any 
more. " 

Her poor eyes sparkled as I rummaged the 
sacks for the finest and brightest rags, and made 
them into a very princess of rag dolls. She 
clasped it to her breast and kissed it again and 
again, and laughed some, and cried some, and 
called it pet names, and said it was the prettiest 
doll she ever saw. Then she kissed me, and 
laughed and cried again. I asked her if she 
wanted something nice to eat, for I was 
prompted to this by the dreadful feeling that I 
could not understand. She shook her little 
flaxen head slowly, but sadly. 

"Wouldn't you like a nice, big, round 
orange?" 

A great, hungry eagerness came into her eyes, 
and the pale little face slightly colored . 

"Oh!" she said, "an orange; I never tasted 
but one." 

Somehow my eyes became so dim that I 
turned away, and discovered the rag-picker 
quietly crying. Then the truth came upon me, 
and overpowered me. There lay before me, on 
the bed of rags, a human being, drifting away. 
While church spires pointed proudly to heaven; 
while there were people in the world with gen- 
erous but ignorant impulses; in the broad light 
of day, when the birds were singing, and the 
sun shining brightly; in the fullness of time, 
and by the grace of God; at the very footstool 
of the throne in heaven, lay that little mortal 
dying — of what? Starvation. 

Was I already too late? I rushed from the 
hovel, stunned and staggering, looking for life; 
and, ringing in my ears, rousing every energy, 
was the solemn, funeral, heart-breaking cry: 

"Rags, sacks, an' bot-telsl" 

That was 10 years ago. The little man and 
Beauty have long since passed away. ' My ward 
has just grown into lovely womanhood, pale, 
thoughtful, beautiful. I cannot imagine why 
the other boarders look at each other and smile 
when I kiss Mag "good night," and when she 
turns at the door and throws me a kiss, with 
her eyes full of pure affection. But, somehow, 
the world is brighter than it used to be. I am 
greatly mortified to find a few gray hairs in my 
head, for I am afraid people will think I am get- 
ting old. I am told that I am much more care- 
ful with my dress than I was a few years ago. 
I am sure I feel younger than I did 10 years 



ago. Those are very meddlesome boarders, 
and, comparing them with Mag, I care no more 
for them than for so many rags, Backs and bot- 
tles. — W. C. Morrow in Calif omian for August. 

The Coubbo of Empire. 

"Westward the course of empire takes its 
way" quotes the Chicago Journal of Commerce. 
Since the census of 1870 the Western States and 
Territories have shown a wonderful increase in 
their populations. It is yet too soon to obtain 
results, but as a striking instance of this in- 
crease, we may cite Nebraska. The returns so 
far received from that State show that its pop- 
ulation has increased from 128,000 to 500,000. 
Under the new reapportionment Nebraska will 
secure abont four additional Congressmen. 
Notwithstanding the large increase in the State 
— nearly 400% — the population of Omaha has 
increased but 16,000 in the past decade. As 
Senator Paddock says, "this illustrates the de- 
sire of the European immigrant to possess a 
farm rather than a city. " Unquestionably when 
the returns are in from Kansas, Wyoming Terri- 
tory, Dakota and Minnesota, we shall find that 
their increase ha? been little else than remarks ble. 
Nebraska has rightly assumed the place of one of 
the most prosperous States of the Union within 
the past 1 5 years. Her progress has been a marvel 
of energy and success. When the Colfax party 
went up the Platte valley in a stage coach in 
1865, there were a few scattered settlements 
and cities on paper along the Missouri river, 
and Fort Kearney, with a few houses surround- 
ing it, with stage stations at regular intervals, 
were all the signs of life found to the west line 
of the State, and, in fact, all the way to Denver. 
For 200 miles or more there were new-made 
graves to mark the slaughter of white men and 
women and children by the murderous redskins 
of the year before. The Union Pacific railway 
has changed all this, and now farms and ham- 
lets and thriving towns dot the valley of the 
Platte all the way to the mountains. And it 
should be known that this great valley, pros- 
perous and growing rapidly as it is, is by no 
means the best part of the State. The country 
on either side, beyond the bluffs that bound it, 
is richer by far than what the tourist sees as he 
dashes by on the cars in the Platte valley. It 
is a rich, rolling prairie, well watered, and is 
still rapidly settling by an energetic, thrifty 
population. The valleys of the Niobrara, the 
Elkhorn and the Loup Fork drain the northern 
half of the State. The Platte sweeps nearly 
through its center from east to west, while the 
Republican and other streams drain the southern 
sections. The result of the census just taken 
goes to show how ignorant the old geographers 
were when they marked a large portion of Ne- 
braska and Kansas, which we used to see in the 
atlas of our school-boy days, as the "Great 
American Desert." 

A .Wife's Messenger. — Joseph Stewart, of 
Cohoes, is convivial by nature and occasionally 
so in practice. Joseph is married and has a 
wife whem he loves, but she has a rival in 
Joseph's affections in the shape of a beautiful 
mare that Joseph owns, and of which he has 
made a great pet. Now the mare is never easy 
unless when in company with her lord and 
master, and, from long companionship, is ac- 
quainted with Joseph's haunts, and if left alone 
will follow him like a dog. Now, last night 
Joseph was out with some friends canvassing 
the probable result of the Chicago convention, 
and the party were enjoying themselves in a 
saloon. Joseph, knowing his favorite mare was 
safely housed in her stall, and fanoying his wife 
in bed and asleep, did not dream of any inter- 
ruption to his pleasure. W T hen midnight came, 
however, the party were astounded by the ap- 
pearance of the mare in the open doorway, and 
the animal, stretching her head forward in the 
direction of her master, whinnered in a manner 
which seemed to say plainly, "Joe, it is time 
you were at home." An instant later the know- 
ing animal repeated the summons, and was 
about to step inside, when Joe said, "Boys, it 
is my mare and 1 have got to go; but I would 
like to know how she got out;" saying which he 
departed, the faithful beast following, with her 
nose over her master's shoulder. Mrs. Stewart, 
who jumped into bed just as her husband 
opened the front door, and who was chuckling 
inwardly, might have explained how the mare 
got loose; and Joe guesses, but he don't say 
much. — Troy Times. 

A Barefoot Bridegroom. — About 20 years 
ago a young fellow named Johnson, in the wilds 
of the Cheat mountains, in West Virginia, 
made up his mind to get married. "But you 
have not a penny," remonstrated bis friends. 
"I have two hands. A man was given two 
hands — one to scratch for himself, and the other 
for his wife," he said. On the day of the wed- 
ding Johnson appeared in a whole coat and 
trousers, but barefooted. "This is hardly 
decent," said the clergyman. "I will lend you 
a pair of shoes." "No," said Johnson. "When 
I can buy shoes I will wear them — not'before." 
And he stood up to be married without any 
thought of his feet 

Songs. — "The Temperance Light" is a new 
collection of gospel temperance hymns and 
sacred songs. By G. C. Hngg and M. E. Ser- 
vo88. Published by Oliver Ditson * Co. It is 
a cheap ( 10 cents) temperance collection, whose 
price will at once commend it, as its contents 
are not at all "cheap," but evidently carefully 
selected and condensed. There are 32 tunes, 
and the words and music were procured of 27 
different writers. 



July 24, 1880.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Chaff. 

A paper in the neighborhood of Rochester 
advertises a church pew for sale, "commanding 
a beautiful view of nearly the whole congrega- 
tion. " 

An ambitious young lady was talking very 
loud and fast about her favorite authors, when a 
literary chap asked her if she liked Lamb. With 
a look of ineffable disgusft, she answered that she 
cared very little about what she ate compared 
with knowledge. 

'An old miser, who was notorious for self- 
denial, was one day asked why he was so thin. 
"I do not know," said the miser. "I have tried 
various means for getting fatter, but without suc- 
cess." "Have you tried victuals V inquired a 
friend. 

A west-side man got out of bed early the 
other morning to look for burglars, but finding 
none, came back muttering: "I thought I heard 
something breaking." "I guess, dear," said his 
wife, glancing toward the window and the rosy 
beams in the east, "I guess it was the break of 
day." 

What part of the eye is like the rainbow ? 
The iris. What part is like the school boy ? 
The pupil. What part is like the globe ? The 
ball. What part is like the top of the chest ? 
The lid. What part is like the piece of a whip ? 
The lash. What part is like the summit of a 
hill ? The brow. 

Brethren, before we sing the next verse of 
"John Brown's body lies all mouldy in the 
grave," let us look into the grave and see if it 
is there. In these days of medical colleges a 
cemetery is no safer than a savings bank, and 
it may be that political glee clubs who have 
been singing the song quoted above have been 
chanting a rhythmic lie for the past 15 years. 

A doctor in Scotland made a nerve and bone 
all-healing salve, and thought he would experi- 
ment a little with it. He at first cut off' the 
dog's tail and applied some of the salve to his 
stump. A new tail grew out immediately. He 
then applied some to the tail which he cut off 
and a new dog grew out. He did not know 
which dog was which. 

A man was sawing wood yesterday afternoon 
in a back yard. He severed two sticks as thick 
as your wrist and then went into the house. 
"Mary," said he to his wife, "my country needs 
me; there's no use talking. We've just got to 
slaughter all these Injuns. No true patriot can 
be expected to hang around a wood pile these 
days." "John," Baid his wife, "if you fight 
Injuns as well as you saw wood and support 
your family, it would take 118 like you to cap- 
ture one squaw, and you'd have to catch her 
when she had the ague and throw pepper in her 
eyes." John went back to the wood pile, won- 
dering who told his wife all about him. — Salt 
Lake Tribune. 




The Good Work of a Frenchman.— An 
agreeable duty of the French Academy each 
year is to award the Monthyon prizes, says the 
New York Mail, of which one is given to the 
author of the work most conducive to the pro- 
motion of public morals. The latter prize was 
bestowed last year on Hector Malot for a novel, 
which has been translated under the title "No 
Relations," and published by Messrs. J. B. Lip- 
pincott & Co., Philadelphia, in an inexpensive 
though well-printed form. It would be wise 
for those story-tellers who desire their works to 
teach a good moral lesson to study the art of 
Malot. Without preaching, without sermoniz- 
ing, without enunciating moral axioms, by the 
acts of his personages and the development of 
his plots alone, the charming art of the author 
renders virtue attractive. He depicts with en- 
tire probability a child sold by the husband of 
his foster mother to a strolling fiddler, and yet 
growing up free from vice, and with a loving, 
grateful and good nature. The child is sup- 
posed to be a foundling, but turns out to have 
been stolen from a rich mother to whom he is 
restored. From the account of the vagabond 
life of the lad we rise with a better opinion of hu 
man nature, and deep admiration of the healthy 
imagination of the author, who, by his simple, 
sweet and unaffected narrative, has cast the 
glow of romance over people in very humble cir 
cumstauces, and given a succession of descrip- 
tions remarkakle for clearness and delicacy. 



Our Puzzle Box. 

Geographical Enigma. 

I am composed of 38 letters. 

My 4, 5, 8, 7 is a cape of North America. 

My 15, 11, 37, 10, i2, 17, 35, 13, 6, 27, 36 is one of the U. S. 

My 19, 3, 29, 26, 21, 18, 35, 23, 5 is one of the U. S. 

My 38, 8, 31, 26 is a mountain in Africa. 

My 31, 25, 15, 1, 23, 38, 22, 12, 7, 30 is a country in Europe. 

My 33, 28, 10, 19, 15, 34 is a lake in Africa. 

My 9. 14, 7, 10, 2 is a river in Scotland 

My 33, 17, 21, 20, 19 is an island in Europe. 

My whole is a quotation from Psalms. Adonis. 

Letter Arithmetic. 

O R C E N T S 
HAL 



Wanted— More Thoroughness. — Thorough 
ness is the one thing needed in our systems of 
education. We have far too many clever smat- 
terers — too many jacks-of-all-trades. One of 
our critics, himself well equipped for the battle 
of life, has declared that the difficulty in our 
America is, that while we are all "pretty 
well" educated, "very few of us are firstraters 
and carry as many guns as we might. We for- 
get that if a man does not know a thing accu- 
rately he positively does[not know itat all." The 
same authority remarked that during the past 
25 years "there has not graduated from any 
American college a man who has yet made any 
great mark either as a lawyer, an orator, a 
statesman, a poet, a preacher, an essayist, or an 
historian." Inaccuracy is our besetting sin. 
Such phrases as "pretty near," "about right," 
"near enough," are rarely heard in any other 
country, and may be setj down as peculiar to 
Americans. Thoroughness is a marked quality 
of German training, and German specialists 
command the admiration and the money of the 
world. American young men must become 
more accurate, thorough and downright, or our 
places of honor and emolument will be filled by 
the stranger. 



RSNTNRAL 
IITHRTHEC 
CTTAHCSR 



HHCHSTNRRL 
My whole is a city in the Southern States. 

JEN'NIB. 

Hidden Trees and Animals. 

1. Shall Aurelia pin evergreen upon her hat? 

2. Hang that sign up over the door. 

3. Many uses are made of iron. 

4. Eli once was a person of fame. 

5. Estelle, O, pardon this intrusion. 

6. Hogan thinks his balm a pleasant thing to give to a 
king. 

7. The lad J has bought some gauze braid. 

w. p. w. 

Diamond Puzzle. 

1. Found thrice in the Phillippine. 

2. A vessel. 

3. By one's self. 

4. Ground of hope. 

5. An instrument used by butchers. 

6. A diocese, transposed. 

7. Found twice in shelter. W. H. G. 

Decapitations. 

1. Behead a troublesome animal a leave a preposition- 

2. Behead greater quantity and leave a mineral. 

3. Behead a garment and leave a kind of grain. 

4. Behead an animal and leave an acquirement. 

Clauds. 

Answers to Last Puzzles. 
Cross- Word Enigma.— Itacolumi. 

Lkttbr Changes.— 1. Rod, red; 2. Clock, clack; Z. 
Chink, chunk; 4. Dress, dross; 5. Spare, spire. 
Charade. — Man -Chester. 

Anagrams.— 1. W. C. Bryant; 2. O. W. Holmes; 3. W. 
F. Williams; 4. W. W. Story; 5. Our Country's Call; 6. 
An Appeal; 7. Mitchell; 8. War Song. 

Curtailments. —1. Peal, pea; 2. Pearl, pear; 3. Stage, 
stag; 4. Spare, spar. 



A Little Lecture for Boys. 

The author of "Nuggets of Gold," writes to 
the boys as follows: "When a thrifty farmer's 
or mechanic's boy imbibes an ambition to do 
something other than what his father has made 
his money at, that ambition may be very well, 
and when hi3 father strains a point to educate 
him for that something else, the education is 
surely very well, for it will qualify him for a 
better farmer or mechanic in case he does not 
suoceed in the other thing. But when duly 
qualified for that higher calling, as he thinks it 
is, and when, wherever he goes for a situation, 
he finds a dozen applications for every vacant 
place that occurs, he should remember that his 
education has not necessarily unfitted him for 
the work that he has been trained to, or any 
other that he can get to do, and also that his 
life mission is to do something, and not to be 
wasting his time in an unavailing hunt for some- 
thing that he thinks genteel and agreeable. 
And so of all the hordes of idle young men, who 
throng all the towns and cities vainly looking 
for certain classes of employment, I say retire 
from such unequal contest; start out— 
somewhere and do something. There is some- 
thing for you to do somewhere; go and find it. 
If you are not too good to do the work that you 
are looking for and cannot get, you are not too 
good to do the next best thing that you can get. 
There is no honest work that is not really re- 
spectable. Most of the wealthy men of this 
country commenced life upon work that you are 
in the habit of thinking too low for you to begin 
on. I think it is generally the case that those 
who are too good to do the work that comes 
along, and seems to be necessary for them to do, 
are never good for much of anything. " 



Exploring Boys. — Colorado Springs has a 
"Boys Exploring Association," organized and 
conducted by Rev. R. T. Cross, of the Congre- 
gational church. "The object of this associa- 
tion is to carry on explorations in the vicinity 
of Colorado Springs, and to secure physical, 
mental and moral improvement." On the first 
trip, two of the boys discovered in Williams 
canyon what is declared to be the finest cave in 
the State. It is not yet fully explored, but has 
many chambers, and wonderful stalactites. 

"You should never let your temper turn 
sour," said a teacher to a little girl ; "it spoils 
everything to have it turn sour." "Then my 
mamma's pickles are all spoiled," exclaimed the 
child in a tone of regret. 



A pretty answer was given by a little Sootch 
girl. When her class was examined, she re- 
plied to the question: "What is patience ?" 
"Wait a wee, and dinna weary." 

A merchant was asked the other day how 
many children he had, and he replied : "Five 
boys, and each boy has two sisters." How many 
children were they ''. 



What to Do in Cases of Diphtheria. 

In the first place, as diphtheria is a contagious 
disease, and under certain circumstances not en- 
tirely known, very highly so, it is important 
that all practical means should be taken to sep- 
arate the sick from the well. As it is also in- 
fectious, woolen clothes, carpets, curtains, hang- 
ings, etc., should be avoided in the sick room, 
and only such material used as can be readily 
washed. 

All clothes, when removed from the patient, 
should be at once placed in hot water. Pocket- 
handkerchiefs should be laid aside, and in their 
stead soft pieces of linen or cotton cloth should 
be used, and at once burned. 

Disinfectants should always be placed in the 
vessels containing the expectoration, and may 
be used somewhat freely in the sick room; those 
being especially useful which destroy bad odors 
without causing others (nitrate of lead, chloride 
of zinc, etc. ) In schools there should be espec- 
ial supervision, as the disease is often so mild 
in its early stages as not to attract common at- 
tention; and no child should be allowed to at- 
tend school from an infected house, until al- 
lowed to do so by a competent physician. In 
the case of young children, all reasonable care 
should be taken to prevent undue exposure to 
the cold. 

Pure water for drinking should be used,.avoid- 
ing contaminated sources of supply; ventilation 
should be insisted on, and the local drainage 
must be carefully attended to. Privies and 
cesspools, where they exist, should be frequently 
emptied and disinfected; slop water should not 
be allowed to soak into the surface of the ground 
near dwelling-houses, and the cellars should be 
kept dry and sweet. 

In all cases of diphtheria fully as great care 
should be taken in disinfecting the sick room, 
after use, as in scarlet fever. After a death 
from diphtheria, the clothing disused should be 
burned or exposed to nearly or quite a heat of 
boiling water. The body should be placed as 
early as practicable in the coffin, with disinfect- 
ants, and the coffin should be tightly closed. 
Children, at least, and better adults also in 
most cases, should not attend a funeral from a 
house in which a death from diphtheria has oc 
curred. But, with suitable precautions, it is 
not necessary that the funeral should be pri 
vate, provided the corpse be not in any way 
exposed. 

Although it is not at present possible to re 
move at once all sources of epidemic disease, 
yet the frequent visitation of such disease, and 
especially its continued prevalence, may be 
taken as sufficient evidence of insanitary sur- 
roundings, and of sources of sickness to a cer 
tain extent preventable. 

It should be distinctly understood that no 
amount of artificial "disinfection" can ever take 
the place of pure air, good water and proper 
drainage, which cannot be gained without 
prompt and efficient removal of all filth, 
whether from slaughter houses, etc., public 
buildings, crowded tenements or private resi 
dences. — From the Circular of the Massachusetts 
State Board of Health. 



The Use of Pain. 



The power which rules the universe, this 
great tender power, uses pain as a signal of 
danger. Just, generous, beautiful Nature never 
strikes a foul plow; never attacks us behind our 
backs; never digs pitfalls, or lays ambuscades; 
never wears a smile upon her face when there 
is vengeance in her heart. Patiently she teaches 
us her laws; plainly she writes her warnings 
tenderly she graduates their force. Long be- 
fore the fierce red danger-light of pain is flashed, 
she pleads with us — as though for her own 
sake, not ours — to be merciful to ourselves, and 
to each other. She makes the overworked 
brain to wander from the subject of its labors, 
She turns the over-indulged body against the 
delights of yesterday. These are her caution 
signals, "Go slow." She stands in the filthy 
courts and alleys that we pass daily, and 
beckons us to enter and realize with our senses 
what we allow to exist in the midst of the 
culture of which we brag. And what do we do 
for ourselves ? We ply whip and spur on the 
jaded brain as though it were a jibing horse- 
force it back into the road which leads to mad 
ness and go on full gallop. We drug the re 
bellious body with stimulants; we hide the sig 
nal and think we have escaped the danger, and 
are very festive before night. We turn aside, 
as the Pharisee did of old, and pass on the 
other side with our handkerchief to our nose, 
At last, having broken Nature's laws and dis 
regarded her warnings, forth she comes — drums 
beating, colors flying — right in front to punish 
us. Then we go down on our knees and 
whimper about it having pleased God Almighty 
to send this affliction upon us, and pray him to 
work a miracle in order to reverse the natural 
consequences of our disobedience, or save us 
from the trouble of doing our duty. In other 
words, we put our finger in the fire and beg 
that it may not hurt. — Ex. 

Health in Greenhouses. — Dr. J. M. An 
ders in a paper in the Medical Times on the hy 
gienic and therapeutic relations of house plants, 
asserts that plants are not injurious, but quite 
the contrary, and that persons accustomed to 
the moist air of greenhouses, are not, as a gene 
ral rule, short-lived or consumptive. 



Tomato Catsup and Sauce. 

[Written for Rural Press by Celia Hamilton.] 
Cook the tomatoes soft, then strain through 
the cullender. To one gallon strained tomatoes 
add two tablespoons of salt, cook three hours, 
then add one and a half tablespoons of ground 
black pepper and one of allspice; let it boil two 
hours longer. Just before taking from the fire, 
add one and a half pints of strong vinegar; let 
it just boil up, then bottle and seal. 

Tomato Sauce. — Ripe tomatoes, seven lbs., 
boil till quite soft, strain through a cullender, 
cook them quite low, then add four lbs. of 
sugar, boil one-half hour; then add one ounce 
of powdered cloves and one of cinnamon, boil a 
half hour, add one pint of vinegar; let it boil 
up, then bottle and seal. 
Oakland, Cal. 



Preserved Limes. — Whether preserved limes 
are worth what they cost or not is one ques- 
tion. We do not pror)08e to answer that but 
supposing some of our readers might like to try 
preserving theifruit, we give a method: Lay 
them in salt and water strong enough to bear 
an egg, closely covering them for several days. 
Cut them enough to get out all the seeds, and 
place in cold water for one day, changing the 
water often so as to remove all the salt. Boil 
in water (to which soda has been added in the 
proportion of one teaspoonful to six quarts of 
water) till tender enough to put a straw through; 
then soak again in cold water one day, changing 
the water often. To each pound of fruit allow 
2\ lbs of white Bugar and three pints of water. 
Boil the syrup 15 minutes, put the fruit in, 
cook 5 minutes, remove, put into jars; let the 
syrup copk 15 minutes longer. They will keep 
any number of years. 



Lamb Cutlets and Cucumber. — Trim the 
cutlets neatly, egg and bread crumb them, and 
fry them in lard, a light brown color; drain and 
arrange them in a circle on a dish, placing in 
the center some cucumbers prepared as follows: 
Cut up a large cucumber in rounds an inch long, 
cut each round into quarters lengthwise, re- 
move the seeds and rind and trim each 
piece to a uniform size; then let them remain 
in salted water for a couple of hours; drain 
them, and throw them into boiling salted water 
and when they are nearly cooked strain and put 
them into cold water, there to remain until 
wanted. At the time of serving, take the 
pieces out of the water and put them into a 
stew-pan with a piece of butter, some parsley 
finely minced, and a sprinkling of white pepper; 
shake them gently till quite warm, and they 
are ready. 

Brown Pudding. — Take \ lb of bread 
crumbs, \ fb of flour, 3 ozs. of suet, a small 
teacupful of brown sugar, \ teaspoonful of car- 
bonate of soda, \ teaspoonful of baking powder, 
\ teaspoonful of salt, 1 teaspoonful of cinna- 
mon, ^ teaspoonful of mixed spice, 1 \ pts. of 
milk poured upon a tablespoonful of jam; mix 
well together; steam for two hours. Sauce for 
the pudding: Beat the yolk of an egg with a 
tablespoonful of sugar, add a teaspoonful of 
corn flour, 1 oz. of fresh butter, and a teacup- 
ful of water; pour it into a small saucepan and 
stir until it boils; add a glass of sherry, and 
serve in a sauce tureen. 

Apple Chutney. — Take 1 lb of sha^i apples, 
pared, cored and finely chopped; 8 ozs. of tam- 
arinds carefully stoned; £ ft) Sultana raisins; \ A> 
tomatoes cleared from skins; \ lb of salt; j lb 
brown or castor sugar; 1 oz. of red chillies 
chopped; 1\ ozs. of powdered ginger; 1 oz. of 
shred shalots; and if the flavor is liked you 
may add a handful of mint leaves very finely 
chopped. Mix all well together, and add one 
quart of vinegar previously boiled and allowed 
to get cold. Keep the chutney for a few weeks 
in a warm place, and then put by in small pots 
or bottles well corked. 



Strawberry Custard. — Make a nice boiled 
custard of a quart of milk and yolks of five eggs 
properly sweetened. Boil till it thickens to the 
right consistency, take it off the fire and put in 
the flavoring. Take a gill of sugar and a pint 
of ripe strawberries; crush them together and 
pass through a fine strainer. Tako the whites 
of four of the eggs, and while beating them to 
a stiff froth add a gill of sugar, a little at a 
time. Then to the sugar and egg add the 
sweetened strawberry juice, beating all the 
while to keep it stiff. This makes a beautiful 
pink float, which is to be placed on top of the 
custard. 

A Sure and Safe Rat Poison.— The follow- 
ing mixture is sure death to the rats, and not 
poisonous to other animals, in the ordinary 
sense of the word : Take of old cheese 10 parts; 
glycerine, 2 parts; carbonate of baryta, 5 parts; 
rye or corn flour, 1 part, and form into pills or 
boluses of convenient size. 



Light Pudding. — Put 2 tablespoonfuls of 
sago, tapioca, or rice in a pie dish; pour over it 1 
pt. of milk; add 1J tablespoonfuls of sugar, and 
a little grated nutmeg, if liked; bake two hours 
in a slow oven; if rioe is used bake three hours. 



56 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[July 24, 1880 




DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 
A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 

Office, SOS Sanaome St., N. E. Comer Pine. St. 

Annual Subscriptions, $4; six months, $2; three 
months, $1.25. When paid fully one year in advance, 
one dollar will be deducted. No hew names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances by regis- 
tered letters or P. O. orders at our risk. 
Advertising Rites. 1 week. 1 mouth. 8 mos. 12 mos. 

Per line 26 .80 $2.00 $6.00 

Hall inch (1 square).. $1.00 $3.00 7.60 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 14.00 40.00 



The Scientific Press Patent Agency, 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



». T. DEWEY. 



W. B. RWRR. 



S. H. STRONG 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 24, 1880. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

EDITORIALS — A Loss to Agriculture; Hillside Cul- 
tures; The Growth of Cereals, 49. The Week; Coun- 
try vs. City Milk, 56. Vital Importance of Sanitary 
Regulations ; The International Exhibition of 1883 ; 
Ruins at Aztec Springs, in Southwestern Colorado, 57. 
Notices of Recent Patents, 60. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— Scene in the Bohea Tea District 
of China, 40. Ruins at Aztec Springs, 57- 

ENTOMOLOGICAL. — Grain Aphis at Pescadero; 
Large Black Flies in Nevada County; Apple Tree Borer; 
Sierra Valley Locusts, 56 

QUERIES AND REPLIES. — Growing Osage 
Orange for Hedges; Sorghum Halapense; A Plantain, 
56. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Los Angeles County Notes, 
50. 

POOLTRY YARD —Conditions of Success, 50. 
THE VINEYARD. —Growing Seedling Grapevines, 
50. 

THE FIELD.— The Importance of Good Seed; Trac- 
tion Engines on Hawaiian Plantations, 50. 

THE APIARY — Beginnings in Beekeeping, 50. 

HORTICULTURE.— Future Gardens of California; 
Medicinal Plants in California; Orange Diseases in Lou- 
isiana, 51. 

THE STOCK YARD. -The Census and Meat Pro- 
duction, 51. 

THE DAIRY.— Methods on Jersey Farm, 51. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.-California Farm- 
ers' Mutual Fire Insurance Association; W. M. Spilman's 
Appointments, 52. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California and Washington Territory, 52-53. 

NEWS IN BRIEF, on page 53 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE.— The Old Homo (poetry); Rags, 
Sacks, and Bottles; The Course of Empire; A Wife's 
Messenger; Chaff; The Good Work of a Frenchman; 
Wanted— More Thoroughness, 54-55. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— Our Puzzle Box; A 
Little Lecture for Boys, 55. 

GOOD HEALTH — What to Do in Cases of Diphthe- 
ria; The Use of Pain, 56. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Tomato Catsup and 
Sauce; Preserved Limes; Lamb Cutlets and Cucumber; 
Brown Pudding; Apple Chutney; Strawberry Custard; 
A Sure and Safe Rat Poison; Light Pudding, 55. 

THE PUBLIC LANDS.— Void Entries of Public 
Lauds, 53. 

Business Announcements. 

Firemans Fund Insurance Company, S. F. 
Wool Commission Merchant — Eugene Aw, S. F. 
The Kennedy Repeating Rifle— E. T. Allen, S. F. 
Threshing Engine for Sale — J. F. Bean, Benicia, Cal. 
Choice Rains For Sale — L. U. Shippee, Stockton, Cal. 



The Week. 



Notes from the grain counties are still cheer- 
ing, and to one who traverses the country the 
obese stacks and the rectangular piles of well- 
filled sacks appear as evidence of what many 
lielda have done. In some counties the returns 
from the separator are surprisingly good, and 
districts most tortured by the wind are doing 
far better than was expected. Some yields of 
almost fabulous amount are heralded, as for ex- 
ample, 90 or 100 bushels to the acre, and a 
well-informed writer in one of our ieading 
wheat counties assures us that their warehouses 
and corrals will all be full. The weather of the 
last few weeks, with its low temperature and 
damp atmosphere, has been severe upon those 
with sensitive diaphragms, but it has been the 
secret of growth to the standing grain, and the 
result is vastly different than it would have 
been if ripening weather had come quickly 
upon the fields which were weakened by exces- 
sive evaporation. 

But while the tardy weather has improved 
the grain it has kept empty the pockets of many 
commanders of pleasure resorts, and some of 
the seaside hotels and bathing beaches have 
been like banquet halls deserted, painful in 
their impressive loneliness. The same influ- 
ence has retarded the ripening of fruit. Some 
grape growers still report indications that their 
truit will be nearly a month late, and those 
who have vast amounts of grapes to turn into 
raisins before the return of rainy days will 
probably feel the effectB of the shortened season. 
The sun is already well along on bis southward 
journey, and slanting rays through shorter 
days will soon be descriptive of his service. 

Aside from belated crops and the pangs of 
delicate frames, which pine for warmth, the 
cool Bummer is a contribution to comfort. 
While the Eastern people are tossing about on 
sleepless beds clad in little more than the sultry 
air, the Californian wraps the double blankets 
of his couch about him and lies down to pleas- 
ant dreams. 



Country vs. City Milk. 

The issue between country milk and city milk 
has been for some time in progress in San Fran- 
ciso, and so far as appearances go there seems to 
be a tendency toward the survival of the unfit- 
test. For sad it is to relate that the tenants of 
fragrant hillsides and velvety meadows are be- 
ing pushed towards the slaughterer's corral by 
an ill-fated bovine sisterhood born to unrestful 
tramping of barren sand lots in the outskirts of 
the city, and doomed to fill their bellies with 
the deadly slushes from distillery vats or city 
swill tubs. The progress of the urban dairyman 
is seen in the gradual dissolutionj'of the Bub- 
urban dairies. Kailroad trains which some 
years ago brought many cans from miles out of 
the city, now carry but few and they from the 
nearby stations. One of the largest country 
dairies, famous a decade ago, is now dwindling 
into insignificance. It is true that another mag- 
nificent dairy enterprise has sprung into exist- 
ence, and peopled the rich pastures near San 
Bruno with a fine herd of dairy cows, but this 
successful undertaking of an individual is but 
the exception to the general rule of the decrease 
in the amount of country milk delivered to 
city consumers. We sincerely regret this tend- 
ency of affairs both for the city and the coun- 
ty- . . 

It is certainly for the interest of city babes, 
and their grandfathers as well, that a pure arti- 
cle of milk should enter into their diet. It is 
beyond controversy that milk from cows kept 
on country pastures, with fresh air to breathe 
and room for healthful exercise, and fed upon 
such food as country dairymen give their stock, 
is in every way better than milk from cows in 
close corrals, close air, uncleanly, and fed upon 
distillery refuse. We know that there are some 
dairymen keeping herds within or near the city 
limits who do not make their milk upon the 
materials we have indicated. We know that 
there are individuals in this milk trade who are 
wide awake to the improvement of dairy stock 
and observant of all enlightened dairy methods. 
But these are but rays of light amid the gloom 
of milk production in this city andin other large 
centers. Such men are out of place. They and 
their herds should be domiciled upon the hill- 
sides of some of the adjacent counties and then 
their milk would come to the city bearing the fra- 
grance of country pastures. But they could not 
live in such situations and compete with their 
less honorable colleagues who would remain near 
the sources of refuse which serves as dairy feed. 
So the city will continue to receive inferior and 
sometimes absolutely dangerous milk from city 
milk ranches unless the consumers learn the 
facts aud rise in the might of their patronage 
and call for country-made milk. The only way 
to counteract the growth of city milk produc- 
tion is to refuse to purchase it. Then the pro- 
ducers must betake themselves to better loca- 
tions and to healthier food and surroundings for 
their cows. It remains to be seen whether the 
city will serve its own interests in this way or 
not. 

But there is another reason why we wish to 
transfer the production of milk away from the 
city and into the country. The business of pro- 
ducing milk belongs of right to the country. 
The country is best adapted to the business, 
and it is taxed upon this adaptation. The 
growth of city dairies robs the country of the 
chance to utilize its adaptations to the best ad- 
vantage. Take for example Marin county with 
its peerless dairy fitness. Marin county dairy- 
men are now reduced to exceedingly small 
profits and sometimes worse, because they are 
forced to continue butter making when the sup- 
ply from new regions further from the city low- 
ers the market value close upon the cost of pro- 
duction. When the outside counties learned 
their dairy qualities and began the business, it 
would have been the natural course of Marin 
county to find her chance for profit in supplying 
San Francisco with a splendid article of country 
milk. This has been the course in dairy re- 
gions adjacent to other large cities. For ex- 
ample, when it was found that other more remote 
counties in New York could make as good butter 
as Orange county, the butter-making naturally 
fell to their lot, and Orange county dairymen ex- 
changed their churns for shipping cans. This 
course of affairs has proceeded so far that New 
York has received peerless butter from as far west 
as Wisconsin, and the region for supplying coun- 
try milk to the metropolis has extended, as her 
population and milk demand has increased, un- 
til milk trains run over all the railroads to the 
metropolis, bringing fresh milk from the distant 
pastures. San Francisco's growth should have 
worked a similar benefit, though, of course, on 
a smaller scale, for the dairy interest of this 
State. The butter market would have been re- 
lieved and the dairymen around the bay of San 
Francisco would have full pockets and prosper- 
ous homes instead of the many privations to 
which they have been subjected. Instead of 
this there comes the ground for the belief that 
the number of country dairies is constantly de- 
creasing and San Francisco is drawing more 
and more of her milk from swill-fed kine stalk- 
ing on barren sand lots. 

What can work a change? We have said the 
people of the city alone. Sooner or later the 
people must awake. The announcement of the 
dairy abominations practioed in New York and 
Brooklyn and other Eastern cities opened the 
eyes of city milk consumers and there was an 



increased call for country milk. The same 
course of affairs may, in the future, be looked 
for in San Francisco, and the result will be for 
the good of the city and for the advantage of 
the whole dairy industry of the State, as we 
have pointed out. 



EflJQpiQLOQIC^L. 



Grain Aphis at Pescadero. 

Editors Press : — I send you a small box containing In- 
sects that are very numerous on wheat here. I received 

a packaga of wheat of the Early An r variety that was 

sent out by the Agricultural Department at Washington, 
which I planted in drills about the middle of November. 
It promised to be a grand Buccess until in the milk, when 
portions appeared to ripen prematurely, and now the 
shrunken grain is falling to the ground while other por- 
tions remain green and bright Gradually the difficulty 
advances, and 1 have discovered the cause to be the insect 
sent you. They feed on the base of the kernel, on the 
stalk and leaf, and the grain is arrested in fltling when 
attacked. The box contains insects in every' stage of 
growth up to a full-winged specimen. If they reach you 
safely you will be able to judge of them better than from 
any description I can give you.— I. C. Stkblb, Pescadero, 
Cal. 

The insects are of the aphis family, although 
apparently a different species from the aphis 
found on grain in Humboldt county, and which 
we described at length in the Rural of June 
21, 1879. Their habits and method of reproduc- 
tion are, however, similar to those described at 
that time. The insects are cousins to the aphis 
on the rose, the strawberry and on other plants, 
There is no known way to fight them when 
they take possession of a grain field, although 
they are easily killed by showering with whale 
oil soap suds, when on shrubs or small trees. 
The best allies of the husbandman in the war 
against the aphidians, are the lady-birds (coc 
cinelhe) and some other insects, which make 
quick work with large quantities of the lice. 
It is a fact for encouragement when visitations 
of the grain aphis occur, that the insect iB very 
evanescent in its character. Fields may be 
well nigh destroyed one year and the insect so 
few in numbers as to be unnoticed the following 
year. 

We have also received leaves of a fruit tree 
affected with an aphis, from Prof. J. D. Smith, 
of Livermore College, with a request that we 
tell how to destroy them. The remedy is as we 
have stated above, showering with a weak suds 
of whale-oil soap. Alkaline washes, such as 
common soap suds, weak solutions of concen- 
trated lye, etc., will also kill the aphis, but arc 
not quite so effective as whale-oil soap suds. 
In destroying these insects on our rose bushes, 
we use Buhach powder with one of Mr. Milco's 
insufflators, as the dose is always ready and is 
cleanly. Our four-year-old girl is a sharp aphis 
warrior and runs for the insufflator whenever 
she discovers an aphis colony. 

Large Black Flies In Nevada County. 

Editors Press:— I send you one-half dozen of the black 
millers or flies that are stripping trees, clover and grasses 
here. I inclose them with the peach leaves for name and in- 
formation whether they are injurious, or after some to us 
invisible parasite.— Mrs. C. F. Y., Nevada City, Cal. 

Editors Press: — The "black fly" inclosed in 
the box with the borers is a Neuropterous insect 
belonging to the family Sialidae. The state- 
ment that it was eating tree leaves must be an 
error, as the insects of this family are carnivor 
ous. Perhaps they were feeding upon some in- 
sect destructive to the leaves. The specimens 
were referred to Dr. H. A. Hagen, of the Mu 
seum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard Uni 
versity, for specific determination, and he states 
that the species is new to science. 

I expect to start for your State in a few days 
for the purpose of investigating the insects in- 
jurious to fruit and especially to oranges. I 
hope to have the pleasure of meeting you. — J. 
Henry Comstock. 

[We see Prof. Comstock's name among the 
passengers to arrive during the present week. 
We truBt he may arrive soon enough to attend 
the Sonoma meetings on Friday and Saturday 
and take part in the phylloxera investigation. 
Our citrus fruit growers will give Prof. Com- 
stock a cordial welcome and abundant oppor- 
tunity to study the pests which are proving griev- 
ous foes to our trees. We trust Prof. Comstock 
may be able to make a long stay, for there is no 
end of material to investigate. — Eds. Press.] 
Apple Tree Borer. 

Editors Press:— Having found on a little apple tree 
a jierfect insect of the common "borer," I send it to you 
in case you have not seen one before It is a showy little 
beetle, I believe, and comes out about this time of 
the year.— Felix Gillet, Nevada City, May, 1880. 

Editors Press: — The apple-tree borer which 
you send is the common fiat-headed apple-tree 
borer (Chrysobothris femorata.) The eggs of 
this insect are laid upon the trunks and princi- 
pal limbs of trees, during the month of June 
and the early part of July. The larva; bore in- 
to the bark and into the soft sap-wood at first 
Later, they bore into the more solid heart- 
wood. The larva; are much enlarged and (lat- 
ened anteriorly. The perfect insect (rather 
fl at greenish-black beetles about one-half inch 
in length) appear about one year from the time 
the eggs are laid. This species infests apple, 
peach, oak, soft-maple and other forest trees. 
For remedy: Dig larva; out with a knife or 
gouge. Rub soft soap on the trunk and larger 
limbs of the tree during the season of laying 
the eggs; this will keep the female from ovipos- 
iting upon them. — J. Henry Comstock, Ento- 
mologist, Dept. of Agriculture, Washington. 



Sierra Valley Locusts. 

Editors Press:— I am at home on a two or 
three days' visit, among the locusts. I find 
them very thick in the south end of the valley, 
taking a large share of the grass and grain, but 
greatly diminishing in the north end where they 
have ravaged so thoroughly for three years past. 
Thia indicates a slow migration south and west, 
and we fear they will scourge this part of the 
valley for two or three years yet. I am going 
down the valley through the locust belt to 
morrow to get more items. 

I have found that the big white grub so hope- 
fully seen l among the egg nests last year, de- 
velops into a beautiful thick-bodied, velvet 
"bumble-bee fly" the Pompilus, and is now 
darting about among the locuats. Another ac- 
tive enemy is a species of Bombylitu or "Digger 
wasp" that stings great numbers of the locusts, 
and digging a hole in the soil, drags them to it 
and covers them in, first placing an egg in the 
victim's body. — J. G. Lemmon, Sierra Valley, 
CaL 



Er\IES A^ND f\Ef>LIES. 



Growing Osage Orange for Hedges. 

Editors Press:— I wish to know how to start osage 
orange plants for hedges. Must the seed be sown in place 
or in nursery t Where can good seed be obtained and at 
what price?— Ibdiiuir, San Francisco. 

The plants should be started in nursery. Pre- 
pare the ground thoroughly by plowing or 
spading and pulverize it finely with harrow or 
rake. To sprout the seed, put it in a vessel and 
cover with warm, not hot, water. Keep the 
vessel in a warm place, and change the water 
once a day. Let the seed soak from 5 to 10 
days, after which pour off the water and cover 
the vessel with a damp cloth. Keep in a warm 
room and stir the seed occasionally; in about 
one week more they will begin to sprout and 
are ready for planting. 

There are over 5,000 seeds in a pound, and it 
is safe to calculate that a pound will produce 
3,000 plants, if it is properly managed. The 
seed should be planted, in this State, in March 
or April, according to the season, and in drills 
18 or 20 inches apart, with 12 good seeds to the 
foot in the drill. 

If the season should prove very dry, and the 
seed are not on very moist soil, they will want 
some irrigation; but if on sandy and moist soil 
they will probably not need it. If the weeds 
grow freely it may become necessary to hand- 
weed the rows before the plants will show them- 
selves, as they are very delicate and tender until 
they get three or four inches high, and require 
careful culture and a clear entrance into light. 
When once fairly out of the ground they will 
become hard and strong in a few days. 

The rows will now require to be cleaned once 
or twice a month with a cultivator and hoe, un- 
til the weeds cease to grow. The plants in good 
soil will make an average growth of from three 
to four feet the first season. The next spring, 
or when one year old, they shonld be trans- 
planted in the hedge rows, and cultivated 
throughout the following year. The seed can 
doubtless be obtained from our seedsmen. 
Sorghum Halapense. 

Editors Press:— Some time ago I saw described in your 
paper a new kind of grass, called the "Green Valley 
grass," and said to grow without irrigation. Will it grow 
at an altitude of 4,000 ft., where frost and snow exist in 
winter? Is it an annual or perennial? What time of year 
should it be propagated? Would it live if sown in July or 
August?— John E. Hawkes, San Bernardino. 

It is still quite an open question as to what 
this grass will stand in the way of cold. It has 
been grown in some of the coldest Eastern 
States, and has not proved hardy when the 
ground is deeply frozen. In milder localities, 
where there are frosts without deep freezing, 
the pl